|This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2009)|
Location of Haripur District (highlighted in red) within Hazara.
|• Total||1,725 km2 (666 sq mi)|
|• Density||466/km2 (1,210/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|District Council||x seats|
|Number of Tehsils||3|
Haripur (Urdu: ہری پور,"The Town of Hari or God") is a district in the Hazara region of Pakistan with an altitude of around 610 metres (2,000 ft) above sea level. As of 2005[update], Haripur District has the third highest Human Development Index of all the districts in the Pakistan.
Ancient and medieval period
The Haripur district is situated at the heart of the ancient Gandhara civilization. At the time of Alexander, the region including Taxila was known as "Eastern Gandhara", with its boundaries reaching as far as Kashmir. Geographically it lies on either side of the Sindu River, near the Tarbela Reservoir. Most historians[who?] believe that the Aryans must have composed a number of Vedic hymns on the banks of Indus. During the kingship of his father Bindusara, the Maharaja Ashoka ruled this region as governor and, according to Tibetan Buddhist traditional stories, he died here.
In 1399, the Muslim warrior Timur, on his return to Kabul, stationed his Turk soldiers in Hazara to protect the important route between Kabul and Kashmir. By 1472, Prince Shahab-ud-Din, a Turk of central Asian origin and a descendant of Amir Taimur, established his rule over the region. The prince founded the state and named it Pakhli Sarkar (Pakhli), choosing the Gulibagh as his capital. The territory at that time included the region as far as Attock as per Raja Irshad's Tarikh e Hazara. Haripur was a part of Pakhli at that time.
During the period of Mughal rule, local Turkish chiefs acknowledged Mughal authority. In fact, Pakhli provided the main route to Kashmir and was the most commonly used route for Emperor Akbar to travel to Kashmir. During Akbar's reign one Turk Chief in the Pakhli region revolted against the authority of Moghals, citing that the central government was interfering in the internal affairs of Pakhli. Akbar defeated him, but later pardoned him and restored his rule. A result of this was that from that time forward, the Mughals have levied no tax on Pakhli, which is one of, if not the only, state on the Sub-continent exempted from taxation.
In the 18th century, Turkish rule came to an end due to the increased aggression of the Swathis and their allied forces. Haripur was liberated by Gakhars Rajas of Haripur. At that time it was not called Haripur, being part of the Lower Tanawal area of Pkhali Sarkar. The last Wali of the Lower Tanawal was Sultan Qiyasuddin, the younger brother of Sultan Memood Kurd, the last Turk ruler in Hazara. Syed Jala Shah, commonly known as Jalal Baba, conspired against his own father in Law, Sultan Memood Kurd. The Sultan was away in Dehli, and while there, Shah took advantage of the situation and overthrew the Turks in 1703. The descendants of these Turk rulers still live in various parts of Hazara Division.
When Ahmad Shah Durrani expanded his kingdom to Punjab, Hazara also came under his control. Durrani considered it wise to rule the area through local tribal chiefs. The Durranis' rule ended abruptly in the beginning of the 18th century.
The Sikhs annexed Hazara in two stages: first, Lower Hazara was annexed when the Sikhs defeated the Afghan army, led by Fateh Khan and Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai, wresting control of Akbar's fort of Attock in 1813; second, Upper Hazara suffered a similar fate when the Sikhs took Kashmir from the Barakzai Afghans in 1819. The town of Haripur (meaning 'Hari's town') was founded in 1822 by Hari Singh Nalwa, the Commander-in-Chief of Ranjit Singh's army. On the successful completion of his tenure as Governor of Kashmir in 1821, Pakhli and Damtaur were bestowed upon Nalwa as a jagir. As soon as Nalwa received this grant, he built the walled town of Haripur in the heart of the Haripur plain, centered on the fort of Harkishan Garh, which he encircled with a deep trench. The site selected had previously seen some of the fiercest fighting between Sikhs and Afghans.
The presence of the fort at Harkishangarh, with its four yard thick and sixteen yard high wall, eventually brought a feeling of security to the region. In 1835, Baron Heugel, a German traveler found only remnants of that wall remaining.
Haripur was the sole example of a planned town in this region until the British built Abbottabad many years later. It continued to grow, eventually becoming a city and later a district.
Haripur once bore the official name of Haripur Hazara and was the capital of Hazara until 1853, when the new capital Abbottabad was built. In March 1849, the Punjab was annexed by the British Empire. Abbott later painted a noted picture of the town of Haripur and its commanding fort of Harkishangarh.
The District of Haripur was a Tehsil, or sub-division, of Abbottabad District, until 1992 when it became a district in its own right. The district is presently (2010–2011) represented in the provincial assembly by four elected MPAs. One of those four MPA's is elected to the National/Federal Assembly.
- Ali Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
- Bagra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
- Bakka, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
- Bandi Sher Khan
- Barkot, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
- Beer, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
- Ghazi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
- Haripur Central
- Haripur North
- Haripur South
- Jatti Pind
- Kalinjar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
- Khalabat Township
- Khanpur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
- Kholian Bala
- Kot Najeebullah
- Kundi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
- Nara Amaz
- Pandak, Pakistan
- Pind Hasham Khan
- Pind Kamal Khan
- Sarai Saleh
- Serai Niamat Khan
- Bostan Khan Tarin, 18th-century warrior
- Khan Sahib Abdul Majid Khan Tarin, barrister, MLA and senior philanthropist
- Field Marshal Ayub Khan, President of Pakistan (1957 to 1969)
- Pir Sabir Shah, Chief Minister North-West Frontier Province (1996 to 1997)
- Gohar Ayub Khan, former Speaker of the Pakistani National Assembly
- Omar Ayub Khan, former federal minister of state for finance
- Raja Sikander Zaman, former chief minister of the North-West Frontier Province.
- Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi, former President Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan and Pasban Khatme Nabuwwat
The area is rich in natural resources and contains two important reservoirs, the Tarbela Dam and Khanpur Dam. Geographically, it is the gateway to Hazara, the Hazara Division, and the Pakistani capital Islamabad.
Geographically, the district borders Abbottabad District to the north east, Mansehra District in the north-east, the Punjab to the south east, the Buner to the north-west and Swabi to the west. The Federal Capital of Islamabad is also adjacent to the district in the south.
As of the 1998 census, Haripur's population was 692,228, and by 2005, it was estimated to have increased to 803,000. 12.0% live in urban districts with the remaining 88.0% residing in rural areas.
The population is spread over an area of 1,725 square kilometres (666 sq mi), resulting in a density of 401.3 persons per km². This compares to an average density of 233 persons per km² in Hazara as a whole. The average household size of the district is 6.6 persons compared to 8 at the provincial level. Agriculture is the predominant livelihood of the population while the total arable area is 77,370 acres (313.1 km²).
Hindko (A Punjabi Variant) is the predominate language, while Urdu, being a national language, is another major language.
The literacy rate in the Haripur district is 53.7%, substantially higher than the literacy rate in the province of Hazara, which is 35.2%. The female literacy rate is only 37.4% compared to male literacy of 63.6%, and urban literacy rate of 69.7% is significantly higher than the rural rate of 51.4%.
Haripur District has two government funded post graduate colleges, providing higher level education, as well as four degree colleges for girls. Haripur University was established in 2012.
In 2000–2001, Haripur had 907 government primary schools, including 656 for boys and 251 for girls. In addition to government primary schools, 166 mosque schools were also in the district. The primary school population (5–9 years) consisted of 101,670 students, of which 52,240 (51.38%) were boys and 49,430 (48.61%) were girls.
The district had 83 middle schools (56 for boys and 27 for girls), during 2001.
There are many factories of various sizes on the Hatar Industrial Estate, and the presence of these industries means the district plays an important role in national economic development. One of the most prominent industries in the Haripur district is known as Cactus Fertilizer (formerly Pak-China Fertilizers) which is the largest producer of phosphate fertilizer in Pakistan.
Haripur's role in the agricultural field is also important. The district provides fruit and vegetables not only to Peshawar but also to Islamabad and the Punjab.
- Nalwa, V. (2009), Hari Singh Nalwa - Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, pp. 77-104, ISBN 81-7304-785-5.
- Nalwa, V. (2009), Hari Singh Nalwa - Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, pp. 224-5, ISBN 81-7304-785-5.
- 'The Rock Aornos from Huzara' - British Library Online Gallery
- Information Pakistan - Districts of Pakistan
- Waldemar Heckel, Lawrence A. Tritle, ed (2009). Alexander the Great: A New History. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-1-4051-3082-0. http://books.google.com/?id=jbaPwpvt8ZQC&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=callisthenes+of+olynthus+conspiracy&q=callisthenes%20of%20olynthus%20conspiracy
- Tripathi (1999). History of Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.. pp. 118–121. ISBN 978-81-208-0018-2. http://books.google.com/?id=WbrcVcT-GbUC
- Narain, pp. 155–165
- Curtius in McCrindle, Op cit, p 192, J. W. McCrindle; History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p 229, Punajbi University, Patiala, (Editors): Fauja Singh, L. M. Joshi; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 134, Kirpal Singh.