COVID-19 apps

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Example proposal for a location-based COVID-19 contact tracing app: Contacts of individual A (and all individuals using the app) are traced using GPS co-localizations with other app users, supplemented by scanning QR codes displayed on high-traffic public amenities where GPS is too coarse. Individual A requests a SARS-COV-2 test (using the App) and their positive test result triggers an instant notification to individuals who have been in close contact. The app advises isolation for the case (individual A) and quarantine of their contacts.[1]

COVID-19 apps are mobile software applications that use digital tracking to aid contact tracing in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, i.e. the process of identifying persons ("contacts") who may have been in contact with an infected individual.

Numerous applications were developed or proposed, with official government support in some territories and jurisdictions. Several frameworks for building contact tracing apps have been developed. Privacy concerns have been raised, especially about systems that are based on tracking the geographical location of app users.

Less intrusive alternatives include the use of Bluetooth signals to log a user's proximity to other cellphones. On 10 April 2020, Google and Apple jointly announced that they would integrate functionality to support such Bluetooth-based apps directly into their Android and iOS operating systems. India's Covid-19 tracking app Aarogya Setu became the world's fastest growing application beating Pokemon Go with 50 million users in the first 13 days of its release.

Countries with official contact tracing apps[edit]

Australia
COVIDSafe is a digital contact tracing app announced by the Australian Government on 14 April 2020 to help combat the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The app is based on the BlueTrace protocol developed by the Singaporean Government, and was first released on 26 April 2020.
Bahrain
BeAware Bahrain is the official mobile app for Android and iOS, developed by The Information & eGovernment Authority (iGA), in collaboration with the National Taskforce for Combating the Coronavirus (COVID-19). The application aims to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 by implementing contact tracing efforts to identify and keep track of all active cases and their contacts. It also uses location data of citizens to alert individuals in the event they approach an active case or a location an active case has visited, as well as track the movement of quarantine cases for a duration of 14 days. It also posts health recommendations and live data of global COVID-19 developments; iGA Chief Executive Mohammed Ali Al Qaed said: “The application deploys a tamper-proof GPS Tracking Bracelet to share real time-tracking information with health workers. Health workers are notified when quarantine cases exit their pre-set area by 15 meters, in which case the team will respond by reminding individuals of the importance of following procedures to safeguard the well-being of citizens and residents.”[2]
China
The Chinese government, in conjunction with Alipay, has deployed an app that allows citizens to check if they have been in contact with people that have COVID-19. It is in use across more than 200 Chinese cities.[3]
Colombia
CoronApp is the mobile app for Android and iOS –and available for the Huawei AppGallery– developed by the Colombian government. The app, downloaded more than 1.2 million users, is a free application, which does not consume data; it helps detect affected areas and nearby people with a positive diagnosis for COVID-19. CoronApp facilitates the real-time monitoring of data collected to the Emergency Operations Center of the Instituto Nacional de Salud (National Health Institute, INS). It incorporates technologies such as those developed by the Governments of Singapore and South Korea, as well as Apple.[4] Privacy, the major concern with these applications from organizations around the world, has not been the exception for Colombia: Fundación Karisma points out some vulnerabilities of CoronApp.[5] As an additional benefit of the app, the Colombian Government will finance 1 gigabyte per month and 100 minutes for users of prepaid lines that install it.[6]
Czech Republic
The government launched a Singapore-inspired tracing app called eRouška (eFacemask). The app was developed by the local IT community, released as open-source software and will be handed over to the government.[7]
France
The French National Assembly approved the release of StopCovid [fr] on 27 May 2020 to help combat the COVID-19 pandemic. StopCovid is a digital contact tracing app based on a bluetooth tracing protocol developed specially for the app. It was released on 2 June 2020.[8]
Ghana
The government launched "GH Covid-19 Tracker App", an Android and IOS app equipped with location tracking technology to provide detailed information about people who have been at the same event, location, country or other defined locations in order to provide accurate information to health authorities overtime to know who to screen and provide needed assistance. The app was developed by the Ministry of Communication and Technology and Ministry of Health.[9] As of 14 April 2020, the app was awaiting approval by the Google Play store and Apple Inc.s App Store.[10]
Hungary
VírusRadar, an Android app, was launched on May 13 and an iOS version on May 30, 2020. The app uses Bluetooth technology to track unique, random application IDs within a proximity of 2 meters for more than 20 minutes in the previous 14 days. The system has been developed by Nextsense, based on the company's contact tracing technology.[11] According to the developer, a version of the application integrating Google and Apple’s API is currently under testing.[12] The app is operated under the umbrella of the Ministry for Innovation and Technology of Hungary, operated by the Governmental Agency for IT Development and supported by Biztributor.[citation needed]
Iceland
Rakning C-19 route tracking is a GPS logger app for Android and iOS, with a user interface and content from the national COVID-19 web page Upplýsingar um Covid-19 á Íslandi. When infection is confirmed the route data is used to support more traditional contact tracing. According to MIT Technology Review as of May 11, 2020 it had the largest national market penetration rate of contact trackers in the world, having been downloaded by 38% of Icelanders.[13]
India
The Aarogya Setu app is developed by the National Informatics Centre that comes under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India. The app is available on Google Play Store and Apple's App Store for download.[14]
Israel
On March 22, 2020 the Ministry of Health launched "HaMagen", an iOS and Android contact tracing app.[15] Hamagen tracks a user's whereabouts using standard location APIs and then compares them to known movements of those diagnosed with COVID-19, in order to check if their paths crossed within the previous 14 days. The Hamagen app was specifically designed with a privacy-first approach where information about locations and times is cross-referenced on the user's device, and not transmitted on to the cloud database.[16]
Italy
On June 1, 2020 the Ministry of Health launched the Italian Government’s exposure notification solution, "Immuni [it]," an iOS and Android contact tracing app build on top of the Google/Apple API. The solution was realized by the Special Commissioner for the COVID-19 emergency (Presidency of the Council of Ministers), in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and the Ministry for Technological Innovation and Digitalization. It only uses public infrastructures located within the national borders. It is exclusively managed by the public company Sogei S.p.A. The source code has been developed for the Presidency of the Council of Ministers by Bending Spoons S.p.A., and it is released under a GNU Affero General Public License version 3.[17][18]
Jordan
The AMAN App - Jordan app is developed for Jordan's Ministry of Health by COVID-19 JOTECH COMMUNITY, a group of tech-savvy volunteers who aim to leverage Jordan’s tech talent in fighting the coronavirus pandemic. AMAN is a privacy-conscious exposure detection App. The App was released on May 21, 2020 and is currently available on Google Play Store and App Store. It will be released on AppGallery for download soon. Downloading the App is voluntary and is considered as a moral and human obligation toward the others and the country.[19]
Latvia
A consortium of IT companies and volunteers launched decentralized proximity tracing Apturi Covid application on May 29th, 2020. It is Android and Apple compatible. The county's president and government ministers installed the application on their phones on the launch day. Application developers hoped to reach 400 000 users, approximately 20% of the country's population.[20]
Malaysia
The government launched MyTrace on May 3, 2020,[21] one of three tracing app that released alongside Gerak Malaysia and MySejahtera. Gerak Malaysia is a tracing app which allows police and the Ministry of Health to track and analyze users movement, and register for permission to allow state border crossing. MySejahtera is an app build by the National Security Council and the Ministry of Health to retrieve updated information and statistics of the pandemic. MyTrace is a tracing app that utilizes Bluetooth to detect how long a user smartphone are in close proximity with other smartphone users with a similar app installed, and is currently available on Android.[22]
New Zealand
The Health Ministry launched the NZ COVID Tracer on 20 May, though some users reported being able to access the App on 19 May.[23] The app is available on Apple's App Store and Google Play. NZ COVID Tracer allows users to scan their own QR codes at businesses, public buildings and other organisations to track where they have been for contract tracing purposes.[24][25]
North Macedonia
The government launched "StopKorona!" on April 13, 2020, becoming the first country in the Western Balkans to launch a COVID-19 tracing app. The Bluetooth-based app traces exposure with potentially infected persons and is designed to help healthcare authorities provide a fast response. The app was developed and donated by Skopje-based Software company Nextsense. To comply with laws on data protection, the app does not use the users' locations nor personal information. The users' mobile phone numbers are the only user-related data, stored on servers managed by the Ministry of Health.[26][27][28]
Norway
The Smittestopp app is developed by the Norwegian government, and uses Bluetooth and GPS signals.[29]
Saudi Arabia
Corona Map Saudi Arabia is the official mobile app for Web, Android and iOS, developed by the National Health Information Center (NHIC). It is an interactive map application that allows users to track all COVID-19 cases in the world with statistics and charts and the ability to talk to a chatbot called BashairBot to answer questions about COVID-19. More than 130,000 users have downloaded the app.[citation needed]
Singapore
An app called TraceTogether is being used.[30] It uses a digital contact tracing protocol called BlueTrace, developed with an open source reference implementation called OpenTrace.[31][32]
Switzerland
An app called SwissCovid [fr] which uses the DP-3T protocol and is build top of Apple/Google bluetooth API. Application is licenced under Mozilla Public License 2.0.[33][34]

Countries considering deployment[edit]

In the United Kingdom, Matthew Gould, chief executive of NHSX, the government body responsible for policy regarding technology in the NHS, said in late March 2020 that the organisation was looking seriously at an app that would alert people if they had recently been in contact with someone testing positive for the virus after scientists advising the government suggested it "could play a critical role" in limiting lockdowns.[35] On 22 April, the government announced that alpha testing of a prototype of the app was in progress at RAF Leeming.[36] Beta testing began on the Isle of Wight on 5 May for council staff and NHS workers before a wider rollout to all residents on 7 May.[37] By 15 May, over 72,000 had downloaded the app, equivalent to more than half of the island's population.[38] Both Australia and New Zealand are considering apps based on Singapore's TraceTogether app and BlueTrace protocol.[39]

Many countries have announced the official development, trial or adoption of decentralized proximity tracing systems, where the matching of proximity encounters happens locally on individuals' devices, such as the Temporary Contact Number (TCN) protocol, Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing (DP-3T) protocol or the Google-Apple Exposure Notification API. These include Austria,[40] Switzerland,[41] Estonia,[42] Latvia,[43] Canada,[44] Italy,[45][46] Germany,[47] Finland,[43] the Netherlands,[48] Ireland[49] and Denmark.[50]

Russia intends to introduce a geofencing app for patients diagnosed with COVID-19 living in Moscow, designed to ensure they do not leave home.[51]

Rationale[edit]

Contact tracing is an important factor in infectious disease control. Contact tracing is more effective at earlier stages of an outbreak than at later stages where most of the community is self-isolating anyway. Digital contact tracing, especially if widely deployed, may be more effective than traditional methods of contact tracing. Some proponents advocate for legislation exempting certain COVID-19 apps from previous general privacy restrictions.[52] In a March 2020 model by the Oxford University Big Data Institute team of Professor Christophe Fraser, a coronavirus outbreak in a city of one million people is halted if 80% of all smartphone users use a tracking system. In the model, the elderly are still expected to self-isolate en masse, but individuals who are neither symptomatic nor elderly are exempt from isolation unless they receive an alert that they are at risk of carrying the disease.[53][54]

Issues[edit]

Uptake[edit]

Ross Anderson, professor of security engineering at Cambridge University, listed a number of potential practical problems with app-based systems, including false positives and the potential lack of effectiveness if takeup of the app is limited to only a small fraction of the population.[55] In Singapore, only one person in six downloaded the TraceTogether App by April 2020; the app was also underused due to the fact that it required users to keep the app open at all times.[56]

The proposed Google/Apple contact tracing plan intends to mitigate the take-up problem by incorporating the tracing mechanism in their device operating systems, distributed by standard software update mechanisms. By phase two, the operating system would be able to track exposure without the need to download a separate COVID-19 app.[57]

A team at the University of Oxford simulated the effect of a contact tracing app on a city of 1 million. They estimated that if the app was used in conjunction with the shielding of over-70s, then 56% of the population would have to be using the app for it to suppress the virus.[58] This would be equivalent to 80% of smartphone users in the United Kingdom. They found that the app could still slow the spread of the virus if fewer people downloaded it, with one infection being prevented for every one or two users.[58]

App store restrictions[edit]

Addressing concerns about the spread of misleading or harmful apps, Apple, Google and Amazon set limits on which types of organizations could add coronavirus-related apps to its App Store, limiting them to only "official" or otherwise reputable organizations.[59][60]

Privacy, discrimination and marginalisation concerns[edit]

Privacy campaigners voiced their concern regarding the implications of mass surveillance using coronavirus apps, in particular about whether surveillance infrastructure created to deal with the coronavirus pandemic will be dismantled once the threat has passed.[61] American Civil Liberties Union has published a set of principles for technology-assisted contact tracing and [62] Amnesty International and over 100 other organizations issued a statement[63] calling for limits on this kind of surveillance.[64] The organisations declared eight conditions on governmental projects:[63]

  1. surveillance would have to be "lawful, necessary and proportionate";
  2. extensions of monitoring and surveillance would have to have sunset clauses;
  3. the use of data would have to be limited to COVID-19 purposes;
  4. data security and anonymity would have to be protected and shown to be protected based on evidence;
  5. digital surveillance would have to address the risk of exacerbating discrimination and marginalisation;
  6. any sharing of data with third parties would have to be defined in law;
  7. there would have to be safeguards against abuse and the rights of citizens to respond to abuses;
  8. "meaningful participation" by all "relevant stakeholders" would be required, including that of public health experts and marginalised groups.

The German Chaos Computer Club (CCC)[65] and Reporters Without Borders (Reporter ohne Grenzen) (RSF)[66] also issued checklists.

The proposed Google/Apple contact tracing plan intends to address the problem of persistent surveillance by removing the tracing mechanism from their device operating systems once it is no longer needed.[57]

On 20 April 2020, it was reported that over 300 academics had signed a statement favouring decentralised proximity tracing applications over centralised models, given the difficulty in precluding centralised options being used "to enable unwarranted discrimination and surveillance."[67][68] In a centralised model, a central database records the ID codes of meetings between users. In a decentralised model, this information is recorded on individual phones, with the role of the central database being limited to identifying phones by their ID code when an alert needs to be sent.[citation needed]

Human Rights Watch suggests that national mobile applications for COVID-19 contact tracing could potentially pose a serious threat to human rights.[69]

In May 2020, it was reported that the authorities in Moscow wrongly fined hundreds of Moscovites for breaching self-quarantine. The dubious behavioral interpretations recorded by the social monitoring tracking application led to the mistaken fining of hundreds of people in Moscow.[70]

Accuracy of distance measurements[edit]

According to ZDNet, Bluetooth-based proximity detection carries a risk of over-reporting interactions and leading to "a huge amount of false positives"; hypothetically, a system could flag an interaction with "(a) person waiting for the bus on the (opposite) side of the road". One problem is that using Bluetooth signal strength to infer distance can be unreliable; the range of a given Bluetooth device can vary due to the environment or the way the device is held. False positives could result in needless self-isolation, or could cause users to ignore warnings if the warnings are perceived as unreliable.[71] GPS-based proximity detection can also be unreliable: according to the United States' GPS.gov, "GPS-enabled smartphones are typically accurate to within a 4.9 m (16 ft.) radius under open sky", with accuracy decreasing further in the presence of signal blockage. In contrast, social distancing guidelines are usually 2 meters (6 ft).[72][73]

General approaches[edit]

Centralized contact tracing[edit]

Some countries used network-based location tracking instead of apps, eliminating both the need to download an app and the ability to avoid tracking. In Israel, network-based tracking was approved.[74] Network-based solutions that have access to raw location data have significant potential privacy problems.[75] However, not all systems with central servers need to have access to personal location data; a number of privacy-preserving systems have been created that use central servers only for intercommunication (see section below).[citation needed]

In South Korea, a non-app-based system was used to perform contact tracing. Instead of using a dedicated app, the system gathered tracking information from a variety of sources including mobile device tracking data and card transaction data, and combined these to generate notices via text messages to potentially-infected individuals.[76] In addition to using this information to alert potential contacts, the government has also made the location information publicly available, something permitted because of far-reaching changes to information privacy laws after the MERS outbreak in that country.[77] This information is available to the public via a number of apps and websites.[77]

Countries including Germany considered using both centralized and privacy-preserving systems. As of 6 April 2020, the details had not yet been released.[78]

Decentralized contact tracing[edit]

Privacy-preserving contact tracing is a well-established concept, with a substantial body of research literature dating back to at least 2013.[79][80][81]

An independent research collaboration between Stanford University and the University of Waterloo, was the first in the world to publish a white paper[82], develop[83], and open source[84] a fully anonymous Bluetooth exposure alert protocol - the TCN Protocol - in early March 2020 as part of the Covid Watch[85] project in collaboration with CoEpi[86]. This was followed by similar decentralized protocols in early April 2020 like DP-3T, PACT[87], and Google/Apple Exposure Notification.

As of 7 April 2020, over a dozen expert groups were working on privacy-friendly solutions, such as using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) to log a user's proximity to other cellphones.[64] Users then receive a message if they've been in close contact with someone who has tested positive for COVID-19.[64]

A group of European researchers, including from the Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute and École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), were under the umbrella of the Pan-European Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing (PEPP-PT) project,[88] developing a BLE-based app to serve this purpose that is designed to avoid the need for intrusive surveillance by the state.[89][90][91] However, PEPP-PT is a co-ordination effort which contains both centralised and decentralised approaches.[92] On April 17, 2020, EPFL and the ETH Zurich pulled out of the project, criticizing PEPP-PT for a lack of transparency and openness, and for not respecting personal privacy enough.[93] Later it was reported that KU Leuven, the CISPA Helmholz Center for Information Security, the European Laboratory for Learning and Intelligent Systems and the Technical University of Denmark, also withdrew from the project.[94][95][96][97] On April 26, 2020, Germany switched to decentralised approach to support solutions like DP-3T.[98]

Decentralised protocols include Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing (DP-PPT/DP-3T),[78][99] The Coalition Network's Whisper Tracing Protocol,[100] the global TCN Coalition's TCN ("Temporary Contact Numbers") Protocol,[101][102] and the MIT PACT Protocol.[103][104][105] The goal of decentralization is to reduce the loss of privacy, by exchanging anonymous keys that do not include identifiable information.[106]

COCOVID[107] is being developed as a common effort of several European companies and institutions. The Mobile Application, the Big Data and the Artificial Intelligence components will be available to any government. The COCOVID app is Open Source and the backend is based on a highly scalable solution that is already used by several of the largest financial institutions in Europe. COCOVID will support the coordination of tests at medical institutions, allowing users with a high infection risk to book a test slot directly from the app. This will reduce the effort and increase the efficiency of the medical test processes. COCOVID will use both location and Bluetooth contact data, allowing a high level of effectiveness. The solution is designed following the EU data privacy recommendations. The team working on the project includes persons from Orange, Ericsson, Proventa AG, Stratio, TH Köln and Charta digitale Vernetzung.[citation needed]

On 9 April 2020, the Singaporean government announced that it had open-sourced a reference implementation of the BlueTrace protocol used by its official government app.[108]

Google / Apple contact tracing project[edit]

On 10 April 2020, Google and Apple, the companies that control the Android and iOS mobile platforms, announced an initiative for contact tracing, which they stated would preserve privacy, based on a combination of Bluetooth Low Energy technology and privacy-preserving cryptography.[109][110] They also published specifications of the core technologies used in the system.[111][112] According to Apple and Google, the system is intended to be rolled out in three stages:[113][114]

  • API specification and publication
  • rollout of tools to enable governments to create official privacy-preserving coronavirus tracing apps
  • integration of this functionality directly into iOS and Android

Google and Apple plan to address the take-up and persistent surveillance problems by first distributing the system through operating system updates, and later removing it in the same way once the threat has passed.[57]

The ACLU stated the Google and Apple's approach "appears to mitigate the worst privacy and centralization risks, but there is still room for improvement".[115]

List of frameworks[edit]

Name Centralized / Decentralized Author/promoter Licence Homepage Ref
Pan-European Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing (PEPP-PT) project partially-centralized Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications, Robert Koch Institute, Technical University of Berlin, TU Dresden, University of Erfurt, Vodafone Germany multiple protocols, closed source, private specifications, MPL https://www.pepp-pt.org/, https://github.com/pepp-pt/pepp-pt-documentation, https://nadim.computer/res/pdf/PEPP-PT_NTK_High_Level_Overview.pdf [116]
Coalition Network Coalition Foundation, Nodle, French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation, Berkeley, California GPL 3 https://www.coalitionnetwork.org/ [117][118]
Google / Apple privacy-preserving tracing project decentralized Google, Apple Inc. public specification https://www.apple.com/covid19/contacttracing [119]
Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing (DP-3T) decentralized EPFL, ETHZ, KU Leuven, TU Delft, University College London, CISPA, University of Oxford, University of Torino / ISI Foundation publicly-developed Apache 2.0 reference implementation, MPL 2.0 iOS/Android code. https://github.com/DP-3T [120]
BlueTrace / OpenTrace partially-centralized Singapore Government Digital Services public specification, GPL 3 code bluetrace.io, https://github.com/opentrace-community [31]
Privacy-Sensitive Protocols And Mechanisms

for Mobile Contact Tracing (PACT) / CovidSafe

Microsoft volunteers, University of Washington public specification, MIT License code https://arxiv.org/abs/2004.03544, https://github.com/covidsafe [121]

[122][123]

PACT: Private Automated Contact Tracing MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, MIT Media Lab, Boston University, Weizmann Institute of Science, Brown University public specification, MIT License code https://pact.mit.edu [124]

[125] [126] [127]

TCN Coalition / TCN Protocol decentralized CovidWatch, CoEpi, ITO, Commons Project, Zcash Foundation, Openmined, Coalition Network public developed specification, MIT License code tcn-coalition.org https://github.com/TCNCoalition/TCN [119]
OpenCovidTrace decentralized Nebula Ventures, open source community, Quantstellation, MLM Holdings, Evocativideas, 1Checkin public developed specification, LGPL iOS/Android code. https://opencovidtrace.org https://github.com/OpenCovidTrace [128]

List of apps by country[edit]

Note: This table should list only apps which are either supported by citations from third-party reliable sources, or are from, or supported by, independently notable organizations such as national governments, industrial collaborations, major universities or NGOs, or one of the framework collaborations listed above.

Country Name Functionality Platform Author/supporter Status Licence Protocol Homepage Downloads Ref
 Angola COVID-19 AO self diagnostic, information and quarantine enforcement Web Ravelino de Castro Proprietary https://covid19ao.com/ [129][130][131][132]
 Australia Coronavirus Australia information, isolation registration Android, iOS Delv Pty Ltd / Australian Department of Health in use Proprietary health.gov.au 27/04, 1.89 million; 26/04: 1 million [133][134]
COVIDSafe contact tracing Android, iOS Australian Department of Health in use Proprietary BlueTrace covidsafe.gov.au 07/05, 4 million [135][136][137][138]
 Austria Stopp Corona [de] contact tracing, medical reporting Android, iOS Austrian Red Cross in use Apache License 2.0 DP-3T[40] www.roteskreuz.at [139]
 Brazil The Spread Project contact tracing, medical reporting Android, iOS Manoel Lemos APK file released Proprietary
 Canada COVID Shield contact tracing Android, iOS Volunteers Apache License 2.0 Google / Apple privacy-preserving tracing project covidshield.app [140][141]
 China "Alipay Health Code" contact tracing Android, iOS integrated into Alipay and WeChat apps Proprietary [142][143][144][145]
 Czech Republic eRouška contact tracing Android, iOS Czech Ministry of Health and Hygiene in use MIT License own erouska.cz [146][7][147][148]
 Finland Ketju contact tracing Android, iOS 2M-IT, Futurice, Reaktor Finland, Fractal, Sitra small pilot test in May unknown DP-3T ketjusovellus.fi [149][150][151]
 France StopCovid [fr] contact tracing Android, iOS Government of France / INRIA, ANNSI, Cap Gemini, Dassault Systèmes, INSERM, Lunabee studio, Orange, Santé publique France, Withings,[152] Coalition Network[153] in use since 2 June 2020 MPL-2.0 and ad hoc ROBERT gitlab.inria.fr/stopcovid19 [154][155]
ROBERT (ROBust and privacy-presERving proximity Tracing protocol) contact tracing unknown INRIA PEPP-PT github.com/ROBERT-proximity-tracing ,[156]
 Georgia Stop Covid contact tracing Android, iOS Novid20 / Georgian Ministry of Health in use GPL PEPP-PT novid20.org [157][158][159]
 Germany Ito contact tracing Android Partners like TUM APK file released GPL3 TCN www.ito-app.org [160]
OHIOH Framework contact tracing, scientific research Android, OS FH Kiel] APK file released MIT TCN ohioh.de [161][162][163]
 Greece DOCANDU Covid Checker self diagnostic, information and 24/7 online doctor Android, Web-based / Web-site Widget DOCANDU, Region of Attica (Greece), Athens Medical Association (Greece) in use (2020-03-26) https://www.docandu.com/en 27/04, 18,000 users [164][165][166]
 Ghana GH COVID-19 Tracker App Android, iOS: awaiting app store approvals Ministry of Communication and Technology, Ministry of Health [10][9]
 Hong Kong Stay Home Safe quarantine enforcement Unknown The Government Of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Unknown [167]
 Hungary VírusRadar contact tracing Android, iOS Ministry of Innovation and Technology and NextSense in use (2020-05-13-) https://virusradar.hu
 Iceland Rakning C-19 route tracking Android, IOS Iceland's Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management and Directorate of Health in use (2020-04-01) MIT License GPS https://www.covid.is/app/en 26/04, 50% [168]

[169]

 India Aarogya Setu contact tracing Android, iOS Union Government of India / National Informatics Centre mygov.in/aarogya-setu-app 50million + [170]
COVA Punjab contact tracing Android, iOS Government of Punjab [171]
COVID-19 Feedback feedback Android Union Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology / Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare [171]
COVID-19 Quarantine Monitor contact tracing, geofencing TBA Government of Tamil Nadu / Pixxon AI Solutions [171]
Corona Kavach information Android (discontinued) Union Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology / Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare [171][172]
GoK Direct information Android, iOS Government of Kerala / Qkopy (for Android), MuseON Communications (for iOS) Proprietary [171][173][174]
Mahakavach contact tracing Android Government of Maharashtra [171]
Quarantine Watch contact tracing Android Government of Karnataka [171]
Test Yourself Goa self diagnostic Android Government of Goa / Innovaccer [171][175]
Trackcovid-19.org self diagnostic, syndromic surveillance Web Trackcovid-19.org In Use Open https://www.trackcovid-19.org/ NA [176]
Test Yourself Puducherry self diagnostic Android Government of Puducherry / Innovaccer [171][175]
 Israel Hamagen (Hebrew: המגן‎ "the shield") contact tracing Android, iOS Israeli Health Ministry in use, open source MIT License https://govextra.gov.il/ministry-of-health/hamagen-app/download-en/ [177][178][179][180]
 Italy Covid Community Alert CovidApp for citizens (proximity tracing and exposure notification, optional GPS location sharing), CovidDoc for doctors (scan patient QR code, log patient health status), web dashboard for epidemiologists (set parameters that trigger notifications) Android, iOS, web Coronavirus Outbreak Control Released Open source, unclear TCN https://coronavirus-outbreak-control.github.io/web/ [181]
diAry “Digital Arianna” GPS location tracing, exposure notification, awareness raising Android, iOS University of Urbino / DIGIT srl Released, open beta MIT License GPS, own https://covid19app.uniurb.it/ [182]
Immuni [it] contact tracing Android, iOS Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri Released GNU AGPLv3 Google / Apple privacy-preserving tracing project https://www.immuni.italia.it/ [183][184]
SM-COVID-19 Contact Tracing Android, iOS SoftMining Released Closed source, private specifications ReCoVer smcovid19.org [185]
 Jordan AMAN (أمان "Safety") Exposure Detection Android, iOS Jordan's Ministry of Health Released GPS https://www.amanapp.jo/en 100,000 [186]
 Latvia Apturi Covid Exposure Detection Android, iOS Consortium of volunteers, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Latvia Released apturicovid.lv [187]
 Malaysia Gerak Malaysia contact tracing, border crossing registration Android, iOS Royal Malaysia Police / Ministry of Health in use Proprietary www.gerakmalaysia.gov.my 1 million [22][188]
MySejahtera information Android, iOS National Security Council / Ministry of Health in use Proprietary mysejahtera.malaysia.gov.my/intro [22]
MyTrace contact tracing Android, iOS MOSTI in use Proprietary Bluetooth [22][188]
 Morocco Wiqaytna (وقايتنا "Our prevention") contact tracing Android, iOS Ministry of Interior In use GNU GPLv3 compatible with open source OpenTrace Bluetooth https://www.wiqaytna.ma [189]
 Netherlands PrivateTracer contact tracing Android, iOS Milvum, YES!Delft, Odyssey, Hague MIT Licence DP-3T privatetracer.org
 New Zealand NZ COVID Tracer Point-of-interest journal Android, iOS Ministry of Health in use Proprietary QR code https://tracing.covid19.govt.nz/ May 20 [24][23][25]
 North Macedonia StopKorona! contact tracing Android, iOS Ministry of Health (North Macedonia), Nextsense Proprietary stop.koronavirus.gov.mk/en [190][191]
 Norway Smittestopp contact tracing, route tracking Android, iOS Simula Research Laboratory / Norwegian Institute of Public Health (FHI) in use Proprietary https://helsenorge.no/smittestopp April 20, 1.2m [192][193]
 Poland ProteGO contact tracing Android, iOS authors: Jakub Lipinski, Karol Kostrzewa, Dariusz Aniszewski; supporter: Ministry of Digital Affairs of Poland GNU GPLv3 + GNU AGPLv3 github.com/ProteGO-safe [194][195][196]
 Russia "Social Monitoring" contact tracing under development Infogorod / Gaskar [197][198]
Contact Tracer Digital Contact Tracing and Alerting Android SoftTree https://contacttracer.ru [199]
 Saudi Arabia Corona Map Self Diagnostic Information Android, iOS, Web National Health Information Center in use https://coronamap.sa/ Apple Store Google Play [200]
 Singapore TraceTogether contact tracing Android, iOS Government Digital Services agency of Government Technology Agency of Singapore in use compatible with open source OpenTrace / BlueTrace framework BlueTrace https://www.tracetogether.gov.sg/ 15/5 1.4m, 27/4 1.1m, 9/4 1000k, 2/4 950k, 30/3 910k, 27/03 830k users. 26/03 735k users. 22/3 600k. 21/03 500k. [201][202]
 South Korea Corona 100m contact tracing Android (no longer available) Bae Won-Seok / TINA3D [203][204][205]
Self-Diagnosis app self-diagnostic Android, iOS Ministry of Health and Welfare ncov.mohw.go.kr/selfcheck [206][207]
Self-Quarantine app isolation registration Android, iOS Ministry of the Interior and Safety www.safekorea.go.kr [208][209]
 South Africa Covi-ID contact tracing, health credential management Android, iOS, Web Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,University of Cape Town, The Delta Studio in use compatible with open source PACT,GDPR,California Consumer Privacy Act, POPI https://coviid.me/ [210][211]
 Sri Lanka Self Shield (Formerly COVID Shield) Self-Health Checking and monitoring, AI driven breathing performance assessment, Quarantine Monitoring and Support, reporting test state, demographic mapping Android Commonwealth Centre for Digital Health Available in Play Store Proprietary https://sshield.org [212]
  Switzerland SwissCovid [fr] contact tracing Android, iOS Ubique, EPFL, ETH Zurich in testing MPL 2.0 DP-3T, Google / Apple privacy-preserving tracing project https://github.com/DP-3T/dp3t-app-android-ch [213]
 United Kingdom COVID Symptom Study, formerly Covid Symptom Tracker self-diagnostic Android, iOS King's College London, Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals, Zoe Global Limited https://covid.joinzoe.com/ May 4, 3 million [214][215]
NHS COVID-19 multipurpose Android, iOS Pivotal Software for NHSX www.nhs.uk [216]
 United States COVID-19 Screening Tool self-diagnostic Web Apple Inc. / U.S. Federal Government [217]
CovidSafe self-diagnostic, contact tracing Android, iOS Microsoft volunteers, University of Washington MIT License PACT https://covidsafe.cs.washington.edu/ [218]
How We Feel self-diagnostic Android, iOS Pinterest and others [219]
Private Kit: Safe Paths contact tracing Android, iOS MIT MIT License safepaths.mit.edu [220]
Covid Watch exposure alerting Android, iOS Covid Watch Apache license Google / Apple or TCN Protocol https://www.covid-watch.org/ [221][222]
coEpi self-reporting Android, iOS coEpi TCN https://www.coepi.org [221] >[223]
NOVID contact tracing Android, iOS Expii, CMU TCN https://www.novid.org/ [224]
 Việt Nam NCOVI medical reporting Android, iOS VNPT, Ministry of Health Vietnam Proprietary MINISTRY OF HEALTH VIETNAM [225]
global World Health Organization COVID-19 App information Android, iOS World Health Organization under development MIT Licence WorldHealthOrganization/app [226]
global Coalition App contact tracing Android, iOS, third party hardware Coalition Network Live GPL 3 Whisper Tracing Protocol https://www.coalitionnetwork.org/ [100]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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