M. Visvesvaraya

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M. Visvesvaraya

Vishveshvarayya in his 30's.jpg
Sir M. Visvesvaraya in his 40s
19th Diwan of the Mysore Kingdom
In office
1912–1918
MonarchKrishna Raja Wadiyar IV
Preceded byT. Ananda Rao
Succeeded byM. Kantaraj Urs
Personal details
Born(1860-09-15)15 September 1860
Muddenahalli, Chikkaballapura, Kingdom of Mysore (now Karnataka, India)
Died14 April 1962(1962-04-14) (aged 101)
Bangalore, Karnataka, India
NationalityIndian
Alma mater
ProfessionEngineer
AwardsBharat Ratna (1955)

Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya KCIE FASc[1], more commonly known as Sir MV (15 September 1860 – 14 April 1962),[2][3] was an Indian civil engineer and statesman[4] and the 19th Diwan of Mysore, serving from 1912 to 1919.[5] He received India's highest honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1955. He was knighted as a Knight Commander of the British Indian Empire (KCIE) by King George V for his contributions to the public good. His birthday, 15 September, is celebrated as Engineers' Day in India, Sri Lanka and Tanzania in his memory. He was the Chief Engineer of Krishna Raja Sagara dam in the north-west suburb of Mysuru city, and also served as one of the Chief Engineers of the flood protection system for the city of Hyderabad.[6]

Biography[edit]

Visvesvaraya took a job as an assistant engineer with the Public Works Department of Bombay, and later was invited to join the Indian Irrigation Commission. He implemented an intricate system of irrigation in the Deccan Plateau, and designed and patented a system of automatic weir water floodgates that were first installed in 1903 at Khadakvasla Reservoir near Pune. These gates raised the storage level in the reservoir to the highest level likely to be attained without causing damage to the dam. Based on the success of these gates, the same system was installed at Tigra Dam in Gwalior and Krishna Raja Sagara (KRS) Dam in Mandya/Mysore, Karnataka. In 1906–1907, the Government of India sent him to Aden to study water supply and drainage systems. The project prepared by him was implemented in Aden successfully.[7] Visvesvaraya achieved celebrity status when he designed a flood protection system for city of Hyderabad. He was instrumental in developing a system to protect Visakhapatnam port from sea erosion.[8] This dam created the biggest reservoir in Asia when it was built.[9] Visvesvaraya gave his technical advice for the location of Mokama Bridge over Ganga in Bihar. At the time, he was over 90 years old,[10][11] and was called the "Father of Modern Mysore State".

During his service with the Government of Mysore state, he was responsible (under the patronage of the Mysore government) for the founding of Mysore Soap Factory, Parasitoid Laboratory, Mysore Iron & Steel Works (now known as Viswesvarayya Iron and Steel Limited) in Bhadravathi, Sri Jayachamarajendra Polytechnic Bangalore, Bangalore Agricultural University, the State Bank of Mysore, Century Club, Mysore Chamber of Commerce (Federation of Karnataka Chambers of Commerce & Industry), the Apex Chamber of Commerce in Karnataka, University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering (Bangalore) and numerous other industrial places. He encouraged private investment in industry during his tenure as Diwan of Mysore. He was instrumental in charting out a plan for road construction between Tirumala and Tirupati.[12][13] He was known for his sincerity, time management and dedication to his cause. The Bangalore Press and the Bank of Mysore were established during his tenure. A very important part of his nature was his love for Kannada. He set up Kannada Parishat for the improvement of Kannada. He wanted seminars for Kannada supporters to be instituted and conducted in Kannada itself.[14] Visvesvaraya is known to have designed and planned an entire area of Jayanagar in South Bangalore. The foundation of Jayanagar was laid in 1959. It was one of the first planned neighbourhoods in Bangalore and, at the time, the largest in Asia. It is believed that the locality, designed by Visvesvaraya, has one of best-planned layouts in Asia.

Career timeline[edit]

  • Assistant Engineer in Bombay, 1885; served in Nasik, Khandesh (mainly in Dhule) and Pune
  • Services lent to Municipality of Sukkur, Sind, 1894; designed and carried out water works for the municipality
  • Executive Engineer, Surat, 1896
  • Assistant Superintending Engineer, Pune,1897–1899; visited China and Japan, 1898
  • Executive Engineer for Irrigation, Pune, 1899
  • Sanitary Engineer, Bombay, and member, Sanitary Board, 1901; gave evidence before Indian Irrigation Commission
  • Designed and constructed automatic gates patented by him at Lake Fife Storage Reservoir; introduced new system of irrigation known as "Block System", 1903; represented the Bombay Government at Simla Irrigation Commission, 1904; on special duty, 1905
  • Superintending Engineer, 1907; visited Egypt, Canada, United States, and Russia, 1908
  • Consulting Engineer to Hyderabad/Nizam State, supervised and carried out engineering works on Musi river; Hyderabad floods of 1909
  • Retired from British Service, 1909
  • Chief Engineer and Secretary to Government of Mysore, 1909
  • Diwan of Mysore, Public Works Department and Railway, 1913
  • Board of Directors of Tata Steel, 1927–1955[15][16][17]

Diwan of Mysore[edit]

Visvesvaraya on a 1960 stamp of India

After opting for voluntary retirement in 1908, he took a foreign tour to study industrialized nations. Then, for a short period, he worked for the Nizam of Hyderabad. He suggested flood relief measures for Hyderabad, which was under constant threat by the Musi river. In November 1909, Visvesvaraya was appointed Chief Engineer of Mysore State. Further, in 1912, he was appointed as Diwan (second minister) of Mysore and served for seven years.[5] With support from Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV, Maharaja of Mysore, Visvesvaraya contributed to the general development of Mysore. He was instrumental in the founding of Government Engineering College at Bangalore in 1917, one of the first engineering institutes in India.[18] This institution was later named University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering. He commissioned several new railway lines in Mysore state.

Awards and honours[edit]

Visvesvaraya was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) in 1911.[19] In 1915, while he was Diwan of Mysore, Visvesvaraya was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE) by the British for his contributions to the public good.[20] After India attained independence, he was awarded the nation's highest honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1955,[21] an honorary membership of London Institution of Civil Engineers,[22] a fellowship from the Indian Institute of Science (Bangalore), and several honorary degrees including D.Sc., LL.D., D.Litt. from eight universities in India. He was the president of the 1923 session of the Indian Science Congress, as well as the most popular person in Karnataka, according to the newspaper Prajavani. On 15 September 2018, to celebrate his 157th birthday; Visvesvaraya was honored with a Google Doodle.[23]

Recognition[edit]

Visvesvaraya received recognition in many fields, most notably education and engineering. Visvesvaraya Technological University in Belagavi (to which most Engineering Colleges in Karnataka are affiliated) was named in his honour, as well as prominent colleges like University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering, Bangalore; Sir M. Visvesvaraya Institute of Technology, Bangalore; and Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur. The College of Engineering, Pune, his alma mater, erected a statue in his honour.[24] The Viswesvarayya Industrial and Technological Museum Bangalore is named in his honour. Two metro stations in India, one in Bengaluru on the Purple Line (Sir M. Visveshwaraya Station, Central College), and another one in Delhi on the Pink Line (Sir Vishweshwaraiah Moti Bagh), are named after him.[25]

Memorial at Muddenahalli[edit]

The Samadhi of Visvesvaraya at Muddenahalli

Viswesvarayya National Memorial Trust manages a memorial for Visvesvaraya at his birthplace of Muddenahalli. The memorial exhibits his awards, titles and personal belongings, including his living room, spectacles, cups, books and block with which his visiting cards were printed. Models of Krishna Raja Sagar dam, which Visvesvaraya designed and supervised the construction of, are exhibited. The memorial is adjacent to his house, which was refurbished and regarded as a temple by locals.[26][27]

Works[edit]

  • Visvesvaraya, M (1920), Reconstructing India, P. S. King & son, ltd, OCLC 2430680
  • Visvesvaraya, M (1936), Planned economy for India, Bangalore: Bangalore Press, OCLC 19373044
  • Visvesvaraya, M (1951), Memories of my working life, Bangalore, OCLC 6459729
  • Visvesvaraya, M (1932), Unemployment in India; its causes and cure, Bangalore: The Bangalore Press, OCLC 14348788
  • Visvesvaraya, M (1917), Speeches, Bangalore: Govt. Press, OCLC 6258388
  • Engineer of Hirakud Dam.
  • A Brief Memoir of my complete working life, Government Press, Bangalore, 1959

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Fellowship – Visvesvaraya, M." Indian Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 6 March 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  2. ^ Sir M. Visvesvaraya | Sir MV | Karnataka Personalities Archived 27 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Karnataka.com (1 October 2007). Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  3. ^ Complete biography of Dr. M. Visvesvaraya [1] Archived 21 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 14 October 2016
  4. ^ "Opinion An unsentimental man of action".
  5. ^ a b "Diwans take over". The Hindu. 15 August 2002.
  6. ^ "Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya: Model engineer and scholar". Hindustan Times. 14 January 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  7. ^ Gupta, Jyoti Bhusan Das, ed. (2007). Science, Technology, Imperialism and War. History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization. Volume XV, Part I. Pearson Longman. p. 247.
  8. ^ "Visvesvaraya's services recalled". The Hindu. 16 September 2006. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
  9. ^ Husain, Dildar (1966) An Engineering Wizard of India,Institution of Engineers(India);AP,Hyderabad.
  10. ^ "Sir's inimitable vision".
  11. ^ "THE JEWEL OF KARNATAKA". Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  12. ^ Sree Venkateswara Ghat Rd, Tirupati,AP Archived 7 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "Tirumala to Tirupati ghat road". Youtube. 10 September 2013. Archived from the original on 9 August 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  14. ^ Nath, Pandri (1987). Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya: life and work. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. pp. 37, 47, 49, 91.
  15. ^ Sinha, Arindam (23 September 2014). "How a relentless R&D approach propelled Tata Steel to zenith". The Financial Express. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  16. ^ "44th Sir M Visvesvaraya Memorial Lecture by Dr. Amit Chatterjee" (PDF). Advancement of Engineering in India in New Millennium: A Compilation of Memorial Lectures Presented in Indian Engineering Congresses (2001–2010): 12–13. December 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  17. ^ Mahanti, Subodh. "The Most Celebrated Indian Engineer: Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya". Vigyan Prasar Science Portal. Archived from the original on 4 June 2007. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  18. ^ "Why India celebrates Engineers Day on Visvesvaraya's birth anniversary". The Economic Times. 15 September 2018. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  19. ^ "No. 28559". The London Gazette. 8 December 1911. p. 9363.
  20. ^ "No. 29180". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 June 1915. p. 5329.
  21. ^ "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2007)" (PDF). Ministry of Home affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  22. ^ "Welcome to Chikballapur District – Visvesvaraya". Chikballapur.nic.in. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  23. ^ "Google doodle marks engineer M Visvesvaraya's 157th birth anniversary". The Time of India. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  24. ^ "Engineer's Day 2010 Celebrations". Today24news. 15 September 2010. Archived from the original on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  25. ^ "Delhi gets metro station named after Sir.M Visveswaraya". The Hindu. 6 August 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  26. ^ "MV memorabilia give glimpses of a genius". DNA India. 13 August 2011. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  27. ^ Kamath, Vijesh (8 September 2009). "For locals, Vivesvaraya's house is a place of worship". Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
Political offices
Preceded by
T. Ananda Rao
Diwan of Mysore
(1912–1919)
Succeeded by
M. Kantaraj Urs

External links[edit]