Homosexuality in association football
Homophobia has been widespread in association football throughout the world. Journalist Matt Williams stated that being a gay professional player in football is still a taboo, which journalist Simon Barnes has said will never change. In February 2013, football magazine When Saturday Comes described homosexuality as a "continuing taboo" in the sport. John Amaechi, the first NBA player to come out, has blamed football's "toxic" culture for the lack of openly gay players, while Clarke Carlisle has called for more education to be given to players to combat homophobia.
- 1 History
- 2 List of gay footballers
- 3 Further reading
- 4 See also
- 5 References
Richarlyson was named on Brazilian television as a homosexual by the manager of a rival team. When Richarlyson undertook legal action, the complaint was thrown out by the judge, who stated "football was a virile masculine sport and not a homosexual one."
In 2006, PFC Levski Sofia president Todor Batkov called referee Mike Riley a "British homosexual", following Riley's controversial sending off of Cedric Bardon during the UEFA Cup quarterfinal game against Schalke 04.
Anders Lindegaard is one of the few footballers to have spoken out against the intolerance of homosexuality in football and the absence of openly gay players from the professional game. In a 2012 blog entry the Burnley FC goalkeeper wrote:
As a footballer I think first and foremost that a homosexual colleague is afraid of the reception he could get from the fans. My impression is that the players would not have a problem accepting a homosexual. Homosexuality in football is a taboo subject. The atmosphere on the pitch and in the stands is tough. The mechanisms are primitive, and it is often expressed through a classic stereotype that a real man should be brave, strong and aggressive. And it is not the image that a football fan associates with a gay person. The problem for me is that a lot of football fans are stuck in a time of intolerance that does not deserve to be compared with modern society's development in the last decades. While the rest of the world has been more liberal, civilised and less prejudiced, the world of football remains stuck in the past when it comes to tolerance. Homosexuals are in need of a hero. They are in need of someone who dares to stand up for their sexuality.
The prominent gay rights activist Peter Tatchell joined a Football Association campaign against homophobia in football, but later left stating the organisation does not take the matter seriously.
The Gay Football Supporters Network was founded in 1989 to campaign for gay rights in English football, and it currently organises the GFSN National League, a league consisting of gay teams. Stonewall Football Club is currently Britain's highest ranking gay football team, are on the verge of going semi-professional.
German player Thomas Hitzlsperger stated in January 2014 that he thought it would be a long time before there was an openly gay player in the English Premier League. John Ruddy later stated that openly gay players would be supported in England. Later that month it was revealed that Liam Davis, a non-league player with Gainsborough Trinity, has been out for four years; he is the country's only openly gay semi-professional player.
In February 2014 it was revealed that only 11 of the Premier League's 20 teams, and only 17 of the Football League's 72 teams, had joined the 'Football v Homophobia' campaign.
In August 2014 Malky Mackay and Iain Moody were accused of sending each other racist, sexist and homophobic text messages. Moody left his job as sporting director of Crystal Palace as a result. Mackay apologised for the texts. The League Manager's Association defended Mackay, claiming that the texts were merely "banter"; the LMA had to later apologise for this as well. Mackay later denied being racist, sexist or homophobic.
Justin Fashanu, older brother of fellow footballer John Fashanu, was the first professional footballer to come out as gay, after he agreed to an exclusive with The Sun tabloid newspaper on 22 October 1990. Fashanu claimed to have had an affair with a married Conservative MP who he first met in a London gay bar. A week later, John Fashanu publicly distanced himself from his brother, describing Justin as an "outcast", while Justin's manager Brian Clough famously described him as a "bloody poof."
In the morning of 3 May 1998, he was found hanged in a deserted lock-up garage he had broken into, in Shoreditch, London, after visiting Chariots Roman Spa, a local gay sauna. In his suicide note, he stated: "I realised that I had already been presumed guilty. I do not want to give any more embarrassment to my friends and family."
A gay amateur team operates in Paris under the name Paris Foot Gay. The club's highest profile supporter from within the professional game has been former France national football team player Vikash Dhorasoo (who is heterosexual) whilst a number of leading French professional clubs have signed their charter against homophobia. The club ran into controversy in 2009 however when an amateur side Creteil Bebel refused to play them due to the "principles" of Paris Foot Gay.
The issue returned to the spotlight in 2010 when amateur FC Chooz refused to register Yoann Lemaire, who had been with the club for 14 years, due to him being gay as they claimed it might lead to "trouble" with his teammates.
A bunch of faggots is what you have in French football. There are so many homosexual players there, they always provoke you, they touch your thighs, your bum, to see if you will give some kind of signal. I feel disgusted when a homosexual shares the same shower and stares at one's bum with desire, and even gets emotional when you are naked.
The Hamburger SV (HSV) player Heinz Bonn (1947–1991) was the first Bundesliga player to be publicly known as being gay, but only after his death. He played for HSV from 1970 to 1973. He was murdered in his flat in Hannover on 5 December 1991, apparently by a male prostitute, according to police investigators, although the crime has never been solved. The historian Werner Skrentny has said at the time Bonn was playing, journalists had little interest in the private lives of footballers and it would have been unthinkable for him to come out. Today, HSV has its own official LGBT fan club. Blue Pride was founded in 2006. It was renamed Volksparkjunxx in 2012.
Marcus Urban, born 1971, played with the East German national youth football team and as an amateur in the second division club Rot-Weiß Erfurt. From the age of 13, he had been hot-housed at a specialist sports boarding school in Erfurt but at the age of 20, in 1991, when he was about to become a professional footballer, he gave up the sport. He came out to friends and family in 1994, and in 2007 publicly spoke to the media about his homosexuality and the difficulties that gay footballers experience. He said that the pressure of having to pretend to be something he wasn't 24 hours a day was too much for him. He became widely known after a biography titled Versteckspieler: Die Geschichte des schwulen Fußballers Marcus Urban ('Hidden Player: the story of the gay footballer Marcus Urban') was published in 2008.
Urban is now a spokesperson and campaigner on diversity issues in sport and the workplace. He advises the German Olympic Sports Confederation and the Sports Committee of the German Federal Parliament, as well as businesses and non-profit institutions.
In December 2006, Rund magazine published an interview done over a two-year period with two gay footballers living secret lives. One was married and said his wife did not know of his sexual orientation nor realise he was involved in an intimate relationship with his childhood friend. The other often brought a female friend to social events.
In March 2010, former manager Rudi Assauer said that "If a player came to me and said he was gay I would say to him: 'You have shown courage'. But then I would tell him to find something else to do. That's because those who out themselves always end up busted by it, ridiculed by their fellow players and by people in the stands. We should spare them these witch hunts."
On 8 January 2014 Thomas Hitzlsperger, who had retired from professional football in September 2013, announced that he was gay. Before coming out, in September 2012, Hitzlsperger had publicly spoken about players coming out. In September 2014 he said that he believed the sport was tackling homophobia.
In April 2009, former Dordrecht'90 striker John de Bever married his manager and friend Kees Stevens. De Bever played at the 1996 FIFA Futsal World Championship and was named World Futsal player of the year in 1997.
In October 2016, Stabæk Fotball became the first European club to host a pride parade preceding their home fixture against Sarpsborg 08. The team continues to host a pride parade preceding a home fixture each season.
In May 2019 Hibernian chief executive Leeann Dempster, a lesbian, said that Scottish football was ready for its first publicly gay player.
Phuti Lekoloane was an openly gay male player who played in the South African third division.
Halil İbrahim Dinçdağ was a referee with the Turkey Football Federation for 13 years, but was sacked from this position due to his homosexuality. The Trabzon Board of Referees and the Turkish Football Association decided that he was not eligible for the role as he was previously excused from the military service for being homosexual. The Board of Referees has an association policy that excludes those that having not completed the military duties due to a mental illness (including homosexuality) are ineligible as referees, although normally homosexuality is not considered as such by the Turkish constitution.
One of Turkey's famous football commentators, Erman Toroğlu, argued that he should not be given his referee position back due to the professional reasons such as the possibility for making wrong decisions related to his homosexuality.
In an interview with the Turkish journalist Canan Danyıldız, one of the famous Turkish football managers, Yılmaz Vural, was asked about the presence of LGBT people in Turkish football. He said that although he has never witnessed any homosexual interaction in the locker rooms, he knows that there exist gay football players in the Turkish League. He added that he does not believe homosexuality inhibits the talents of the players and that everyone should be free to live their personal lives the way that they want to. He finalized his words by saying that gay Turkish football players can never come out of the closet since everyone knows about the case of the former referee Dinçdağ.
Another important interview about LGBT people in Turkish Football was held between the journalist Elif Korap and the famous former football player and present football commentator Rıdvan Dilmen. When he was asked whether or not he knew of any gay Turkish football players, his answer was straightforward: "Of course, as there are in any other profession." Dilmen criticized other people in the Turkish football industry for not admitting the presence of LGBT people, since they are afraid of being considered as homosexual as well. Although Dilmen said that he does not approve the discrimination against the LGBT people in the Turkish football, on contrary, he argued that he would still disinherit his own kid for being gay once he was reminded about a negative comment he made during an interview in 1989.
United States and Canada
Former MLS player David Testo, having been released by Montreal Impact the previous month, affirmed he was gay in an interview on the French Canadian division of Radio Canada that was published on November 10, 2011.
On February 15, 2013, midfielder Robbie Rogers, who had been released by Leeds United a few weeks earlier, came out after announcing his retirement from professional football. Rogers later stated that being openly gay was "impossible" in the sport. He has since returned to football, signing a "multi-year" contract with the Los Angeles Galaxy. Rogers stated in December 2013 that he had not received any contact from other, secretly, gay players.
List of gay footballers
|Name||Nationality||Career||Date of coming out||Notes & references|
|Robbie Rogers||United States||2005–2017||2013|||
|David Testo||United States||2003–2011||2011|||
|Collin Martin||United States||2013–||2018|||
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- Magrath, Rory (2016) Inclusive Masculinities in Contemporary Football: Men in the Beautiful Game. Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 978-1138653610
- Rogers, Robbie; Marcus, Eric (2014) Coming Out to Play. London: The Robson Press. ISBN 978-1849547208
- Blaschke, Ronny (2008) Versteckspieler: Die Geschichte des schwulen Fußballers Marcus Urban. Göttingen: Verlag Die Werkstatt. ISBN 978-3895336119
- Endemann, Martin (ed.), et al. (2015) Zurück am Tatort Stadion: Diskriminierung und Antidiskriminierung in Fußball-Fankulturen. Göttingen: Verlag Die Werkstatt. ISBN 978-3730701317
- Kosmann, Marianne (ed.) (2011) Fußball und der die das Andere: Ergebnisse aus einem Lehrforschungsprojekt. Freiburg: Centaurus Verlag & Media UG. ISBN 978-3862260508
- Leibfried, Dirk; Erb, Andreas (2011) Das Schweigen der Männer: Homosexualität im deutschen Fußball. Göttingen: Verlag Die Werkstatt. ISBN 978-3895338151
- Rohlwing, Christoph(2015) Homosexualität im deutschen Profifußball: Schwulenfreie Zone Fußballplatz?. Baden-Baden: Tectum-Verlag. ISBN 978-3828835962
- Walther-Ahrens, Tanja (2011) Seitenwechsel: Coming-Out im Fußball. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus. ISBN 978-3579066998
- Gay Football Supporters Network
- Homosexuality in American football
- Homosexuality in modern sports
- International Gay and Lesbian Football Association
- List of IGLFA member clubs
- List of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender sportspeople
- Mario (2018 film)
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