Page semi-protected

C. N. R. Rao

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

C. N. R. Rao

Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra Rao 03650.JPG
Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra Rao

(1934-06-30) 30 June 1934 (age 86)
Alma materMysore University (BS)
Banaras Hindu University (MS)
Purdue University (PhD)
Known forSolid-state chemistry
Materials science
AwardsShanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology (1969)
Hughes Medal (2000)
India Science Award (2004)
Abdus Salam Medal (2008)
Dan David Prize (2005)
Legion of Honor (2005)
Royal Medal (2009)
Padma Shri (1974)
Padma Vibhushan (1985)
Bharat Ratna (2013)
Order of the Rising Sun (2015)
Order of Friendship (2009)
National Order of Scientific Merit (2012)
Scientific career
InstitutionsIndian Space Research Organisation
IIT Kanpur
Indian Institute of Science
University of Oxford
University of Cambridge
University of California, Santa Barbara
Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research

Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra Rao FRS, also known as C. N. R. Rao (born 30 June 1934), is an Indian chemist who has worked mainly in solid-state and structural chemistry. He has honorary doctorates from 60 universities from around the world, and has authored around 1,600 research publications and 51 books.[1] He is described as a scientist who had won all possible awards in his field except the Nobel Prize.[2][3]

A precocious child, Rao completed BSc from Mysore University at age seventeen, and MSc from Banaras Hindu University at age nineteen. He earned a PhD from Purdue University at age twenty-four. He was the youngest lecturer when he joined the Indian Institute of Science in 1959.[4] After a transfer to Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, he returned to IISc, eventually becoming its Director from 1984 to 1994. He was Chair of the Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister of India during 1985 to 1989 and 2005 to 2014. He found and works in Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research and International Centre for Materials Science.

Rao received most important scientific awards and honours including the Marlow Medal, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, Hughes Medal, India Science Award, Dan David Prize, and Royal Medal. He also received Padma Shri and Padma Vibhushan from Government of India. On 16 November 2013, the Government of India selected him for Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award in India, making him the third scientist after C.V. Raman and A. P. J. Abdul Kalam[5] to receive the award.[6][7][8] He received the award on 4 February 2014 from President Pranab Mukherjee at the Rashtrapati Bhavan.[9][10]

Early life and education

C.N.R. Rao was born in a Kannada Madhva Brahmin[11] family[12][13] in Bangalore to Hanumantha Nagesa Rao and Nagamma Nagesa Rao.[14][15] His father was an Inspector of Schools.[4] He was an only child, and his learned parents made an academic environment. He was well versed in Hindu literature from his mother and in English from his father at an early age. He did not attend elementary school but was home-tutored by his mother, who was particularly skilled in arithmetic and Hindu literature. He entered middle school in 1940, at age six.[16] Although he was the youngest in his class, he used to tutor his classmates in mathematics and English. He passed lower secondary examination (class VII) in first class in 1944. He was ten years old, and his father rewarded him with four annas (twenty-five paisa). He attended Acharya Patashala high school in Basavanagudi, which made a lasting influence on his interest in chemistry. His father enrolled him to a Kannada-medium course to encourage his mother tongue, but at home used English for all conversation. He completed secondary school leaving certificate in first class in 1947. He studied BSc at Central College, Bangalore. Here he developed his communication skills in English and also learnt Sanskrit.[16]

He obtained his bachelor's degree from Mysore University in 1951, in first class, and only at the age of seventeen. He initially thought of joining Indian Institute of Science (IISc) for a diploma or a postgraduate degree in chemical engineering, but a teacher persuaded him to attend Banaras Hindu University.[16] He obtained a master's in chemistry from BHU two years later.[4] In 1953 he was granted a scholarship for PhD in Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur. But four foreign universities, MIT, Penn State, Columbia and Purdue also offered him financial support. He chose Purdue. His first research paper was published in the Agra University Journal of Research in 1954. He completed PhD in 1958, only after two years and nine months, at age twenty-four.[16]


After completion of his graduate studies Rao returned to Bangalore in 1959 to take up a lecturing position, joining IISc and embarking on an independent research program. The facility at the time was so meager that he described it, saying, "You would get string and sealing wax and that's about it."[4] In 1963 he accepted a permanent position in the Department of Chemistry at the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur. He was elected Fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences in 1964. He returned to IISc in 1976 to establish a solid state and structural chemistry unit.[16] and became director of the IISc from 1984 to 1994. At various points in his career Rao has taken appointments as a visiting professor at Purdue University, the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge and University of California, Santa Barbara. He was the Jawaharlal Nehru Professor at the University of Cambridge and Professorial Fellow at the King's College, Cambridge during 1983–1984.[17]

Rao has been working as the National Research Professor holding the positions Linus Pauling Research Professor and Honorary President of Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore, which he founded in 1989.[18] He had served as Chair of the Scientific Advisory Council to the Indian Prime Minister for two terms, from 1985 to 1989 and from 2005 to 2014.[4] He is also the director of the International Centre for Materials Science (ICMS), which he founded in 2010, and serves on the board of the Science Initiative Group.[19]

Scientific contribution

Rao is one of the world's foremost solid state and materials chemists. He has contributed to the development of the field over five decades.[20] His work on transition metal oxides has led to basic understanding of novel phenomena and the relationship between materials properties and the structural chemistry of these materials.[21]

Rao was one of the earliest to synthesise two-dimensional oxide materials such as La2CuO4. He was one the first to synthesise 123 cuprate, the first liquid nitrogen-temperature superconductor in 1987. He was also the first to synthesis Y junction carbon nanotubes in the mid-1990s.[4] His work has led to a systematic study of compositionally controlled metal-insulator transitions. Such studies have had a profound impact in application fields such as colossal magneto resistance and high temperature superconductivity. Oxide semiconductors have unusual promise. He has made immense contributions to nanomaterials over the last two decades, besides his work on hybrid materials.[22][23]

He shares co-authorship of more than 1600 research papers and has co-authored or edited more than 50 books.[1][20][24]

Awards and recognition

Scientific awards

Indian governmental honours

Foreign honours


  • Rao with his wife established the CNR Rao Education Foundation using the Dan David Prize money.[48] The foundation is based in Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research and offers Best Science Teacher Award to pre-university and high school science teachers.[49]
  • Rao established the International Centre for Materials Science (ICMS) which offers the C N R Rao Prize Lecture in Advanced Materials since 2010.[50]
  • The World Academy of Sciences instituted the TWAS-C.N.R. Rao Award for Scientific Research since 2006 for scientists in least developed countries.[51]
  • The Shanmugha Arts, Science, Technology & Research Academy has created the SASTRA-CNR Rao Award for Chemistry and Material Science in 2014.[52]

Personal life

Rao is married to Indumati Rao in 1960. They have two children, Sanjay and Suchitra. Sanjay works as a science populariser in schools around Bangalore.[53] Suchitra is married to Krishna N. Ganesh, the Director of the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) at Pune, Maharashtra.[54] Rao is technophobic and he never checks his email by himself. He also said that he uses the mobile phone only to talk to his wife.[55]


In 1987, Rao and his team published a series of four papers, of which three were in the Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences (Chemical Science), Pramana, and Current Science, all published by the Indian Academy of Sciences.[56] A report was submitted to the Society for Scientific Values that the three papers had no mention of the dates of receipt, which were normally explicitly mentioned in those journals.[57] Upon inquiry, it was found that the paper manuscripts were actually received after the date of publication, indicating that they were backdated. The society declared the case as "Use of Wrong Means to Claim Priority."[56]

Rao has been subject of allegations on plagiarism.[58][59][60] Rao and Saluru Baba Krupanidhi at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, with their students Basant Chitara and L. S. Panchakarla, published a paper "Infrared photodetectors based on reduced graphene oxide and graphene nanoribbons" in the journal Advanced Materials in 2011.[61][62] After publication the journal editors found sentences copied verbatim in the introduction and methodology from a paper published in Applied Physics Letters in 2010.[63] According to Nature report, it was Basant Chitara, a PhD student at IISc, who wrote the text.[64] An apology was issued by the authors later in the same journal.[65] Rao said that he did read the manuscript and that it was an oversight on his part as he focused mainly on the results and discussion.[64]

Scientists such as Rahul Siddharthan (Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai), Y.B. Srinivas (Institute of Wood Science and Technology), and D.P. Sengupta (former professor at IISC), agreed that the plagiarised portion has no bearing on the findings,[66][67] yet Siddharthan opined that the reactions made by Rao and Krupanidhi were overboard. Rao and Krupanidhi publicly blamed Chitara, and denied the publication as not a plagiarism.[66] Rao had commented, "This should not be really considered as plagiarism, but an instance of copying of a few sentences in the text." He even extended the blame to Krupanidhi asserting that he had no role in it as it was written by Krupanidhi without his knowledge.[68] His claims were not justified by the fact that he was the senior scientist and corresponding author in that publication.[61][66]

More allegations of instances of plagiarism in articles co-authored Rao have been reported.[69] Written with S. Venkataprasad Bhat and Krupanidhi, Rao's paper in 2010 about the effect of nanoparticles on solar cells in Applied Physics Express[70] contains texts that are very similar to those of a paper by Matheu et al. from Applied Physics Letters in 2008,[71] which it did not even cite.[66] Rao had stated, referring to the 2011 incident, that "[If] I have ever stolen an idea or a result (in) my entire life, (then) hang me."[72] But Rao's article contains similar study to and duplicated figures with that of Matheu et al.[66] An article in the Journal of Luminescence in 2011, written with Chitara, Nidhi Lal and Krupanidhi,[73] contains 20 unattributed lines which appear to be copied from articles by Itskos et al. in Nanotechnology (June 2009 issue) and Heliotis et al. in Advanced Materials (January 2006 issue). Another article in Nanotechnology, written also with Chitara and Krupanidhi,[74] uses six lines from the 1995 article by Huang et al. in Applied Physics Letters.[69]

Rao was given a Bharat Ratna by Government of India in spite of the controversy and was active as a Professor at Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR).[75] In December 2013, brother and sister Tanaya Thakur, a law student, and Aditya Thakur, a class XII student, filed a public interest litigation in Allahabad High Court, Lucknow Bench, to challenge Rao's Bharat Ratna. They asserted that "a scientist with proven cases of plagiarism shall not be presented the highest civilian award."[76] But the court ruled them out as "filing pleas for publicity."[77] There was another plea to revoke the award in 2015, but the Central Information Commission dismissed the petition.[78]

On 17 November 2013, at a press conference following the announcement of his Bharat Ratna, he called the Indian politicians "idiots" that caused a national outrage. He said, "Why the hell have these idiots [politicians] given so little to us despite what we have done. For the money that the government has given us we [scientists] have done much more."[79] In his defence Rao insisted that he merely talked about the "idiotic" way the politicians ignore investments for research funding in science.[80]


  1. ^ a b "Professor C.N.R. Rao's Research". Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  2. ^ Sathyamurthy, N.; Rao, C. N. R. (2019). "Face to Face with Professor C N R Rao". Resonance. 24 (7): 775–791. doi:10.1007/s12045-019-0840-2. S2CID 201041154.
  3. ^ Pulakkat, Hari (18 November 2013). "Bharat Ratna nominee CNR Rao won all possible awards but the Nobel prize". The Economic Times. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Ganguli, A.K.; Ramakrishnan, T.V. (2016). "Living Legends in Indian Science: C.N.R. Rao" (PDF). Current Science. 111 (5): 926–931.
  5. ^ Dhar, Aarti (4 February 2014). "C.N.R. Rao, Sachin conferred Bharat Ratna". The Hindu. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  6. ^ "Sachin, eminent scientist CNR Rao get Bharat Ratna". The Times of India. 16 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  7. ^ "Sachin first sportsperson to win country's highest civilian honour Bharat Ratna". Hindustan Times. New Delhi. 16 November 2013. Archived from the original on 17 January 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  8. ^ "Bharat Ratna for Prof CNR Rao and Sachin Tendulkar". Prime Minister's Office. 16 November 2013. Archived from the original on 19 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  9. ^ a b "Sachin Tendulkar and CNR Rao conferred Bharat Ratna". The Times of India. 4 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  10. ^ a b "CNR Rao, Sachin receive Bharat Ratna". The Hindu. 4 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  11. ^ "Chemistry By Othello". Outlook India. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  12. ^ "Second Bharat Ratna for Chikkaballapur". Times of India. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
  13. ^ "Udupi: New govt should invest more on science: Bharat Ratna Dr C N R Rao". Dajiworld. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  14. ^ "Bangalorean CNR Rao to get Bharat Ratna". The Times of India. 16 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  15. ^ "Scientist wonders why nobody asks him about Dan David prize". Deccan Herald. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  16. ^ a b c d e Stephen David (3 June 2010). "How I made it: CNR Rao, Scientist". India Today. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  17. ^ a b INSA. "Indian Fellow". Indian National Science Academy. Archived from the original on 13 August 2016. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  18. ^ "Professor C N R Rao to be awarded with Bharat Ratna". Biharprabha News. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
  19. ^ Madur (4 February 2014). "The Key Figure in Structural Chemistry – CNR Rao". Retrieved 30 July 2014.
  20. ^ a b c Johnson R (20 July 2012). "Author Profile: C. N. R. Rao". Journal of Materials Chemistry Blog. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  21. ^ Rao, C N R (1989). "Transition Metal Oxides". Annual Review of Physical Chemistry. 40 (1): 291–326. Bibcode:1989ARPC...40..291R. doi:10.1146/annurev.pc.40.100189.001451.
  22. ^ Rao, C. N. R.; Cheetham, A. K. (23 November 2001). "Science and technology of nanomaterials: current status and future prospects". Journal of Materials Chemistry. 11 (12): 2887–2894. doi:10.1039/b105058n.
  23. ^ Rao, C N R; Cheetham, A K; Thirumurugan, A (27 February 2008). "Hybrid inorganic–organic materials: a new family in condensed matter physics". Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 20 (8): 083202. doi:10.1088/0953-8984/20/8/083202.
  24. ^ ABC (24 November 2011). "CNR Rao is the winner of the 2011 Ernesto Illy Trieste Science Prize". The Brazilian Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g "Chintamani N.R. Rao". The Pontifical Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  26. ^ a b "RAO, Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra". Indian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
  27. ^ a b c "Professor C.N.R. Rao FRS Biography". Bangladesh Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
  28. ^ a b c C.N.R. Rao - Elsevier. Elsevier. 2015. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
  29. ^ "About Us". World Cultural Council. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  30. ^ "Satyarthi's '3D' model: Dream, discover, do". Times of India. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  31. ^ Honoris Causa Archived 8 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 13 March 2012
  32. ^ Ramasami T (2005). "India Science Award and Dan David Prize for C. N. R. Rao" (PDF). Current Science. 88 (5): 687.
  33. ^ The Hindu : Karnataka News : Dan David prize for C.N.R. Rao Archived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. (4 March 2005). Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  34. ^ "Dan David Prize". Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2008.
  35. ^ "Abdus Salam Medal". The World Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
  36. ^ "CNR Rao Awarded Nikkei Asia Prize". Convergence. 25 February 2008. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  37. ^ "Khwarizmi International Award 21st Session -2008 - Khwarizmi International Award (KIA)". 123.54. Archived from the original on 13 September 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
  38. ^ Jayaraman, K. S. (2010). "Need young scientists to lead: C N R Rao". Nature India. doi:10.1038/nindia.2009.365.
  39. ^ China's top science award for Dr.C.N. R. Rao Archived 27 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 24 January 2013
  40. ^ "CNR Rao is 1st Indian elected for Chinese Academy of Science". Deccan Herald. 22 November 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
  41. ^ "Welcome to IITP".
  42. ^ "Indian Association of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IANN)". Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  43. ^ "IANN Platinum Medal: First Awardee Prof C N R Rao - Indian Association of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IANN)". Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  44. ^ "First UAE research prize for scientist CNR Rao". Outlook. 18 January 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  45. ^ "Karnataka Government". Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  46. ^ "CNR Rao thrilled over award - Times of India". The Times of India. 28 March 2001. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  47. ^ R. A. MASHELKAR (17 November 2013). "Tribute to a master alchemist". Business Line. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  48. ^ David, Stephen (3 June 2010). "How I made it: CNR Rao, Scientist". India Today. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  49. ^ "Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research". Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  50. ^ "Materials Research Society of India". Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  51. ^ "TWAS-C.N.R. Rao Award for Scientific Research". TWAS. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  52. ^ "SASTRA-CNR Rao Award to be presented on February 28". The Hindu. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  53. ^ Anon. (16 November 2013). "Know Bharat Ratna C.N.R Rao, scientist par excellence". Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  54. ^ "C.N.R Rao, scientist par excellence (Profile)". Business Standard News. 16 November 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  55. ^ Pallava Bagla (16 November 2013). "Bharat Ratna awardee CNR Rao: the scientist who finds computers 'distracting'". NDTV. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  56. ^ a b "Society For Scientific Values - Newsletters Online". Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  57. ^ Mahajan, Shobhit (12 December 2016). "A Man Of Science, But With No Art Of Storytelling". Outlook. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  58. ^ "PM's science adviser apologises for plagiarism in science journal - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  59. ^ "Plagiarism cloud over CNR Rao". dna. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  60. ^ "CNR Rao, 3 others in plagiarism row". Deccan Herald. 20 February 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  61. ^ a b Basant Chitara; L. S. Panchakarla; S. B. Krupanidhi; C. N. R. Rao (2011). "Infrared Photodetectors Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide and Graphene Nanoribbons". Advanced Materials. 23 (45): 5419–5424. doi:10.1002/adma.201101414. PMID 21786342.
  62. ^ Pallela, Kamalakar; Talari, Sneha (2016). "Plagiarism: a serious ethical issue for Indian students". 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society (ISTAS). IEEE: 1–6. doi:10.1109/ISTAS.2016.7764048. ISBN 978-1-5090-2498-8. S2CID 34978602.
  63. ^ Ghosh, Surajit; Sarker, Biddut K.; Chunder, Anindarupa; Zhai, Lei; Khondaker, Saiful I. (19 April 2010). "Position dependent photodetector from large area reduced graphene oxide thin films". Applied Physics Letters. 96 (16): 163109. arXiv:1002.3191. Bibcode:2010ApPhL..96p3109G. doi:10.1063/1.3415499. S2CID 119238834.
  64. ^ a b Jayaraman, K. S. (24 February 2012). "Indian science adviser caught up in plagiarism row". Nature: nature.2012.10102. doi:10.1038/nature.2012.10102. S2CID 178887072.
  65. ^ Chitara, Basant; Panchakarla, L. S.; Krupanidhi, S. B.; Rao, C. N. R. (1 December 2011). "Apology: Infrared Photodetectors Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide and Graphene Nanoribbons". Advanced Materials. 23 (45): 5339. doi:10.1002/adma.201190182.
  66. ^ a b c d e Siddharthan, Rahul (9 March 2012). "No Science in cut and paste". The Hindu.
  67. ^ Subramanian, Aishhwariya (22 February 2012). "Plagiarism row: Scientists swear by honesty". DNA India. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  68. ^ "No plagiarism, student copied a few sentences: C N R Rao". Deccan Herald. 23 February 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  69. ^ a b Prasad, R. (11 March 2012). "More cases of plagiarism come to light". The Hindu.
  70. ^ Bhat, S. Venkataprasad; Krupanidhi, S. B.; Rao, C. N. R. (22 October 2010). "A Comparative Study of the Effect of Metallic Au and ReO 3 Nanoparticles on the Performance of Silicon Solar Cells" (PDF). Applied Physics Express. 3 (11): 115001. Bibcode:2010APExp...3k5001B. doi:10.1143/APEX.3.115001.
  71. ^ Matheu, P.; Lim, S. H.; Derkacs, D.; McPheeters, C.; Yu, E. T. (15 September 2008). "Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices". Applied Physics Letters. 93 (11): 113108. Bibcode:2008ApPhL..93k3108M. doi:10.1063/1.2957980.
  72. ^ Prashanth, G.N. (23 February 2012). "Plagiarism row: Charges shocking, unfair, says Rao". The Times of India. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  73. ^ Chitara, Basant; Lal, Nidhi; Krupanidhi, S.B.; Rao, C.N.R. (2011). "Electroluminescence from GaN–polymer heterojunction". Journal of Luminescence. 131 (12): 2612–2615. Bibcode:2011JLum..131.2612C. doi:10.1016/j.jlumin.2011.04.027.
  74. ^ Chitara, Basant; Ivan Jebakumar, D S; Rao, C N R; Krupanidhi, S B (7 October 2009). "Negative differential resistance in GaN nanocrystals above room temperature". Nanotechnology. 20 (40): 405205. Bibcode:2009Nanot..20N5205C. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/20/40/405205. PMID 19738301.
  75. ^, Erwin Aligam -. "Rao C.N.R - Home". Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  76. ^ "PIL filed by class 12 students against Bharat Ratna to CNR Rao to be heard today". India Today. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  77. ^ "Meet Mr & Mrs Petition Thakur". The Indian Express. 20 August 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  78. ^ "Mrsubhash Chandra Agrawal vs Ministry Of Home Affairs on 16 February, 2016". Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  79. ^ "All you need to know about Bharat Ratna awardee CNR Rao". Firstpost.India. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
  80. ^ "CNR Rao does damage control after outbursts; Jaipal Reddy agrees with Rao's views on funding". The Times of India. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013.

Further reading

External links