List of athletes who have competed in the Paralympics and Olympics
This is a list of athletes who have competed in both the Paralympic and the Olympic Games.
Long before the Paralympics, American gymnast George Eyser, who had a wooden leg, competed at the 1904 Summer Olympics, and won three gold medals, two silver and a bronze, including a gold in the vault, an event which then included a jump over a long horse without aid of a springboard. There have also been other amputee medallists at the Olympic Games prior to the creation of the Paralympics. Olivér Halassy of Hungary, whose left leg was amputated below the knee, won three medals (two gold and a silver) in water polo, in 1928, 1932 and 1936. Karoly Takacs, also of Hungary, won gold in shooting at the 1948 Summer Olympics. His right hand had been "shattered by a grenade" ten years earlier, and he had taught himself to shoot with his left. Deaf Hungarian fencer Ildikó Újlaky-Rejtő won two individual medals (a gold and a bronze) and five team medals at the Olympics between 1960 and 1976. Although her Olympic career coincided with the beginning of the Paralympics, she never competed in the latter, because Paralympic fencing is wheelchair fencing.
New Zealander Neroli Fairhall was the first paraplegic competitor in the Olympic Games. After competing in the 1980 Summer Paralympics, Fairhall won gold when archery was first introduced to the Commonwealth Games in Brisbane in 1982. Another athlete, Canadian visually impaired Brian McKeever, was selected to compete at the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver, but was ultimately set aside by his coach. However Brian's brother, Robin McKeever, who has won several medals at the Winter Paralympics as Brian's sighted guide, participated in cross-country skiing at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. Deaf South African swimmer Terence Parkin won a silver medal in the 200-meter breaststroke at the Sydney Olympic Games in 2000 and also participated in 2004 in Athens, but never participated in the Paralympics as it does not cater for deaf swimmers.
South African runner Oscar Pistorius is the men's T43 world record holder in the 100, 200 and 400 metres events. With a 400 metres time of 45.07 seconds recorded on 19 July 2011, he achieved the "A" qualifying requirement for the 2011 World Championships and the 2012 Summer Olympics. In London 2012, Pistorius became the first amputee to run at the Summer Olympic Games, where he competed in the 400m and 4 × 400 relay events, but did not win a medal.
The two-time winner of the Olympic Marathon, Ethiopian Abebe Bikila, a wheelchair user since a car accident in 1969, never participated in the Paralympic Games, because the Ethiopian Archery team failed to arrive in Heidelberg for the 1972 Summer Paralympics.
Olympic and Paralympic medal winners
There is at present only one athlete who has won a medal at the Olympics prior to becoming disabled, and has then gone on to win medals at the Paralympics. Hungarian fencer Pál Szekeres won a bronze medal at the 1988 Summer Olympics, then was disabled in a bus accident, and went on to win three gold medals and three bronze in wheelchair fencing at the Paralympics.
In 2012, Craig MacLean, a British track cyclist and Olympic silver medalist was the sighted pilot for Anthony Kappes as they won gold in the 2012 Paralympic Games. For the first time in those games, the sighted guides of blind athletes were also awarded medals, and MacLean, although not himself disabled, became only the second athlete to win medals in both the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
There are sighted guides, such as Robin McKeever and Craig MacLean who have participated in both the Olympic and Paralympic Games. McLean won a silver medal in the team sprint at the 2000 Olympic Games and a gold medal as a tandem pilot in the tandem sprint at the 2012 Paralympic Games 
Olympic wheelchair races
From 1984 to 2004, numerous athletes competed in wheelchair racing at the Olympics. Medals were not awarded and the contests were incorporated into the Olympics athletics programme as demonstration events only. Wheelchair competitors in these races are not typically considered to have competed in the Olympics programme proper, as they were neither medal events nor incorporated able-bodied athletes.
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- Robert Klemko (2012-08-10). "Oscar Pistorius makes history, leaves without medal". USA Today.
- "Abebe Bikila – Biography". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
Late in 1969, Bikila was in a car accident, and the injuries he sustained rendered him a quadriparetic. After treatment at Stoke Mandeville Hospital, his condition improved to paraplegic, and he even competed as an archer in the 1969 Stoke Mandeville Games, the forerunner of the Paralympic Games.
- "Abebe Bikila – double Olympic marathon gold medallist and almost Paralympian!". paralympicanorak.wordpress.com. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
Bikila was actually entered in the archery St Nicholas round for tetraplegics at the Heidelberg Paralympic Games, having already been a guest of honour at the Munich Olympic Games for the men's marathon race. However, for reason's so far unexplained the whole Ethiopian team failed to arrive in Heidelberg for the Games.
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- "Kappes & MacLean lead GB one-two". BBC News. 2 September 2012.