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Banjara

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Banjara
Languages
Gor-bol

Banjara, who are also known by numerous other names - such as Laman, Lambadi, and Vanjari - are a nomadic tribe, who may have origins in Afghanistan or in the Marwar region of what is now Rajasthan, northern India. They are now found mostly in the south Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana but also elsewhere in the country.

Etymology

The word Banjara is derived from the Sanskrit word vana chara (wanderers in jungle). The word Lambani or Lamani, by which the community is also known, is derived from the Sanskrit word lavana (salt), which was the principal product they transported across the country.[1]

History

The origin of the Banjaras has been a much-debated topic. One opinion is that they originate from the Marwar region of Rajasthan, whilst another suggests their origins lie in Afghanistan.[2][3]

In 19th century the British colonial authorities brought the community under the purview of Criminal Tribes Act of 1871 which forced them to give up their traditional occupations.[4] This led to some of them settling down as farmers near mountains and hilly regions, while others were driven into the forests.[5]

Culture

Language

Banjaras speak Gor Bol; also called Lambadi, it belongs to the Indo-Aryan group of languages. As Lambadi has no script, it is either written in Devnagri script or in the script of the local language such as Telugu or Kannada.[6] Most Banjaras today are bilingual or multilingual, adopting the predominant language of their surroundings.[7]

Art

Banjara art includes performance arts such as dance and music as well as folk and plastic arts such as rangoli, textile embroidery, tattooing and painting.[8] Banjara embroidery and tattooing are especially prized and also form a significant aspect of the Banjara identity. Lambani women specialize in lepo embroidery, which involves stitching pieces of mirror, decorative beads and coins onto clothes.[9] Sandur Lambani embroidery is a type of textile embroidery unique to the tribe in Sanduru, Bellary district, Karnataka. It has obtained a GI tag.[10]

Festivals

Banjara people celebrate the festival of Teej during Shravana (the month of August). In this festival young unmarried Banjara girls pray for a good groom.[11] They sow seeds in bamboo bowls and water it three times a day for nine days and if the sprouts grow "thick and high" it is considered a good omen. During Teej the seedling-baskets are kept in the middle and girls sing and dance around them.[11] The People also Celebrate Holi, Diwali, Dushera & Local festivel by area Grandlly.

Dance and music

Dancers wearing traditional dress of the Banjara Lamadi or Lambani tribe in Andhra Pradesh

Fire dance and Chari dance are the traditional dance forms of the Banjaras. Banjaras have a sister community of singers known as Dadhis or Gajugonia[12] They are Muslim Banjaras who traditionally traveled from village to village singing songs to the accompaniment of sarangi.[13]

Religion

The majority of the Banjara people profess faith in Hinduism. They are known to worship deities such as Balaji, Jagadamba Devi, Bhavani of Tuljapur, Renuka Mata of Mahur, Mahadev, Khandoba and Hanuman. They also hold Guru Nanak in great respect.[14]

Sevalal or Sevabhaya is the most important saint of the Banjaras. According to their accounts, he was born on 15 February 1739 in Sevaghad district of the state of Andhra Pradesh to Bhima Naik and Dharmini Bai, and died on 4 December 1806. A cattle merchant by profession he is said to have been a man of exemplary truthfulness, a great musician, a courageous warrior, a rationalist who fought against superstition and a benighted devotee of the goddess Jagadamba.[15] The colonial British administrators also quote his stories but they place him in the 19th century and identify his original name as Siva Rathor.[16]

Society

Distribution

Banjaras are found all over India under various synonyms.[17] Venkatesh Vaditya said in 2012 that most inhabited Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, although there were significant populations elsewhere.[2] Around seven million have been reported in Madhya Pradesh,[18] around 3.5 million in Rajasthan,[19] and almost one million recorded in Karnataka in 2001.[20]

Classification

As of 2008, the Banjara community has been listed as a Scheduled Tribe in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. They were designated as an Other Backward Class in Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan, and as a Scheduled Caste in Karnataka, Delhi and Punjab.[21]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Halbar (1986), p. 14
  2. ^ a b Vaditya, Venkatesh (2018). "Cultural Changes And Marginalisation Of Lambada Community In Telangana, India". Indian Journal of Dalit and Tribal Studies and Action. 2 (3): 55–80. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
  3. ^ Burman, J. J. Roy (2010). Ethnography of a Denotified Tribe: The Laman Banjara. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. p. 15. ISBN 978-8-18324-345-2.
  4. ^ N. Shantha Mohan (1988). Status of Banjara Women in India: (a Study of Karnataka). Uppal Publishing House. p. 4. ISBN 9788185024462.
  5. ^ Shashi, Shyam Singh (2006). The World of Nomads. New Delhi: Lotus Press. p. 143. ISBN 81-8382-051-4.
  6. ^ Bhukya (2010), p. 233
  7. ^ Halbar (1986), p. 20
  8. ^ Naik (2000), p. 132
  9. ^ Naik (2000), pp. 26-27
  10. ^ "Sandur Lambani embroidery gets GI tag". The Hindu. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
  11. ^ a b "Banjara tribe refuses to snap ties with its culture". The Hindu. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  12. ^ Naik (2000), p. 70
  13. ^ Naik (2000), p. 50
  14. ^ Deogaonkar & Deogaonkar (1992), p. 42
  15. ^ Naik, Lalitha (2009). Banjara Hejjegurutugalu. Bangalore: Karnataka Rajya Patragara Ilakhe. pp. 42–84. ISBN 978-8190843812.
  16. ^ Bhukya (2010), p. 209
  17. ^ "Adivasis facing threat from Banjaras". The Hindu. 21 August 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  18. ^ "Give reservation to banjara caste". Daily Bhaskar. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  19. ^ "Rajasthan: Cong and BJP are ignoring nomads who form 8% of the population". Business Standar. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  20. ^ "Banjaras population" (PDF). p. 1.
  21. ^ "Denotified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Communities" (PDF). National Commission for Denotified, Nomadic and Semi-Nomadic Tribes. 30 June 2008. p. 50. Retrieved 12 October 2018.

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Satya, Laxman D. (July 1997). "Colonial Sedentarization and Subjugation: The Case of Banjaras of Berar, 1850-1900". The Journal of Peasant Studies, 24:4. pp. 314–336.
  • Habib, Irfan (1990). "Merchant Communities in Precolonial India". The Rise of Merchant Empires: Long-Distance Trade in the Early Modern World, 1350-1750. Cambridge University Press. pp. 371–99.