List of organisms by chromosome count

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Karyotype of a human being, showing 22 autosomal pair of autosomal chromosomes and both the XX female and the XY male possibilitie for the pair of sex chromosome
Fusion of ancestral chromosomes left distinctive remnants of telomeres, and a vestigial centromere. As other non-human extant hominidae have 48 chromosomes it is believed that the human chromosome 2 is the end result of the merging of two chromosomes.[1]

The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, protists, and other living organisms. This number, along with the visual appearance of the chromosome, is known as the karotype,[2][3][4] and can be found by looking at the chromosomes through a microscope. Attention is paid to their length, the position of the centromeres, banding pattern, any differences between the sex chromosomes, and any other physical characteristics.[5] The preparation and study of karyotypes is part of cytogenetics.

Diploid number ("2n") is given, except as noted.

Organism Picture Group Scientific name Diploid number of chromosomes (2n = x), except as noted Notes
Ciliated protozoa Oxytricha trifallax.jpg Other Eukaryotes Oxytricha trifallax 1,900x = ~30,000,000 [6][7] Macronuclear "nanochromosomes"; ampliploid.
Ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila.png Other Eukaryotes Tetrahymena thermophila 10 (in micronucleus) 50x = 12,500 (in macronucleus, except minichromosomes)
10,000x = 10,000 (macronuclear minichromosomes)[8]
Adders-tongue Ophioglossum closeup.jpg Plants Ophioglossum reticulatum 1260 [9] Number given is maximum, shows many variants.
Black Mulberry Morus-nigra.JPG Plants Morus nigra 308 [10] In this case, the chromosome number is docosaploid, or 22 times the basic number.
Agrodiaetus butterfly Animals Agrodiaetus shahrami 268 [11] This insect has one of the highest chromosome numbers among all multicellular animals.
Field Horsetail Equisetum arvense foliage.jpg Plants Equisetum arvense 216
Rattlesnake fern Botrychium virginianum.JPG Plants Botrypus virginianus 184[12]
Northern Lamprey Animals Petromyzontinae 174[6]
Carp Cyprinus carpio.jpeg Animals 104
Red viscacha rat Tympanoctomys barrerae.jpg Animals Tympanoctomys barrerae 102 [13] Highest number known in mammals, thought to be a tetraploid[14] or allotetraploid.[15]
Kamraj (fern) Helminthostachys zeylanica.jpg Plants Helminthostachys zeylanica 94
Aquatic Rat Animals Anotomys leander 92[16] Previously thought to be the highest number in mammals, tied with Ichthyomys pittieri.
Shrimp Penaeus monodon.jpg Animals Penaeus semisulcatus 86–92 [17]
Pittier's crab-eating rat Animals Ichthyomys pittieri 92[16] Previously thought to be the highest number in mammals, tied with Anotomys leander.
Grape fern
Botrychiummultifidum.jpg
Plants Sceptridium 90
Hedgehog Genus Atelerix (African hedgehogs) Igel01.jpg Animals 90
Moonworts Botrychium-4.jpg Plants Botrychium 90
Hedgehog Genus Erinaceus (Woodland hedgehogs) Erinaceus europeaus (DarkAn9el).jpg Animals 88
Pigeon Paloma en la Ciudad de México.JPG Animals Columbidae 80
Turkey Wild turkey eastern us.jpg Animals Meleagris 80[18]
African wild dog Lycaon pictus (Temminck, 1820).jpg Animals Lycaon pictus 78[19]
Chicken Female pair.jpg Animals Gallus gallus domesticus 78
Coyote Coyote by Rebecca Richardson.jpg Animals Canis latrans 78[19]
Dhole Cuon.alpinus-cut.jpg Animals Cuon alpinus 78
Dingo Canis lupus dingo - cleland wildlife park.JPG Animals Canis lupus dingo 78[19]
Dog Boddhi the mixed-breed dog.jpg Animals Canis lupus familiaris 78[20] 76 autosomal and 2 sexual.[21]
Dove Rock dove - natures pics.jpg Animals Columbidae 78[22] Based on African collared dove
Golden jackal Golden wolf sa02.jpg Animals Canis aureus 78[19]
Gray wolf Canis lupus 265b.jpg Animals Canis lupus 78
Maned wolf Chrysocyon.brachyurus.jpg Animals Chrysocyon brachyurus 76
American black bear Ursus americanus sequoia forest 2003-09-21.jpg Animals Ursus americanus 74
Asiatic black bear Kragenbär.jpg Animals Ursus thibetanus 74
Brown bear Brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos) running.jpg Animals Ursus arctos 74
Polar bear Polar Bear - Alaska.jpg Animals Ursus maritimus 74
Sloth bear Sloth Bear Washington DC.JPG Animals Melursus ursinus 74
Sun bear Sitting sun bear.jpg Animals Helarctos malayanus 74
Bat-eared Fox Otocyon megalotis (Namibia).jpg Animals Otocyon megalotis 72[19]
Black nightshade Solanum nigra bgiu.jpg Plants Solanum nigrum 72[23]
White-tailed deer Cervus canadensis2006.jpg Animals Odocoileus virginianus 70
Elk (Wapiti) Cervus elaphus Luc Viatour 3.jpg Animals Cervus canadensis 68
Red deer Animals Cervus elaphus 68
Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus.jpg Animals Urocyon cinereoargenteus 66[19]
Raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides 4 (Piotr Kuczynski).jpg Animals Nyctereutes procyonoides 66 Some variation in the number of chromosomes between individuals [24]
Chinchilla Chinchilla lanigera.jpg Animals Chinchilla lanigera 64 [25]
Echidna Ameisenigel.jpg Animals 63/64 63 (X1Y1X2Y2X3Y3X4Y4X5, male) and 64 (X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4X5X5, female)[26]
Fennec fox Fennec Foxes.jpg Animals Vulpes zerda 64[19]
Horse LaMirage body07.jpg Animals Equus ferus caballus 64
Spotted skunk Spilogale gracilis.jpg Animals Spilogale x 64
Mule Juancito.jpg Animals 63 semi-infertile (odd number of chromosomes - between donkey (62) and horse (64) makes meiosis much more difficult)
Donkey Donkey 1 arp 750px.jpg Animals Equus africanus asinus 62
Giraffe Giraffen.jpg Animals Giraffa camelopardalis 62
Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar MHNT Fronton Male.jpg Animals Lymantria dispar dispar 62
Bengal fox Indianfox.jpg Animals Vulpes bengalensis 60
American bison American bison k5680-1.jpg Animals Bison bison 60
Cow/Bull 20100516 Vacas Vilarromarís, Oroso-8-1.jpg Animals Bos primigenius 60
Goat Hausziege 04.jpg Animals Capra aegagrus hircus 60
Yak Bos grunniens - Syracuse Zoo.jpg Animals Bos mutus 60
Woolly mammoth Mamut lanudo cropped.jpg Animals Mammuthus primigenius 58 extinct; tissue from a frozen carcass
Elephant Elephant near ndutu.jpg Animals Elephantidae 56
Gaur Bos gaurus.jpeg Animals Bos gaurus 56
Capuchin monkey Cebus capucinus, Costa Rica.JPG Animals Cebus x 54[27]
Hyrax Ein klippschliefer.jpg Animals Hyracoidea 54[28] Hyraxes are considered to be the closest living relative to the Elephant.[29]
Sheep Sheep norwegian dala.jpg Animals Ovis orientalis aries 54
Silkworm Silk worm adult01.JPG Animals Bombyx mori 54
Cotton CottonPlant.JPG Plants Gossypium hirsutum 52[30] 2n=4x; Cultivated upland cotton is derived from an allotetraploid
Platypus Platypus.jpg Animals Ornithorhynchus anatinus 52 [31] Ten sex chromosomes.
Spectacled Bear Urso-de-óculos no Zoológico de Sorocaba.JPG Animals Tremarctos ornatus 52
Kit Fox Vulpes macrotis mutica with pups.jpg Animals Vulpes macrotis 50
Pineapple Pineapple victoria dsc07770.jpg Plants Ananas comosus 50[30]
Striped skunk Striped Skunk (Mephitis mephitis) DSC 0030.jpg Animals Mephitis mephitis 50
Water buffalo (swamp type) Water buffaloes in Wuyishan Wufu 2012.08.24 15-46-30.jpg Animals Bubalus bubalis 50
Zebrafish Zebrafisch.jpg Animals Danio rerio 50[32]
Beaver (Eurasian) Beaver pho34.jpg Animals Castor fiber 48
Chimpanzee Lightmatter chimp.jpg Animals Pan troglodytes 48[33]
Deer Mouse Peromyscus maniculatus.jpg Animals Peromyscus maniculatus 48
Gorilla Gorillas in Uganda-1, by Fiver Löcker.jpg Animals Gorilla 48
Hare[34][35] Polarhase 1 1997-08-04.jpg Animals Lepus 48
Orangutan Sumatran Orangutan 3.jpg Animals Pongo x 48
Potato Solanum tuberosum 02.jpg Plants Solanum tuberosum 48[30] This is a tetraploid; wild relatives mostly have 2n=24.[30]
Tobacco Nicotiana Tobacco Plants 1909px.jpg Plants Nicotiana tabacum 48[30] Cultivated species is a tetraploid.[30]
Water buffalo (river type) Animals Bubalus bubalis 48
Human Akha cropped hires.JPG Animals Homo sapiens 46[36] 44 autosomal and 2 sex
Reeves's muntjac Formosan Reeve's muntjac.jpg Animals Muntiacus reevesi 46
Sable antelope Sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) adult male.jpg Animals Hippotragus niger 46
Dolphin Kentriodon BW.jpg Animals Delphinidae Delphis 44
Eurasian badger Badger-badger.jpg Animals Meles meles 44
European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus Tasmania 2.jpg Animals Oryctolagus cuniculus 44
Fossa Cryptoprocta ferox.jpg Animals Cryptoprocta ferox 42
Giant panda Giant Panda 2004-03-2.jpg Animals Ailuropoda melanoleuca 42
Oats Avena sativa 002.JPG Plants Avena sativa 42[30] This is a hexaploid with 2n=6x=42. Diploid and tetraploid cultivated species also exist.[30]
Raccoon Dog Tanuki01 960.jpg Animals Nyctereutes procyonoides 42 some sources say sub-species differ with 38, 54, and even 56 chromosomes
Rat Rattus norvegicus 1.jpg Animals Rattus norvegicus 42 [37]
Rhesus Monkey Macaca mulatta in Guiyang.jpg Animals 42[38]
Wheat Triticum aestivum (ripe) 3.jpg Plants Triticum aestivum 42[30] This is a hexaploid with 2n=6x=42. Durum wheat is Triticum turgidum var. durum, and is a tetraploid with 2n=4x=28.[30]
Wolverine Gulo gulo 01.jpg Animals Gulo gulo 42
Beaver (American) Castor canadensis.jpg Animals Castor canadensis 40
European Polecat Ilder.jpg Animals Mustela putorius 40
Ferret Furets albinos champagne et zibeline sable.jpg Animals Mustela putorius furo 40
Hyena Spotted Hyena and young in Ngorogoro crater.jpg Animals Hyaenidae 40
Mango Mangga indramayu 071007-0327 rwg.jpg Plants Mangifera indica 40[30]
Mouse Мышь 2.jpg Animals Mus musculus 40[39]
Trans-Pecos ratsnake Trans-Pecos Rat Snake.jpg Animals Bogertophis subocularis 40[40]
American marten Marten with Flowers.jpg Animals Martes americana 38
Baja California ratsnake Bogertophis subocularis.jpg Animals Bogertophis rosaliae 38[41]
Beech Marten Steinmarder 01.jpg Animals Martes foina 38
Cat Kittyply edit1.jpg Animals Felis silvestris catus 38
Coatimundi Coati.jpg Animals 38
European mink Europäischer Nerz.jpg Animals Mustela lutreola 38
Fisher Martes martes crop.jpg Animals 38 a type of marten
Lion Lion Ngorongoro Crater.jpg Animals Panthera leo 38
Oriental Small-clawed Otter Otter - melbourne zoo.jpg Animals Aonyx cinerea 38
Pig Sus Barbatus, the Bornean Bearded Pig (12616351323).jpg Animals Sus 38
Pine Marten Baummarder 01.jpg Animals Martes martes 38
Raccoon Procyon lotor (raccoon).jpg Animals Procyon lotor 38[42]
Sable Sable - 2.png Animals Martes zibellina 38
Sea Otter Sea otter.jpg Animals Enhydra lutris 38
Tanuki/Raccoon Dog Animals Nyctereutes procyonoides albus 38
Tiger Tigress at Jim Corbett National Park.jpg Animals Panthera tigris 38
Earthworm Regenwurm1.jpg Animals Lumbricus terrestris 36
Long-nosed Cusimanse) Crossarchus obscurus Plzen zoo 02.2011.jpg Animals crossarchus obscurus 36
Meerkat Meerkat feb 09.jpg Animals Suricata suricatta 36
Red Panda Ailurus fulgens RoterPanda LesserPanda.jpg Animals Ailurus fulgens 36
Starfish Nerr0878.jpg Animals Asteroidea 36
Tibetan sand fox Tibet Fox.jpg Animals Vulpes ferrilata 36
Yellow Mongoose Yellow mongoose 1.jpg Animals Cynictis penicillata 36
Porcupine Porcupine-BioDome.jpg Animals Erethizon dorsatum 34 [25]
Red Fox Vulpes vulpes 2.jpg Animals Vulpes vulpes 34[19] Plus 3-5 microsomes.
Alfalfa Medicago sativa velennes 80 03072008 02.jpg Plants Medicago sativa 32[30] Cultivated alfalfa is tetraploid, with 2n=4x=32. Wild relatives have 2n=16.[30]
American Badger AmericanBadger.JPG Animals Taxidea taxus 32
European honey bee Bee gathering nectar.jpg Animals Apis mellifera 32 32 for females, males are haploid and thus have 16.
Yeast S cerevisiae under DIC microscopy.jpg Other Eukaryotes Saccharomyces cerivisiae 32
American mink American mink geograph.co.uk 2083077.jpg Animals Neovison vison 30
Pill millipede Pillmillipede talakaveri.jpg Animals Arthrosphaera magna attems 30 [43]
Bittersweet nightshade SolanumDulcamara-bloem-sm.jpg Plants Solanum dulcamara 24[44][45]
Husk Tomato Gooseberry flower.jpg Plants Physalis pubescens 24[46]
Silverleaf nightshade Solanum elaeagnifolium.jpg Plants Solanum elaeagnifolium 24[47]
Rice Oryza sativa - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-232.jpg Plants Oryza sativa 24[30]
Snail Grapevinesnail 01.jpg Animals 24
Bean Phaseolus coccineus 001.JPG Plants Phaseolus sp. 22[30] All species in the genus have the same chromosome number, including P. vulgaris, P. coccineus, P. acutifolis,and P. lunatus.[30]
Virginia Opossum Animals Didelphis virginiana 22[48]
Cannabis Cannabis sativa 001.JPG Plants Cannabis sativa 20
Maize Teocinte Oax 5 agosto 2008 063.jpg Plants Zea mays 20[30]
Cabbage Brassica oleracea0.jpg Plants Brassica oleracea 18[30] Broccoli, cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, brussels sprouts, and cauliflower are all the same species and have the same chromosome number.[30]
Radish Raphanus sativus subsp. sativus, radijs (1).jpg Plants Raphanus sativus 18[30]
Kangaroo Kangaroo and joey03.jpg Animals 16 This includes several members genus Macropus, but not the red kangaroo (M. rufus, 20)[49]
Koala Koala climbing tree.jpg Animals Phascolarctos cinereus 16
Barley Escourgeon-Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare.jpg Plants Hordeum vulgare 14[30]
Pea Guis-estip-1.jpg Plants Pisum sativum 14[30]
Rye Illustration Secale cereale0.jpg Plants Secale cereale 14[30]
Tasmanian devil Sarcophilus harrisii taranna.jpg Animals Sarcophilus harrisii 14
Slime mold Dictyostelium Fruiting Bodies.JPG Other Eukaryotes Dictyostelium discoideum 12 [50]
Swamp wallaby Animals Wallabia bicolor 10/11 11 for male, 10 for female[51]
Nematode Adult Caenorhabditis elegans.jpg Animals Caenorhabditis elegans 12/11 12 for hermaphrodites, 11 for males
Thale Cress Brachyscome iberidifolia1.jpg Plants Arabidopsis thaliana 10
Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster - side (aka).jpg Animals Drosophila melanogaster 8[52] 6 autosomal, and 2 sexual
Hieracium Yellow Hawkweed.jpg Plants 8
Indian muntjac Muntjac deer.JPG Animals Muntiacus muntjak 6/7[53] female/male
Yellowfever mosquito Aedes aegypti.jpg Animals Aedes aegypti 6[54] The 2n=6 chromosome number is conserved in the entire family Culicidae, except in Chagasia bathana which has 2n=8.[54]
Spider mite Tetranychus urticae with silk threads.jpg Animals 4–14[55] Spider mites (family Tetranychidae) are typically haplodiploidy (males are haploid, while females are diploid)[55]
Australian daisy Brachyscome iberidifolia1.jpg Plants Brachyscome dichromosomatica 2 [56] This species can have more B chromosomes than A chromosomes at times, but 2n=2.
Jack jumper ant Myrmecia.pilosula.jpg Animals Myrmecia pilosula 2[57] 2 for females, males are haploid and thus have 1; smallest number possible. Other ant species have more chromosomes.[57]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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