|Khimki (in English)
|- City -|
Babakina Street in Khimki (February 2010)
Location of Moscow Oblast in Russia
|Administrative status (as of January 2013)|
|Federal subject||Moscow Oblast|
|Administratively subordinated to||Khimki City Under Oblast Jurisdiction|
|Administrative center of||Khimki City Under Oblast Jurisdiction|
|Municipal status (as of January 2013)|
|Urban okrug||Khimki Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Khimki Urban Okrug|
|Mayor||Oleg Shakhov|
|Area (urban okrug) (January 2013)||109.81 km2 (42.40 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||207,425 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||90th|
|Density||1,889/km2 (4,890/sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 495, 498|
|Khimki on Wikimedia Commons|
Khimki (Russian: Химки; IPA: [ˈxʲimkʲɪ]) is a city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, 19 kilometres northwest of central Moscow. Khimki is asserted by many as the nearest point German forces reached in their advance on Moscow in World War II.
Origins and formation
Khimki was initially a railway station that existed since 1850 on the Moscow – Saint Petersburg Railway. The Moskva-Volga Canal was constructed between 1932 and 1937 on which Khimki lies on the west bank. Khimki was then officially founded in 1939.
Khimki in the Battle of Moscow
The German attack starting the Battle of Moscow (code-named ‘Operation Typhoon’) began on 2 October 1941. The attack on a broad front brought German forces to occupy the village of Krasnaya Polyana (now in the town of Lobnya) to Moscow's North West. Krasnaya Polyana was taken on 30 November.
Many sources state that at least one German army patrol visited Khimki. Similarly many sources state this as the closest point the Germans reached to Moscow (Khimki at the time was five miles from the edge of Moscow). Among the sources stating the Germans visited Khimki the details of the date and unit involved are inconsistent and disputed. One story of events asserts a skirmish took place in Khimki on 16 October at the Leningradskoe Shosse bridge involving a German motorcycle unit. Another account is a patrol reached Khimki around 30 November or early December before returning to its main unit without combat. The dates mentioned for this second account vary. A myth surrounding this is that the Germans would have been able to see the Kremlin in the distance from Khimki.
The Soviet Army counter offensive for "removing the immediate threat to Moscow" started on 5 December on the North-Western Front (the area around Khimki North West of Moscow). The South-Western Front and Western Fronts began their offensives on 6 December. The German forces were driven back. Moscow was never under such close land threat again during the war.
A memorial in the form of a giant tank trap is located at the "Kilometer 23" point Planernaya Railway Station. The memorial was unveiled on 6 December 1966 as a 25th anniversary recognition of the launch of the Soviet counter offensive. This location is just short of an intersection with the Moscow-St Petersburg railway (close to where the IKEA shopping centre has since been built). This memorial and shopping centre on the Northern side of Khimki has a direct distance of 22 kilometres from Moscow city centre. At the time of the conflict this location was outside Khimki. This memorial is different to the Khimki War Memorial moved in 2007 to in Novoluzhinskoe cemetery.) of Leningradskoye Highway (the highway to St. Petersburg). The memorial is one mile south east of
Khimki was home to several Soviet aerospace defense development centers that became the principal employers for the majority of the city population. This included R&D enterprises which designed surface-to-air missiles for S-75, S-125, S-200, S-300 Soviet air defense systems, engines for intercontinental ballistic missiles and satellite launch vehicles, and other types of equipment. For this reason, Khimki was off limits for all foreigners visiting the country, despite its location on a highway between Moscow and its major international airport.
Currently, the city of Khimki is directly adjacent to the territory of the city of Moscow. In recent years the population of the city of Khimki has continued to grow rapidly due to massive residential building construction driven by its proximity to the densely populated Moscow megapolis, which needs new areas for expansion.
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Khimki City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Khimki City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Khimki Urban Okrug.
As of 2015[update] some aerospace-development centers located in Khimki contribute to a program of the International Space Station. Former Soviet aerospace and defense development centers located in Khimki:
- NPO Energomash is a company which primarily develops and produces liquid propellant rocket engines.
- NPO Lavochkin is an aerospace company, a major player in the Russian space program.
- MKB Fakel is a government-owned aerospace defense corporation dedicated to development of guided surface-to-air missiles.
Khimki station is on the Moscow-St Petersburg Railway.
Road transport includes bus and trolleybus.
- FC Dynamo Moscow, association football club
- FC Khimki, association football club
- BC Khimki, basketball club
- WFC Rossiyanka, association football club
- at 1930 divided by Moscow Canal with right bank and left bank area and assigned "Levobereghnaya" (left bank) platform. The enter to M11 (Toll road) is also at left bank
- at 1961 part of the city transferred to Moscow include Khimki hospital (known as "Stravinsky clinic" in Master and Margarita)
- Some Moscow organizations remained in Khimky like Moscow State Art and Cultural University and Arena Khimky (de facto)
- Skhodnya de jure merjed but not adjustment to 2014. De facto Khimki, Skhodnya and the rest areas and enclaves were special fare zone earlier and this doesn't cause fare and legal collisions
Twin towns and sister cities
Khimki is twinned with:
- Law #11/2013-OZ
- Law #50/2005-OZ
- Досрочные выборы Главы городского округа Химки 14.10.2012(in Russian)
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
- Город Химки, Московская область(in Russian)
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=olYUrlIfWg0 43 mins 45 secs into this "The World at War2 Episode 5"
- Axis History
- Axis History
- "Russia halts forest highway construction as opposition grows". Chicago Tribune. 2010-08-26.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Московская областная Дума. Закон №11/2013-ОЗ от 31 января 2013 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области», в ред. Закона №72/2015-ОЗ от 5 мая 2015 г. «Об отнесении города Озёры Озёрского района Московской области к категории города областного подчинения Московской области, упразднении Озёрского района Московской области и внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области"». Вступил в силу на следующий день после официального опубликования (13 января 2013 г.). Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №24, 12 февраля 2013 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #11/2013-OZ of January 31, 2013 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Moscow Oblast, as amended by the Law #72/2015-OZ of May 5, 2015 On Re-Classifying the Town of Ozyory in Ozyorsky District of Moscow Oblast as the Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction, on Abolishing Ozyorsky District of Moscow Oblast, and on Amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Moscow Oblast". Effective as of the day following the day of the official publication (January 13, 2013).).
- Московская областная Дума. Закон №50/2005-ОЗ от 22 февраля 2005 г. «О статусе и границе городского округа Химки», в ред. Закона №6/2013-ОЗ от 30 января 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "О статусе и границе городского округа Химки"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №40–41, 5 марта 2005 г. (Moscow Oblast Duma. Law #50/2005-OZ of February 22, 2005 On the Status and the Border of Khimki Urban Okrug, as amended by the Law #6/2013-OZ of January 30, 2013 On Amending the Law of Moscow Oblast "On the Status and the Border of Khimki Urban Okrug". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).