8th Dalai Lama

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Title8th Dalai Lama
Thobgyal, Ü-Tsang, Tibet,
Died1804 (aged 45–46)
ReligionTibetan Buddhism
Senior posting
Period in office1762–1804
PredecessorKelzang Gyatso
SuccessorLungtok Gyatso

Jamphel Gyatso (1758–1804) was the 8th Dalai Lama of Tibet.

Born in 1758 at Lhari Gang (Tob-rgyal Lha-ri Gang) in the Upper Ü-Tsang region of southwestern Tibet his father, Sonam Dhargye and mother, Phuntsok Wangmo, were originally from Kham.[1] They were distant descendants of Dhrala Tsegyal, who was one of the major heroes of the Gesar epic.[2]

Traditional history[edit]

He was escorted to Lhasa and enthroned as the leader of the Tibetan people in the Potala Palace in 7th month of the Water Horse Year (1762) when he was five years old (four by Western reckoning). The enthronement ceremony was presided over by Demo Tulku Jamphel Yeshi, the first of a series of Regents to represent the Dalai Lamas when they were minors.[3] The ceremony was held in the 'Beyond Mind Temple of the Second Potala'.[1]

He was the disciple of Yongtsin Yeshe Gyaltsen, the Kushok Bakula Rinpoche.[4]

The country continued to be ruled by regents until the Wood Dragon Year (1784) when the Regent was sent as an ambassador to China and the Dalai Lama ruled alone until 1790, when the Regent returned to help Jamphel Gyatso. In 1788 there was a conflict with Nepali wool traders leading to a skirmish with the Gurkhas. In 1790 the Gurkhas invaded southern Tibet and conquered several provinces including Nya-nang and Kyi-drong. The city of Shigatse and the Tashilhunpo Monastery were captured and looted but the Gurkhas were driven back to Nepal in 1791 after the Qing dynasty sent troops to Tibet. A peace treaty between the Qing dynasty and Gurkhas was agreed on in 1796.

Norbulingka Park and Summer Palace and other activities[edit]

He built the Norbulingka Park and Summer Palace in 1783 on the outskirts of Lhasa.[5] He also commissioned an exquisite copper statue of the Buddha for the people of Southern Tibet which was brought into India in the 1960s and is now housed at the Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, Dharamsala, India.[6]

Later life[edit]

"He was a mild and contemplative person with no great interest in temporal affairs and although he lived to be 45 [44 by Western reckoning], for most of his life he was content to let a Regent conduct the administration."[7]

He died in 1804 at the age of 47 (46 by Western reckoning).[8]



  1. ^ a b Khetsun Sangpo Rinpoche. (1982). "Life and times of the Eighth to Twelfth Dalai Lamas." The Tibet Journal. Vol. VII Nos. 1 & 2. Spring/Summer 1982, p. 47.
  2. ^ "The Eighth Dalai Lama JAMPHEL GYATSO" Archived 2007-12-17 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "The Eighth Dalai Lama JAMPHEL GYATSO." Archived 2007-12-17 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Namang Tsering Shakspo: "The role of incarnate Lamas in Buddhist tradition: A Brief Surveyof bakula Rinpoche's Previous Incarnations" in "Recent Research on Ladakh", Proceedings of the 7th Colloquium of the International Association for Ladakh Studies held in Bonn/Sankt Augustin, 12–15 June 1995
  5. ^ The Dalai Lamas of Tibet, p. 102. Thubten Samphel and Tendar. Roli & Janssen, New Delhi. (2004). ISBN 81-7436-085-9.
  6. ^ Sheel, R. N. Rahul. "The Institution of the Dalai Lama", p. 30. The Tibet Journal. Vol. XIV, No. 3. Autumn, 1989.
  7. ^ Richardson, Hugh E. (1984). Tibet and its History. Second Edition, Revised and Updated, p. 59. Shambhala. Boston & London. ISBN 0-87773-376-7 (pbk)
  8. ^ Khetsun Sangpo Rinpoche. (1982). "Life and times of the Eighth to Twelfth Dalai Lamas." The Tibet Journal. Vol. VII Nos. 1 & 2. Spring/Summer 1982, pp. 47–48.

Further reading[edit]

  • Mullin, Glenn H. (2001). The Fourteen Dalai Lamas: A Sacred Legacy of Reincarnation, pp. 322–341. Clear Light Publishers. Santa Fe, New Mexico. ISBN 1-57416-092-3.
Buddhist titles
Preceded by Dalai Lama
Recognized in 1760
Succeeded by