Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's location in the Pakistan
|• Total||1,257 km2 (485 sq mi)|
|• Density||2,800/km2 (7,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
Peshawar (Hindko: پشور) (Pashto: پېښور) (Urdu: پشاور) is the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, located at the north-west end of Pakistan, about 160 km west of federal capital Islamabad. Peshawar has a geo-strategically important location and an enriched history. This city has seen the rise and fall of many civilizations. It was once the center of Gandhara civilization and has subsequently been ruled by Persians, Greeks, Buddhists, Kushans, Afghans, Mughals, Sikhs and the British, up to the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Under the latest revision of Pakistan's administrative structure, promulgated in 2001, Peshawar was given the status of a city district. As of 2014, the population was 3,575,000, making it the most populous district of the province.
Peshawar has a geo-strategically important location and an enriched history. This city has seen the rise and fall of many civilizations. It was once the center of Gandhara civilization and has subsequently been ruled by Persians, Greeks, Buddhists, Kushans, Afghans, Mughals, Sikhs and the British. The original district of Peshawar was a district of the North-West Frontier Province of British India. At independence in 1947 the old Peshawar District became Peshawar Division, containing the current district of Peshawar. However, under the latest revision of Pakistan's administrative structure, promulgated in 2001, Peshawar was also given the status of a city district.
Peshawar is situated near the eastern end of the Khyber Pass and sits mainly on the Iranian plateau along with the rest of the NWFP. Peshawar is literally a frontier city of South-Central Asia and was historically part of the Silk Road. The Peshawar valley is covered with consolidated deposits of silt, sands and gravel of recent geological times. The flood Plains/Zones are the areas between Kabul River and Budni Nala. The meander flood plain extends from Warsak in the Northwest towards Southeast in the upper Northern half of the district. The Kabul river enters the district in the Northwest. On entering the Peshawar Plain, the Kabul River is divided into several channels. Its two main channels are the Adizai River Eastward flows along the boundary with Charsadda District. Another channel branching from the right bank of the Naguman River is the Shah Alam, which again merges with Naguman River further in the East. In general the sub-soil strata is composed of gravels, boulders, and sands overlain by silts and clays. Sand, gravel and boulders are important aquifer extends to a depth of about 200 feet (61 m). As further confined water bearing aquifer occurs at depths greater than 400 feet (120 m). Winter in Peshawar starts from mid November to the end of March. Summer months are May to September. The mean maximum temperature in summer is over 40 °C (104 °F) and the mean minimum temperature is 25 °C (77 °F). The mean minimum temperature during winter is 4 °C (39 °F) and maximum is 18.35 °C (65.03 °F). Peshawar is not a monsoon region, unlike other parts of Pakistan. But still rainfall is received both in winter and in the summer. The winter rainfall due to western disturbances shows a higher record during the months of February and April. The highest winter rainfall has been recorded in March, while the highest summer rainfall in the month of August. The average winter rainfall is higher than that of the summer. Based on a 30-year record, the average 30-year annual precipitation has been recorded as 400 millimetres (16 in). Wind speeds vary during the year from 5 knots (5.8 mph; 9.3 km/h) in December to 24 knots (28 mph; 44 km/h) in June. The relative humidity varies from 46% in June to 76% in August. Peshawar’s environment has suffered tremendously due to an ever increasing population, unplanned growth and a poor regulatory framework. Air and noise pollution is a significant issue in several parts of the city, and the water quality, once considered to be exceptionally good, is also fast deteriorating. In addition the city has lost 2,700 acres (1,100 ha) of agriculture land during the two decades (1965–85). This in the addition to 400 acres (160 ha) of vacant land that has been also eaten up by expending urban functions. In the same period, the land under parks and green space has shrunk from 163 to 75 acres (66–30 ha).
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Peshawar's inhabitants consist mainly of Pashtun and Hindkowans. In addition, many Punjabis, Chitralis, Tajiks, Uzbeks and Hazaras can be found in the city. Though Pashto followed by Hindko is the main language spoken in the district, other languages such as Urdu, Persian, Saraiki and Punjabi are also spoken by some of the residents of the district.
Over 99% of the city's population is Sunni Muslim, along with some Twelver Shias and Ahmedis. Despite overwhelmingly Islamic nature of modern Peshawar, it was previously home to other smaller communities such as Afghan Jews, Zorastrian, Hindus and Sikhs. Its famous markets such as the Qissa Khawani Bazaar (market of story tellers) are emblematic of this mixture of culture and offer a variety of goods including gold and silver ornaments, traditional carpets, pottery, and clothing to artwork in wood, brass and precious stones. Even today, Peshawar is the commercial, economic, political and cultural capital of the Pashtuns as well as a major center of Hindko culture in Pakistan.
Under the latest revision of Pakistan's administrative structure, promulgated in 2001, Peshawar was given status as a city district, and divided into four towns. Each town in turn consists of number of union councils (UCs). There are a total of 92 union councils in district Peshawar.
- Peshawar Town I
- Peshawar Town II
- Peshawar Town III
- Peshawar Town IV
- PK-1 (Peshawar-1)
- PK-2 (Peshawar-2)
- PK-3 (Peshawar-3)
- PK-4 (Peshawar-4)
- PK-5 (Peshawar-5)
- PK-6 (Peshawar-6)
- PK-7 (Peshawar-7)
- PK-8 (Peshawar-8)
- PK-9 (Peshawar-9)
- PK-10 (Peshawar-10)
- PK-11 (Peshawar-11)
There is only one tehsil in the district i.e. Peshawar tehsil. District Peshawar has been divided into 279 mouzas (Revenue Villages), out of which 236 are rural, 15 are urban and 28 mouzas are partly urban. Also, there are 30 police stations in the district. The district is represented in the provincial assembly by two elected MPAs who represent the following constituencies:
Literacy Rate (10 years and above) 59%
Adult Literacy Rate (15 years and above) 56%
GPI Primary 0.69
GPI Middle 0.56
GPI Secondary 0.58
GPI Higher Secondary 1.35
Population that has ever attended School 61
Population that has completed primary level or higher 51
Student Teacher Ratio 34
Higher Secondary 4
Health is an important social sector; Economic development and social progress are closely linked with the state of health of the population of a country. Health facilities are essential not only to provide disease free atmosphere to live but also to enhance the efficiency and productivity of population. Presently, in district Peshawar, health services are provided by both Public and private institutions. There are 12 public hospitals - out of these 3 are teaching hospitals, 72 private hospitals, 3 RHC, 37 civil dispensaries, 4 MCH centers, 49 BHUs and 4 TB clinics in district Peshawar. The total beds strength of government teaching hospital is about 3460 beds. Also, there are 1,046 doctors, 176 dispensers, 708 nurses, 60 Lady Health Workers (LHW) and 1,888 other paramedical staff posted by the government in the district.