|Look up canola or Canola in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
Canola oil is a vegetable oil derived from a variety of rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, as opposed to colza oil. There are both edible and industrial forms produced from the seed of any of several cultivars of the plant family Brassicaceae.
According to the Canola Council of Canada, an industry association, the official definition of canola is "Seeds of the genus Brassica (Brassica napus, Brassica rapa, or Brassica juncea) from which the oil shall contain less than 2% erucic acid in its fatty acid profile and the solid component shall contain less than 30 micromoles of any one or any mixture of 3-butenyl glucosinolate, 4-pentenyl glucosinolate, 2-hydroxy-3 butenyl glucosinolate, and 2-hydroxy- 4-pentenyl glucosinolate per gram of air-dry, oil-free solid." Canola oil is also used as a source of biodiesel.
The name for rapeseed comes from the Latin word rapum meaning turnip. Turnip, rutabaga (swede), cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and mustard are related to rapeseed. Rapeseed belongs to the genus Brassica. Brassica oilseed varieties are some of the oldest plants cultivated by humanity, with documentation of its use in India 4,000 years ago, and use in China and Japan 2,000 years ago.: 55 Its use in Northern Europe for oil lamps is documented to the 13th century. Rapeseed oil extracts were first put on the market in 1956–1957 as food products, but these suffered from several unacceptable characteristics. Rapeseed oil had a distinctive taste and a disagreeable greenish color, due to the presence of chlorophyll. It also contained a high concentration of erucic acid.
Canola was bred from rapeseed cultivars of B. napus and B. rapa at the University of Manitoba, Canada, by Keith Downey and Baldur R. Stefansson in the early 1970s, having then a different nutritional profile than present-day oil in addition to much less erucic acid. Canola was originally a trademark name of the Rapeseed Association of Canada, and the name was a condensation of "Can" from Canada and "OLA " meaning "Oil, low acid", but is now a generic term for edible varieties of rapeseed oil in North America and Australasia. The change in name serves to distinguish it from natural rapeseed oil, which has much higher erucic acid content.
A genetically engineered rapeseed that is tolerant to the herbicide Roundup (glysophosphate) was first introduced to Canada in 1995 (Roundup Ready canola). A genetically modified variety developed in 1998 is considered to be the most disease- and drought-resistant canola variety to date. In 2009, 90% of the Canadian crop was herbicide-tolerant. In 2005, 87% of the canola grown in the US was genetically modified. In 2011, out of the 31 million hectares of canola grown worldwide, 8.2 million (26%) were genetically modified.
A 2010 study conducted in North Dakota found glyphosate- or glufosinate-resistance transgenes in 80% of wild natural rapeseed plants, and a few plants that were resistant to both herbicides. This may reduce the effectiveness of the herbicide tolerance trait for weed control over time, as the weed species could also become tolerant to the herbicide. However, one of the researchers agrees that "feral populations could have become established after trucks carrying cultivated GM seeds spilled some of their load during transportation". She also notes that the GM canola results they found may have been biased as they only sampled along roadsides.
Production and trade
|Rapeseed oil production – 2018|
|Country||(millions of tonnes)|
|Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations|
In 2018, world production of rapeseed oil was 25 million tonnes, led by Canada, China, and Germany as the leading producers accounting together for 44% of the world total. Canada was the world's largest exporter of rapeseed oil in 2019, shipping 3.2 million tonnes or approximately 78% of its total production.
In China, rapeseed meal is mostly used as a soil fertilizer rather than for animal feed, while canola is used mainly for frying food. In the words of one observer, "China has a vegetable oil supply shortage of 20 million tonnes per year. It covers a large percentage of that shortage with soybean imports from Brazil, the U.S. and Argentina."
There are several forms of genetic modification, such as herbicide (glyphosate and glufosinate, for example) tolerance and different qualities in canola oil. Regulation varies from country to country; for example, glyphosate-resistant canola has been approved in Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Philippines, and the US, while Laurical, a product with a different oil composition, has been approved for growing only in Canada and the US.
In 2003, Australia's gene technology regulator approved the release of canola genetically modified to make it resistant to glufosinate ammonium, a herbicide. The introduction of the genetically modified crop to Australia generated considerable controversy. Canola is Australia's third biggest crop, and is used often by wheat farmers as a break crop to improve soil quality. As of 2008, the only genetically modified crops in Australia were canola, cotton, and carnations.
Genetically modified canola has become a point of controversy and contentious legal battles. In one high-profile case (Monsanto Canada Inc v Schmeiser) the Monsanto Company sued Percy Schmeiser for patent infringement after he replanted canola seed he had harvested from his field, which he discovered was contaminated with Monsanto's patented glyphosate-tolerant canola by spraying it with glyphosate, leaving only the resistant plants. The Canadian Supreme Court ruled that Percy was in violation of Monsanto's patent because he knowingly isolated and replanted the resistant seed that he had harvested.[dubious ] On 19 March 2008, Schmeiser and Monsanto Canada Inc. came to an out-of-court settlement whereby Monsanto would pay for the clean-up costs of the contamination, which came to a total of C$660. In Western Australia, in the Marsh v Baxter case, a GM canola farmer was sued by his organic neighbour because GM canola contamination led to the loss of organic certification. Although the facts of the case and the losses to the organic farmer were agreed between the parties, the judge did not find the GM farmer liable for the losses.
Europe has invested heavily in infrastructure to use canola oil for biodiesel, spurred by EU biodiesel policy initiatives.
Canola oil is made at a processing facility by slightly heating and then crushing the seed. Almost all commercial canola oil is then extracted using hexane solvent which is recovered at the end of processing. Finally, the canola oil is refined using water precipitation and organic acid to remove gums and free fatty acids, filtering to remove color, and deodorizing using steam distillation. The average density of canola oil is 0.92 g/ml (7.7 lb/US gal; 9.2 lb/imp gal).
Cold-pressed and expeller-pressed canola oil are also produced on a more limited basis. About 44% of a seed is oil, with the remainder as a canola meal used for animal feed. About 23 kg (51 lb) of canola seed makes 10 L (2.64 US gal) of canola oil. Canola oil is a key ingredient in many foods. Its reputation as a healthy oil has created high demand in markets around the world, and overall it is the third-most widely consumed vegetable oil, after soybean oil and palm oil.
The oil has many non-food uses and, like soybean oil, is often used interchangeably with non-renewable petroleum-based oils in products, including industrial lubricants, biodiesel, candles, lipsticks, and newspaper inks, depending on the price on the spot market.
Other edible rapeseed oils
Some less-processed versions of rapeseed oil are used for flavor in some countries. Chinese rapeseed oil was originally extracted from the field mustard. In the 19th century, rapeseed (B. rapa) was introduced by European traders, and local farmers crossed the new plant with field mustard to produce semi-winter rapeseed. The accidentally similar genetic makeup in this cultivar to canola means the Chinese rape also contains lower levels of erucic acid. The flavor of the oil comes from a different production process: the seeds are toasted before being expeller-pressed, imparting a special flavor. In India, mustard oil is used in cooking. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, some chefs use a "cabbagey" rapeseed oil processed by cold-pressing. This cold process means that the oil has a low smoke point, and is therefore unsuitable for frying in Sichuan cuisine, for example.
Nutrition and health
|Nutritional value per 100 grams|
|Energy||2,738 kJ (654 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||0 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.|
|Vitamin A||0 IU|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Canola oil is considered safe for human consumption, and has a relatively low amount of saturated fat, a substantial amount of monounsaturated fat, with roughly a 2:1 mono- to polyunsaturated fats ratio.
In 2006, canola oil was given a qualified health claim by the United States Food and Drug Administration for lowering the risk of coronary heart disease, resulting from its significant content of unsaturated fats; the allowed claim for food labels states:
"Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 1 1⁄2 tablespoons (19 grams) of canola oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the unsaturated fat content in canola oil. To achieve this possible benefit, canola oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. One serving of this product contains [x] grams of canola oil."
A 2013 review, sponsored by the Canola Council of Canada and the U.S. Canola Association, concluded there was a substantial reduction in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and an increase in tocopherol levels and improved insulin sensitivity, compared with other sources of dietary fat. A 2014 review of health effects from consuming plant oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid, including canola, stated that there was moderate benefit for lower risk of cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, and type-2 diabetes.
A 2019 review of randomized clinical trials found that canola oil consumption reduces total cholesterol (TC) and LDL compared to sunflower oil and saturated fat. Consumption of canola oil has been shown to reduce body weight when compared with saturated fat.
|Compound||Family||% of total|
|Alpha-linolenic acid||ω-3||11% 9%|
|Saturated fatty acids||7%|
|Erucic acid||0.01% <0.1%|
Regarding individual components, canola oil is low in saturated fat and contains both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a ratio of 2:1. It is high in monounsaturated fats, which may decrease the risk of heart disease.
Although wild rapeseed oil contains significant amounts of erucic acid, the cultivars used to produce commercial, food-grade canola oil were bred to contain less than 2% erucic acid, an amount deemed not significant as a health risk. To date, no health effects have been associated with dietary consumption of erucic acid by humans; but tests of erucic acid metabolism in other species imply that higher levels may be detrimental.: 646–657 Canola oil produced using genetically modified plants has also not been shown to explicitly produce adverse effects.
The erucic acid content in canola oil has been reduced over the years. In western Canada, a reduction occurred from the average content of 0.5% between 1987 and 1996 to a current content of 0.01% from 2008 to 2015. Other reports also show a content lower than 0.1% in Australia and Brazil.
Comparison to other vegetable oils
|Almond oil||216 °C (421 °F)|
|Avocado||11.6||70.6||52-66||13.5||1||12.5||12.5:1||250 °C (482 °F)|
|Brazil nut||24.8||32.7||31.3||42.0||0.1||41.9||419:1||208 °C (406 °F)|
|Canola||7.4||63.3||61.8||28.1||9.1||18.6||2:1||238 °C (460 °F)|
|Cocoa butter oil|
|Coconut||82.5||6.3||6||1.7||175 °C (347 °F)|
|Corn||12.9||27.6||27.3||54.7||1||58||58:1||232 °C (450 °F)|
|Cottonseed||25.9||17.8||19||51.9||1||54||54:1||216 °C (420 °F)|
|Flaxseed/Linseed||9.0||18.4||18||67.8||53||13||0.2:1||107 °C (225 °F)|
|Grape seed||10.5||14.3||14.3||74.7||-||74.7||very high||216 °C (421 °F)|
|Hemp seed||7.0||9.0||9.0||82.0||22.0||54.0||2.5:1||166 °C (330 °F)|
|Olive||13.8||73.0||71.3||10.5||0.7||9.8||14:1||193 °C (380 °F)|
|Palm||49.3||37.0||40||9.3||0.2||9.1||45.5:1||235 °C (455 °F)|
|Peanut||20.3||48.1||46.5||31.5||0||31.4||very high||232 °C (450 °F)|
|Rice bran oil||232 °C (450 °F)|
|High-Oleic Safflower oil||7.5||75.2||75.2||12.8||0||12.8||very high||212 °C (414 °F)|
|Soybean||15.6||22.8||22.6||57.7||7||51||7.3:1||238 °C (460 °F)|
|Walnut oil||unrefined||9.1||22.8||22.2||63.3||10.4||52.9||5:1||160 °C (320 °F)|
|Sunflower (standard)||10.3||19.5||19.5||65.7||0||65.7||very high||227 °C (440 °F)|
|Sunflower (< 60% linoleic)||10.1||45.4||45.3||40.1||0.2||39.8||199:1|
|Sunflower (> 70% oleic)||9.9||83.7||82.6||3.8||0.2||3.6||18:1||232 °C (450 °F)|
|The nutritional values are expressed as percent (%) by mass of total fat.|
- "What Is Canola?". Canola Council of Canada. Canola Council of Canada. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- Snowdon R et al. "Oilseed Rape". Chapter 2 in Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding in Plants: OIlseeds. Ed, Chittaranjan Kole. Springer, 2007
- Fan, Liuping; Eskin, N.A. Michael. "Handbook of Antioxidants for Food Preservation". Science Direct. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
- "Richard Keith Downey: Genetics". science.ca. 2007. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
- Pederson, Anne-marie; Storgaard, AK (15 December 2015). "Baldur Rosmund Stefansson". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- Barthet, V. "Canola". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
- Wrigley CW, Corke H, Seetharaman K, Faubion J (17 December 2015). Encyclopedia of Food Grains. Academic Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-1785397622.
- Canola Council of Canada (2016). "What is Canola?". Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- "Has canola become a generic trademark?". genericides.org. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
- Beckie, Hugh et al (Autumn 2011) GM Canola: The Canadian Experience Archived 4 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Farm Policy Journal, Volume 8 Number 8, Autumn Quarter 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2012
- Johnson, Stanley R. et al Quantification of the Impacts on US Agriculture of Biotechnology-Derived Crops Planted in 2006 National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy, Washington DC, February 2008. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
- "Biotech Canola – Annual Update 2011" (PDF). International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- Gilbert, Natasha (2010). "GM crop escapes into the American wild". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2010.393.
- Paull, John (2019). "Genetically Modified (GM) Canola: Price Penalties and Contaminations". Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research. 17 (2): 1–4. doi:10.26717/BJSTR.2019.17.002965.
- "Rapeseed oil production, 2018; Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity; unofficial data (pick lists)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
- "ICE Futures: Canola". Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
- Bonjean, Alain. P.; Dequidt, Céline; Sang, Tina; Limagrain, Groupe (18 November 2016). "Rapeseed in China". OCL. 23 (6): D605. doi:10.1051/ocl/2016045. ISSN 2272-6977. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
- "Why China needs canola imports". Country Guide. Glacier FarmMedia Limited Partnership. 12 February 2018.
- eurofins. Last updated 31 January 2014 Genetically Modified Canola
- "GM canola gets the green light". Sydney Morning Herald. 1 April 2003. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
- for example Price, Libby (6 September 2005). "Network of concerned farmers demands tests from Bayer". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 10 October 2007. and "Greenpeace has the last laugh on genetic grains talks". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 13 March 2003. Retrieved 20 October 2007. also Cauchi, Stephen (25 October 2003). "GM: food for thought". The Age. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
- "GM Crops and Stockfeed" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
- GM Carnations in Australia Archived 8 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Federal Court of Appeal of Canada. Monsanto Canada Inc. v. Schmeiser (C.A.)  2 F.C. 165. Retrieved 25 March 2006.
- Hartley, Matt (20 March 2008). "Grain Farmer Claims Moral Victory in Seed Battle Against Monsanto". Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- Paull, John (2015). "Gmos and Organic Agriculture: Six Lessons from Australia". Agriculture and Forestry. 61 (1): 7–14. doi:10.17707/AgricultForest.61.1.01.
- USDA Economic Research Service. Last updated: 10 October 2012 Canola Archived 24 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "Steps in Oil and Meal Processing". Canola Council of Canada. 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
- Crosby, Guy (2017). "Ask the Expert: Concerns about canola oil". The Nutrition Source. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "Section 3.1: Leaking Tank Experiments with Orimulsion and Canola Oil" (PDF). NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS OR&R 6. National Ocean Service. December 2001.
- "What is canola oil?". Canola Council of Canada. 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
- Ash, Mark (15 March 2016). "Soybeans & Oil Crops". Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
- "Canola Oil Myths and Truths". UC Berkeley School of Public Health. 17 February 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "Southwest China's Foundational Rapeseed Oil". New Cookery Recipes. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
- Dave Edwards, Jacqueline Batley, Isobel Parkin, Chittaranjan Kole (editors) (2011). Genetics, genomics and breeding of oilseed Brassicas (1st ed.). Taylor & Francis Inc. ISBN 9781578087204.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Sen, Indrani (1 November 2011). "American Chefs Discover Mustard Oil". The New York Times.
- Thring, Oliver (12 June 2012). "The rise of rapeseed oil". The Guardian.
- "Which oil should I use for frying?". AkerCare. Aker Solutions. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
- Dupont, J; White, PJ; Johnston, HA; McDonald, BE; Grundy, SM; Bonanome, A (October 1989). "Food safety and health effects of canola oil". Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 8 (5): 360–375. doi:10.1080/07315724.1989.10720311. PMID 2691543.
- Zeratsky, Katherine (2009). "Canola Oil: Does it Contain Toxins?". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Lin L, Allemekinders H, Dansby A, Campbell L, Durance-Tod S, Berger A, Jones PJ (2013). "Evidence of health benefits of canola oil". Nutr. Rev. 71 (6): 370–85. doi:10.1111/nure.12033. PMC 3746113. PMID 23731447.
- Schneeman BO (6 October 2006). "Qualified Health Claims, Letter of Enforcement Discretion U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Unsaturated Fatty Acids from Canola Oil and Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease". US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
- Rajaram, S (2014). "Health benefits of plant-derived α-linolenic acid". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 100 Suppl 1: 443S–8S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.071514. PMID 24898228.
- Ghobadi S, Hassanzadeh-Rostami Z, Mohammadian F, Zare M, Faghih S. (2019). "Effects of Canola Oil Consumption on Lipid Profile: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials". Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 38 (2): 185–196. doi:10.1080/07315724.2018.1475270. PMID 30381009.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Raeisi-Dehkordi H, Amiri M, Humphries KH, Salehi-Abargouei A. (2019). "The Effect of Canola Oil on Body Weight and Composition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials". Advances in Nutrition. 10 (3): 419–432. doi:10.1093/advances/nmy108. PMC 6520036. PMID 30809634.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Comparison of Dietary Fats Chart" (PDF). Canola Council of Canada. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2006. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
- USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21 (2008)
- DeFilippis, Andrew P.; Sperling, Laurence S. "Understanding omega-3's" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 October 2007.
- USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22 (2009)
- J. Barthet, Véronique J. (2015). "Quality of western Canadian Canola 2015" (PDF) (Press release). Canadian Grain Research Laboratory: Canadian Grain Commission. ISSN 1700-2222. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- D.E., Seberry; D.W., McCaffery; T.M., Kingham (2016). "Quality of Australian canola 2015–16" (PDF) (Press release). Australia: NSW Department of Primary Industries – Australian Oilseeds Federation. ISSN 1322-9397. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- Heidy Aguilera Fuentes, Paula; Jose Ogliaria, Paulo; Carlos Deschamps, Francisco; Barrera Arellano, Daniel; Mara Block, Jane (2011). "Centro de Ciências Agrárias" [Agricultural Science Center]. Avaliação da Qualidade de Óleos de Soja, Canola, Milho e Girassol Durante o Armazenamento (PDF) (Thesis) (in Portuguese). Florianópolis, Brazil: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. OCLC 817268651. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- "Protect Your Heart: Choose Fats Wisely" (PDF). American Diabetes Association. 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 September 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
- Sahasrabudhe, M. R. (1977). "Crismer values and erucic acid contents of rapeseed oils". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 54 (8): 323–324. doi:10.1007/BF02672436. S2CID 84400266.
- U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, CFR – Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 1 April 2010.
- Food Standards Australia New Zealand (June 2003) Erucic acid in food: A Toxicological Review and Risk Assessment Technical report series No. 21; Page 4 paragraph 1; ISBN 0-642-34526-0, ISSN 1448-3017
- Luger CL et al. Food Safety and Foodborne Toxicants. Chapter 14 in Hayes' Principles and Methods of Toxicology, Sixth Edition. Eds A. Wallace Hayes, Claire L. Kruger. CRC Press, 2014 ISBN 9781842145371. Quote: "In humans. however. although the long-term use of Lorenzo's oil (oleic acid and erucic acid) in the treatment of adrenoleukodystrophy or adrenomyeloneuropathy leads to thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia (Unkrig et al. 1994), adverse effects from dietary consumption of erucic acid have not been reported."
- Reddy, Chada S.; Hayes, A. Wallace (2007). "Foodborne Toxicants". In Hayes, A. Wallace (ed.). Principles and methods of toxicology (5th ed.). London, UK: Informa Healthcare. p. 640. ISBN 978-0-8493-3778-9.
- D.R., DeClercq; J.K., Daun; K.H., Tipples (1997). "Quality of Western Canadian Canola 1997" (PDF) (Press release). Canadian Grain Research Laboratory: Canadian Grain Commission. ISSN 0836-1657. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- "US National Nutrient Database, Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. All values in this table are from this database unless otherwise cited.
- "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details"). Example: Avocado oil (user can search for other oils)". Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 21. 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2017. Values from Nutritiondata.com (SR 21) may need to be reconciled with most recent release from the USDA SR 28 as of Sept 2017.
- "USDA Specifications for Vegetable Oil Margarine Effective August 28, 1996" (PDF).
- "Smoke Point of Oils". Baseline of Health. Jonbarron.org.
- "Avocado oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Feramuz Ozdemir; Ayhan Topuz (May 2003). "Changes in dry matter, oil content and fatty acids composition of avocado during harvesting time and post-harvesting ripening period" (PDF). Elsevier. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- Marie Wong; Cecilia Requejo-Jackman; Allan Woolf (April 2010). "What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?". Aocs.org. The American Oil Chemists’ Society. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- "Brazil nut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59–65. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
- "Canola oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Coconut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Corn oil, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Wolke, Robert L. (16 May 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- "Cottonseed oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Linseed/Flaxseed oil, cold pressed, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Garavaglia J, Markoski MM, Oliveira A, Marcadenti A (2016). "Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health". Nutrition and Metabolic Insights. 9: 59–64. doi:10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453. PMID 27559299.
- Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I, Halonen P, Mykkänen O, Hyvönen P, Järvinen T (April 2005). "Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis". The Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 16 (2): 87–94. doi:10.1080/09546630510035832. PMID 16019622. S2CID 18445488.
- "Smoke points of oils" (PDF).
- "Olive oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Palm oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Vegetable Oils in Food Technology (2011), p. 61. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFVegetable_Oils_in_Food_Technology2011 (help)
- "Rice bran oil". RITO Partnership. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
- "Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high oleic, primary commerce, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Oil, sesame, salad or cooking". FoodData Central. fdc.nal.usda.gov.
- "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated), fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Walnut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, United States Department of Agriculture.
- "Sunflower oil, 65% linoleic, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
- "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Sunflower oil, high oleic - 70% or more as oleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Smoke Point of Oils". Baseline of Health. Jonbarron.org. 17 April 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "Cottonseed oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- "Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Canola oil.|
- USDA-ERS Topic – Canola Summary of canola production, trade, and consumption as well as links to relevant USDA reports.