Meaning of Life (album)

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Meaning of Life
A picture of Clarkson looking sideways; on the upper left, the album's title "Meaning of Life" is printed in a wrapped circular path
Studio album by Kelly Clarkson
Released October 27, 2017 (2017-10-27)
Recorded 2016–17
Studio
Genre
Length 44:08
Label Atlantic
Producer
Kelly Clarkson chronology
Piece by Piece Remixed
(2016)
Meaning of Life
(2017)
Singles from Meaning of Life
  1. "Love So Soft" / "Move You"
    Released: September 7, 2017
  2. "I Don't Think About You"
    Released: February 9, 2018
  3. "Heat"
    Released: July 27, 2018

Meaning of Life is the eighth studio album by American singer Kelly Clarkson, released by Atlantic Records on October 27, 2017. Executive produced by Clarkson and Craig Kallman, the album is her debut release for the label after successfully completing her recording contract with RCA Records, which she had won as the first American Idol winner. Weary of the structure of the previous record deal where she was strictly limited to releasing pop music, Clarkson wanted to pursue a different genre—soul and R&B music, which she had previously wanted to make and had only finally found the opportunity to do so after being signed by Kallman to the label.

Meaning of Life is Clarkson's first documented foray into soul and R&B music, departing from the predominant pop and pop rock sound established from her previous studio releases and returning to her multi-genre performances on American Idol. Inspired by the music of the 1990s and prominent singers Aretha Franklin, Mariah Carey, Whitney Houston, En Vogue and Bonnie Raitt, Clarkson wanted the album evoke a music of those artists had they happen to release their early works in the 21st century—with the overall goal of emoting a "soulful" spirit. To achieve those, Clarkson commissioned several collaborators—from previous associates Jesse Shatkin, Greg Kurstin, Mozella and Jason Halbert, to new project partners The Monarch, Mick Schultz, Harlœ and James Morrison. The album's tracks share a cohesive theme of interpersonal connections in life, centered on the subjects of love and living in the moment.

Meaning of Life received a generally positive response from music critics, who commended Clarkson's newfound confidence and the cohesiveness of the album. Commercially, the record became her eighth consecutive studio album to debut in the top three of the Billboard 200 chart. Its release was accompanied by its singles "Love So Soft", "Move You", "I Don't Think About You", and "Heat", the first of which topped the Billboard Dance Club Songs chart and received a nomination at the 60th Grammy Awards. The album's supporting concert tour, the Meaning of Life Tour, will commence on January 24, 2019.

Background[edit]

After reissuing her seventh studio album, Piece by Piece, along with its companion remix album in 2016, Clarkson had successfully completed the terms of her recording contract with RCA Records and 19 Recordings which she had signed as a winning prize after winning the inaugural season of the television series American Idol in 2002.[1][2] As opposed to the previous contract structure where 19 held the phonographic rights to the master recordings,[A] RCA executives Peter Edge and Tom Corson revealed their intentions to sign Clarkson directly to the label without 19's involvement. Their renewal offer would include a three-album deal with a US$1 million advance per album,[1] in contrast to the six-album limit[B] from the previous contract with a US$500,000 incentive per record.[7] Corson also admitted that her relationship with Sony Music executive Clive Davis might prove to be a nuance to the offer.[2]

Despite remarking that her structure with Edge and Corson on the label proved to be successful,[8] Clarkson had second thoughts about renewing the contract, which she recalled as an "arranged marriage".[9] As result, her management met with Warner Music Nashville executive John Esposito, who brokered a meeting with Atlantic Records executives Craig Kallman and Julie Greenwald, who in turn offered her a long-term worldwide deal with a larger creative freedom.[10][11][12] On June 24, 2016, Warner Music Group announced that Clarkson had signed a long-term worldwide recording contract with Atlantic and will immediately work on a soul and R&B album set to be released the following year.[9] The move to Atlantic also reunited her with Pete Ganbarg, who had previously did A&R work for her fourth studio album All I Ever Wanted (2009).[12] Later that year, Kallman and Ganbarg, who was producing A&R work on a mixtape inspired by the Broadway musical Hamilton, invited Clarkson to record the musical number "It's Quiet Uptown" for the mixtape, making it her debut appearance on an Atlantic record.[13]

Recording and production[edit]

Craig Kallman holding a vinyl record at a recording workstation
Craig Kallman, Chairman and CEO of Atlantic Records, personally handled the A&R work on the album and also served as its executive producer,[14] making him the first CEO to executive produce a Kelly Clarkson album since Clive Davis.[C]

Three of Clarkson's producers from Piece by Piece were confirmed to return to Meaning of Life: Greg Kurstin, Jason Halbert, and Jesse Shatkin, whereas first-time collaborators include The Monarch, Nick Ruth, and Mick Schultz.[17] Deviating from the predominant pop rock sound of her previous releases, Clarkson wanted to approach a different genre—soul and R&B music,[18] She revealed that she had previously wanted to record this type of songs but had never found an opportunity to do so, but has found out that Kallman was "dying (sic) to make this record" with her and has counted on his full support.[18] She compared the new material as a reminiscent of the songs she had performed during her tenure on American Idol, and remarked that the album is a "new and fresh thing" for her and made her feel like a " brand new artist again".[18]

To avoid making material similar to that of Stronger (2011), Clarkson met with various songwriters and showcased several soulful tracks to them to demonstrate the album's direction.[19][20] She remarked that her meeting with various writing camps, discussing what kind of songs she wanted from them and rejecting songs that didn't fit the direction of the album was a "different process" for her.[20][19] Clarkson said that she "wrote a bit", finding inspiration for a song's lyrics in the novel Big Little Lies,[18] but her family life had hindered opportunities for her to contribute more to the writing.[20] Several songwriters such as Ali Tamposi, Mozella, Harlœ, Sebastian Kole, Diztortion, Warren "Oak" Felder have all confirmed to have submitted material to Clarkson in Nashville.[21]

Clarkson and Kallman ultimately executive produced the entire album, with the latter handling the A&R himself.[14] It marked the first time in ten years Clarkson was credited as an executive producer.[D] She described him as "instrumental" in steering the record, but also allowed her to explore the soulful side of her voice that she once displayed on Idol and in live concerts.[14] She remarked that he helped her understand what an executive producer credit on an album really meant, saying that he would often push the producers who are used to working with other executives in making radio-friendly hits, but that it sometimes tears the spirit and soul out of it.[14] Both invited several performers to play on the album—Kallman personally invited the soul band Earth, Wind & Fire to perform in two selections,[10] while Clarkson requested her touring backup singers—Jessi Collins, Nicole Hurst, and Bridget Sarai, to be given a more prominent feature by accompanying her lead vocals, deviating from the usual practice of recording her own background vocals in her previous albums.[10][23]

Composition[edit]

Theme and influences[edit]

"I think life is about loving yourself enough so that you can love others. We need to connect, we need to have conversations. Like, why not ask someone 'Hey, I didn't grow up like you did, let's talk about it!' Sharing those moments is what makes us human. If you're always limiting yourself to your own front porch, you'll never truly get to see the rest of the world around you."

Clarkson on connection being the central theme of the album.[24]

Meaning of Life has a cohesive theme — connection.[24] Lyrical contents of each of the album's tracks centers on "love and living, rooted in the past and living in the moment".[25] When asked about what is the "meaning of life" to her, Clarkson remarked that "life is about connection." [24] Clarkson also illustrated the album's logo as a circle to emphasize on life's connection and to indicate that no one is in the middle of it.[26] She added, "This album is not great because of Kelly Clarkson," Kelly admits. "It's great because of all the musicians, all of the singers that are highlighted, all of the engineers, the producers. There are a lot of people that make up an album, and we really wanted to highlight those people."[27] Musically, Clarkson was mainly inspired by the music of the '90s, along with the early works of divas Aretha Franklin, Mariah Carey, Whitney Houston, En Vogue and Bonnie Raitt, whose soulful catalog has inspired a young Clarkson to sing in high school and later embark on a music career.[28] Franklin became the starting point for inspiration, with Clarkson asking "What if Aretha was born now and made a record today?" as a guiding principle.[10] In turn, Kallman made sure that the record wouldn't sound old, saying that "it's just not nostalgic and a retro experience" but described it as a "modern experience infused with the best of those records we call standards".[10] Critics described Meaning of Life as a mixture of soulful R&B pop;[29] While some designated it as a "soulful pop"/"pop-soul" album,[30][31][32] others illustrated it as a soul and R&B record.[25][33] Raissa Bruner of Time styled its tracks as "soulful anthems mixed with rollicking empowerment pop",[34] while Josh Bell of the Washington Blade characterized it as "more soulful and R&B-influenced than Clarkson's prior work, although it's still very much a pop album."[35]

Meaning of Life is promulgated by Atlantic as the album she was destined to make with the label, a "sensual" pop record and her first documented soul and R&B album;[9][36] while Clarkson personally described it as the album she had wanted to make since junior high but also a "grown-ass woman's record",[28][37] explaining that the lyrical content found on the album may not be suitable for her younger self to make.[10] She remarked "This is a record you make when you've lived (sic)."[37] Unlike her previous releases where she had co-written much of the material, she felt compelled to only pen a few, saying that taking an active role in writing the songs would have taken an expense on her domestic life.[37] Clarkson then commissioned material that showcases her current state of mind—such as dealing with the rewards and complications that come with connecting with someone emotionally, mentally, physically in a marriage; and as a mature woman feeling completely comfortable in her own skin after years of withering sexist criticism about her appearance.[10] To discuss these concepts, she invited several collaborators, including Harlœ, whose conversations with Clarkson were used to create some of the album's lyrical content.[37]

Song analysis[edit]

The album opens with "A Minute (Intro)" as the introductory track.[31] Written and produced by The Monarch with writing input from Jim McCormick and Katie Pearlman, the song a minute-long anthem for self-care; and was primarily made for Clarkson, whose hectic family and work life have made it hard for her to take a minute break for herself.[31] Shatkin, Mozella and Priscilla Renea co-wrote and co-produced the second track "Love So Soft", which is dubbed as a tribute to classic R&B while still sounding fresh.[39] The Monarch and Mick Schultz produced the third song "Heat", and co-wrote it with Harlœ and Michael Pollack.[40] Clarkson described the song as giving a 100% commitment to one another and a reminiscent of her relationship with her husband.[40] The fourth song and the titular track, "Meaning of Life" was written by British singer James Morrison with Ilsey Juber and Shatkin, who handled its production.[38] Morrison and Shatkin originally presented the song to Clarkson for Piece by Piece, but she felt its theme was unsuitable for the album at the time.[38] She later took a hold on the song and used it as a base point for the other producers in making material for the follow-up album.[38] The fifth, "Move You" was written by Nick Ruth, Amy Kuney, and Molly Kate Kestner. Produced by Ruth, Kuney built the song's framework to bridge the gap between religious and secular music.[41] Clarkson co-wrote the sixth track "Whole Lotta Woman" with Jussifer, Novawav duo Denisia Andrews & Brittany Coney, Fade Majah, and Shatkin.[10] Produced by the latter four, the song is an empowerment anthem for women using metaphors from American Southern culture, primarily with Texan women, whom Clarkson is considered one of.[40] Select members of Earth, Wind & Fire, led by Verdine White, prominently played throughout the number.[40]

Schultz and Harlœ co-wrote and produced the seventh track "Medicine" as a tribute to the '90s and was inspired by Carey's song "Emotions" (1991).[40] The follow-up track "Cruel" was written by The Monarch, Harlœ & Pat Linehan, and was produced by Jason Halbert, which sings of commanding respect from a partner.[42] The Monarch and Shatkin produced the ninth song "Didn't I", which was written by the Davidsons, Audra Mae, and Pearlman.[42] In the song, she bellows at a man for leaving her high and dry after committing herself to him.[42] Based on her experience in witnessing failed relationships of some of her loved ones and asking about a retrospective about it, Clarkson co-wrote the succeeding track "Would You Call that Love" with Greg Kurstin, who produced it.[40] The eleventh song "I Don't Think About You" was written by Harlœ, Michael Pollack, and The Monarch, with the latter-most handling its production.[40] Clarkson requested Harlœ to write a ballad that showcases her vocals, which latter co-wrote based on her past relationship.[40] Ruth, Kuney, and Kestner wrote the twelfth track "Slow Dance", a sultry number which is about a woman demanding a man to take things slow, instead of falling victim to his sexy advances.[42] Clarkson, Shatkin, and Mozella co-wrote both the album's final two tracks—the penultimate, "Don't You Pretend", sings of demanding a man be honest about his true feelings;[42] and the concluding number "Go High", an anthem which was inspired by former U.S. First Lady Michelle Obama's speech at the 2016 Democratic National Convention.[31][40]

Release and promotion[edit]

Kelly Clarkson performing with a accompanying band in a strobe-lit stage
Clarkson performing at the 2017 Invictus Games in Toronto

Meaning of Life was released by Atlantic and its parent label Warner Music Group on October 27, 2017.[17] Originally scheduled to be issued in June 2017, the release date was pushed back to the year's fall season.[43] Chris Ruff, Atlantic's senior marketing manager, remarked that the album's roll-out strategy would first be driven towards selling physical copies, which will be followed by a promotional campaign with streaming platforms in the following year.[44] The album's lead single "Love So Soft" was issued alongside "Move You" on September 7, 2017.[45][46] "Love So Soft" peaked within the top fifty of the Billboard Hot 100 chart and topped the Billboard Dance Club Songs chart.[47][48] A week before the album's release, its titular song "Meaning of Life" was issued as a promotional single on October 19, 2017.[38] "I Don't Think About You" was released as the follow-up single on February 9, 2018; followed by "Heat" as the third single on July 27, 2018.[49][50] Clarkson has announced plans to do a worldwide tour to support the album following the conclusion of the fourteenth season of The Voice, where she is currently participating as a coach.[51] On September 14, 2018, she announced the Meaning of Life Tour, which will visit select U.S. cities beginning on January 24, 2019. Clarkson hopes to take the tour to other countries.[52]

To showcase the album, Clarkson embarked on several intimate concerts in North America. On September 6, 2017, Kallman, Greenwald and Warner Music CEO of Recorded Music Max Lousada presented Clarkson where she performed six selections the album at the Rainbow Room in New York City.[53] She also filmed a "Nashville Sessions" series at the War Memorial Auditorium in Nashville, where select performances of which were released online.[54] On September 28, 2017, she taped an iHeartRadio Secret Session in Toronto, which was broadcast as a radio special the following month.[55] On its release date, Clarkson performed the album's songs on an album release party at the hosted by iHeartRadio in Los Angeles.[56] The event was also aired live in simulcast on various iHeartRadio radio stations.[56] In November 2017, she performed on two album release events in New York City—one was hosted by astrophysicist Neil DeGrasse Tyson at Youtube Space and the other at the Gramercy Theatre hosted and tape broadcast by Sirius XM.[57][58] American chain store Cracker Barrel also sponsored a "Rocking and Stockings" content series to promote the album during the 2017 holiday season, featuring select performances by Clarkson.[36]

Clarkson performed numerous selections from Meaning of Life in various televised events around the world. She premiered "Love So Soft" on The Today Show a day after its release date and has performed it on programs such as America's Got Talent, The Ellen DeGeneres Show, The Graham Norton Show, The Late Late Show with James Corden, The Voice of Germany, the 2017 We Day, the 2017 Invictus Games, and the 2017 American Music Awards.[59] She also performed the titular track on Strictly Come Dancing;[44] "I Don't Think About You" on The Ellen DeGeneres Show;[60] "Move You", "I Don't Think About You", and "Didn't I" on The Today Show[61][62]; "Heat" on The Today Show and the Opening Ceremony of the 2018 US Open;[63][64] "Whole Lotta Woman" on The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon, The Late Late Show with James Corden (during Carpool Karaoke), and the 2018 Billboard Music Awards;[65][66] "I Don't Think About You" and "Didn't I" on Late Night with Seth Meyers;[67][68] and, "Medicine" and "I Don't Think About You" on The Voice.[69][70]

Reception[edit]

Critical response[edit]

Professional ratings
Aggregate scores
SourceRating
AnyDecentMusic?6.7/10[71]
Metacritic73/100[72]
Review scores
SourceRating
AllMusic4/5 stars[25]
Daily Express5/5 stars[30]
Entertainment WeeklyB+[73]
The Guardian3/5 stars[74]
Idolator4.5/5 stars[42]
Newsday4/5 stars[32]
The Observer4/5 stars[75]
Slant Magazine3.5/5 stars[76]
The Times4/5 stars[77]

Meaning of Life received a generally positive response from music critics. Consensus from reviews compiled by Gold Derby reveal that the "intimate, R&B-drenched album is full of confidence." and described its emphasis on soul as "euphorically liberated".[78] On the review aggregator site Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 73, based on eight reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[72] AllMusic's senior editor Stephen Thomas Erlewine gave the album a four star rating, calling it one of her most satisfying albums and commending Clarkson for sounding "assured here in a way that differs from her earliest records".[25] Leah Greenblatt of Entertainment Weekly gave it a "B+" rating. Deeming the album as feeling cohesive and self-assured, she considered that it doesn't seem especially interested in reaching the heights of Clarkson's early hit records but "swings low and sweet — a refreshingly real dispatch from an artist expressing exactly what she feels in this moment."[73] Writing for Time, Bruner wrote that the album "finds her as fans prefer: a confident artist with a sense of humor and sass to spare."[34] Shaun Kitchener of the Daily Express rated the album five stars, writing that Clarkson is "in her absolute element" in it, and the album is a "peppier, more playful alternative to Adele's 25.[30]

Glenn Gamboa of Newsday gave Meaning of Life a four star rating. Praising it as the best album of Clarkson's career, he wrote it presents a "chance to declare her ambitions and deliver on them" for her "most cohesive album yet".[32] The Boston Globe correspondent Isaac Feldberg commented that Clarkson "has perhaps never sounded as confident or comfortable as she does" on the album, and that she "channels her delight at [her] newfound freedom into songs that, while signaling a new stage in her career, appear to flow directly from both her heart and soul."[79] Mike Nied of Idolator shared a similar sentiment, saying that "returning to her roots had truly opened a wealth of opportunities" for Clarkson.[42] Craig Jenkins of Vulture described the album as "a simmering pot of warm grooves and powerful vocals, a career pivot to the music that Clarkson ought to have been allowed to make right out of the gate."[80] Reviewing for The Observer, Michael Cragg rated the album four stars, comparing its sound to Trainor and Mariah Carey and crediting its "big, syrupy" ballads for "accentuating Clarkson's undeniably powerful voice, creating a comfort zone that feels genuine."[75]

Some of the critics were also ambivalent on the album: The Guardian's Hannah Davis gave the record a three star rating, writing that the album has "lots of filler" and notably evokes records of Christina Aguilera and Meghan Trainor, but its "strong, '90s diva-ish mood suits Clarkson's belting vocal style, as she ushers in a more soulful phase with class."[74] Reviewing the album for Spin, Katherine St. Asaph noted that much of it feels "dated, studiously attempting to recreate an era Clarkson's long since transcended"; and despite praising her vocal showcase, she was puzzled that "almost 15 years after Idol, to hear an album that sounds so much like contractual winner's filler."[81]

Commercial performance[edit]

Meaning of Life debuted on the Billboard 200 chart in the United States at number two with 79,000 album-equivalent units, which account 68,000 copies of traditional album sales.[82][83] The album's chart debut on the Billboard 200 earned Clarkson her eighth consecutive top three studio album as well her third record to debut at the top two position.[84] Meaning of Life also debuted at the top of the Billboard Digital Albums chart and became her first entry at the Billboard Vinyl Albums chart.[85][86] Overseas, the album entered the top ten of the Billboard Canadian Albums chart and the Australian ARIA Albums Chart.[87][88] It also attained a top twenty debut on the Official UK Albums Chart, the Irish IRMA Artist Albums Chart, and the Swiss Hitparade chart;[89][90][91] and a top forty entry on the national charts of the Austria, Germany, and the Netherlands.[92][93][94]

Year-end lists[edit]

Meaning of Life was included on several publications' year-end lists.

Track listing[edit]

Meaning of Life – Standard edition[105]
No.TitleWriter(s)Producer(s)Length
1."A Minute (Intro)"The Monarch1:08
2."Love So Soft"
2:52
3."Heat"
  • Schultz
  • The Monarch
  • Shatkin[a]
  • Karpov[a]
3:10
4."Meaning of Life"Shatkin3:51
5."Move You"Ruth3:22
6."Whole Lotta Woman"
  • Kelly Clarkson
  • Jussi Karvinen
  • Denisia "Blu June" Andrews
  • Brittany "Chi" Coney
  • Evon Barnes Jr.
  • Shatkin
  • Shatkin
  • Jussifer
  • Novawav
  • Fade Majah
2:53
7."Medicine"
  • Schultz
  • Karpov
  • Schultz
  • Karpov[a]
3:09
8."Cruel"
  • A. Davidson
  • S. Davidson
  • Karpov
  • Pat Linehan
Jason Halbert3:05
9."Didn't I"
  • The Monarch
  • Shatkin
3:38
10."Would You Call That Love"
Kurstin2:58
11."I Don't Think About You"
  • A. Davidson
  • S. Davidson
  • Pollack
  • Karpov
  • The Monarch
  • Pollack[b]
3:44
12."Slow Dance"
  • Ruth
  • Kuney
  • Kestner
Ruth3:40
13."Don't You Pretend"
  • Clarkson
  • Shatkin
  • McDonald
Shatkin3:13
14."Go High"
  • Clarkson
  • Shatkin
  • McDonald
Shatkin3:25
Total length:44:08

Notes

  • ^[a] signifies a vocal producer
  • ^[b] signifies an additional producer

Credits and personnel[edit]

Credits adapted from the album's liner notes.[106]

Recorded, engineered, mixed and mastered at

  • Burbank, California (Glenwood Place Studios)
  • Hollywood, California (Capitol Studios)
  • Los Angeles, California (A Studios, Echo Studio, The Ribcage, Vox Recording)
  • Nashville, Tennessee (Historic RCA Studio A, Ocean Way Studios, Starstruck Studios, St. Izzy's of the East)
  • New York City, New York (Sterling Sound)
  • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (MilkBoy the Studio)
  • Tarzana, California (Mick Schultz Studios)
  • Venice Beach, California (Mac and Milo's Den)
  • Virginia Beach, Virginia (MixStar Studios)

Personnel

  • Kelly Clarkson – lead vocals, executive producer
  • Denisia "Blu June" Andrews (Novawav) – producer (track 6)
  • Paul Bailey – engineer (tracks 5, 12)
  • David Barnett – viola (tracks 4–5, 13–14)
  • Brandon Blackstock – manager
  • Julian Burg – engineer (track 10)
  • BTW Productions – music preparation (track 8)
  • Chris Cerullo – assistant engineer (tracks 2, 4–6, 9, 13)
  • Jeff Chestek – engineer (tracks 4–5, 13–14)
  • Joe Cleveland – keyboards (track 1)
  • Jessi Collins – background vocals (tracks 4–5, 8, 10, 12–13)
  • Brittany "Chi" Coney (Novawav) – producer (track 6)
  • Gared Crawford – violin (tracks 4–5, 13–14)
  • Andre & Sean Davidson (The Monarch) – bass, drum programming, additional programming, keyboards, producer, vocal producer (tracks 1, 3, 8–9, 11)
  • John DeNosky – additional vocal engineer (track 8)
  • Samuel Dent – additional engineering (tracks 2, 4–6, 9, 13)
  • Srdjan Dimitrijevic – guitar (track 6)
  • Joshua Ditty – assistant engineer (track 13)
  • Ashley Donovan – makeup
  • Earth, Wind & Fire Horn Section – horns: (tracks 2, 6)
  • Lester Estelle – drums (track 8)
  • Aben Eubanks – guitar (track 8)
  • Peter Filochowski – violin (tracks 4–5, 13–14)
  • Iain Findlay – assistant engineer (track 2, 13), engineer (track 3)
  • Glenn Fischbach – cello (tracks 4–5, 13–14)
  • Henry Flory – violin (tracks 4–5, 13–14)
  • Andreas Geck – bass (track 8)
  • Chris Gehringermastering
  • Serban Ghenea – mixer
  • Greg Gigen's Dad Burke (Gregory Burke) – art direction
  • Jeff "Gitty" Gitelman – guitar solo (track 12)
  • Larry Gold – conductor, string arrangement (tracks 4–5, 13–14)
  • Jason HalbertHammond organ (track 8), keyboards (track 8), piano (track 12), piano (tracks 8, 12), engineer, producer, programming (track 8)
  • John Hanes – mixing engineer
  • Mark Hill – bass (track 5)
  • Nicole Hurst – background vocals (tracks 2–13)
  • Michael Harris – engineer (tracks 4–6, 9, 13)
  • Bob Horn – vocal producer (tracks 1, 12)
  • Gena Johnson – assistant engineer (track 12)
  • Jussi Karvinen (Jussifer) – producer (track 6)
  • Craig KallmanA&R, executive producer
  • Sean Kantrowitz – guitar (tracks 2, 14)
  • Jessica Karpov (Harlœ) – background vocals (tracks 3, 7), vocal producer (tracks 3, 7)
  • Jonathan Kim – viola (tracks 4–5, 13–14)
  • Emma Kummrow – violin (tracks 2, 14)
  • Greg Kurstin – drums, baritone guitar, bass synth, guitar, keyboards, mbira, piano, engineer, producer (track 10)
  • Candice Lambert – styling
  • Trevor Laurence Jr. – drums (tracks 1, 12)
  • Jennie Lorenzo – cello (tracks 4–5, 13–14)
  • Evon Barnes Jr. (Fade Majah) – producer (track 6)
  • Luigi Mazzocchi - violin (tracks 4–5, 13–14)
  • Maureen McDonald (Mozella) – background vocals (tracks 2, 13), vocal producer (track 2)
  • Christopher McHugh – drums (track 5)
  • Joel Metzler – assistant engineer (tracks 4–5, 13–14)
  • Justin Levy – background vocal arrangement (track 8)
  • Alex Pasco – engineer (track 10)
  • Will Quinnell – mastering
  • Gabriel Noel – bass (track 2)
  • Priscilla Renea – background vocals (track 2), vocal producer (track 2)
  • Morris O'Connor – guitar (track 6)
  • Orchestra members – strings (track 8):
    • Jenny Bifano, Maria Conti, Janet Darnell, Conni Ellisor, Aliva Enstrom, Amy Helman, Anthony LaMarchina, Jung-Min Shin, Alan Umstead, Catherine Umstead, Mary Katherine VanOsdale, Bruce Wethey, Karen Winkelmann
  • John Paris – drums (track 6)
  • Charles Parker – violin (tracks 4–5, 13–14)
  • Vincent Peters – photography
  • Eric Peterson – guitar (tracks 3, 7)
  • Robert Ramos – hair
  • The Regiment Horns – horns, (tracks 2, 4–6, 9, 13), brass arrangement (track 5):
  • Shiela Richman – publicity
  • Craig Rosen – A&R administrator
  • Buddy Ross – organ (tracks 2, 4, 13), piano (tracks 4, 13)
  • Nick Ruth – guitar, organ, programming, producer (tracks 5, 12)
  • Bridget Sarai – background vocals (tracks 2–13)
  • Brian Schultz – bass (tracks 3, 7)
  • Mick Schultz – engineer, producer (tracks 3, 7)
  • Jesse Shatkin – bass, concert bells, drums, drum programming, guitar, organ, piano, synthesizers, additional programming, engineer, producer, vocal producer (tracks 2–4, 6, 9, 13–14)
  • Jordan Silva – engineer (track 1), assistant engineer (track 12)
  • Eddie Spear – engineer (track 12)
  • Nick Spezia – engineer (track 8)
  • Robert "RAab" Stevenson – background vocal arrangement (track 8)
  • Todd Tidwell – assistant engineer, engineer (tracks 2–6, 9, 13)
  • Joann Tominaga – production coordinator (tracks 2, 4–6, 9, 13)
  • Philip Townes – organ (track 12)
  • Carolyn Tracey – project manager
  • Joseph Trapanese – orchestrator, strings conductor (track 8)
  • Alan Umstead – orchestra contractor (track 8)
  • Nina Webb – marketing
  • Carrie West – A&R coordinator
  • Booker White – music preparation (track 8)
  • Verdine White – bass (tracks 2, 6)
  • Shane D. Wilson – engineer (track 8)

Charts[edit]

Chart (2017–18) Peak
position
Australian Albums (ARIA)[107] 6
Austrian Albums (Ö3 Austria)[108] 27
Belgian Albums (Ultratop Flanders)[109] 42
Belgian Albums (Ultratop Wallonia)[110] 115
Canadian Albums (Billboard)[111] 4
Dutch Albums (MegaCharts)[112] 35
French Albums (SNEP)[113] 138
German Albums (Offizielle Top 100)[114] 32
Irish Albums (IRMA)[115] 18
Japanese Albums (Oricon)[116] 223
New Zealand Albums (RMNZ)[117] 21
Scottish Albums (OCC)[118] 10
South Korean Albums (Gaon)[119] 67
Spanish Albums (PROMUSICAE)[120] 47
Swiss Albums (Schweizer Hitparade)[121] 19
UK Albums (OCC)[122] 11
US Billboard 200[123] 2
US Top Tastemaker Albums (Billboard)[124] 16

Release history[edit]

List of regions, release dates, showing formats, labels, catalog number and references
Region Date Formats Label Catalog number Ref.
Various October 27, 2017 Atlantic 563941-2 [105]
Japan WPCR-17920
Various May 4, 2018 Limited edition LP 567235-2 [125]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ On the recording contract Clarkson signed in 2002, 19 Recordings reserves the phonographic rights to the master recordings of Clarkson's winning contract. While Simon Cowell's S Records (a unit of BMG trading as Ronagold Limited) secured the rights to appoint another record label within the BMG family to receive an exclusive license for the masters. For Clarkson's case, S (Ronagold) designated RCA Records as the licensee and the latter subsequently became her primary label for the duration of the deal.[3][4][5]
  2. ^ Clarkson's Christmas album Wrapped in Red (2013) is not included in the 19 and RCA agreement pursuant to the six-studio album limit, as RCA retains sole phonographic rights to the album's masters and only considers it as a holiday album.[6]
  3. ^ Clive Davis, then CEO of RCA Music Group, is the executive producer of Clarkson's first two studio albums Thankful (2003) and Breakaway (2004).[15][16]
  4. ^ Clarkson was credited as an executive producer for her third album My December (2007).[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Farrell, David (March 8, 2016). "On the Charts this week". FYI Music News. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Aswad, Jem (August 28, 2015). "RCA Chiefs Peter Edge and Tom Corson on Signing Zayn Malik and Enrique Iglesias — and Being Blissfully Unaware of Miley Cyrus' VMA Plans". Billboard. Billboard-The Hollywood Reporter Group. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  3. ^ Clawson, Trevor (December 9, 2010). The Unauthorized Guide to Doing Business the Simon Cowell Way: 10 Secrets of the International Music Mogul. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-857-08128-5. 
  4. ^ 19 Recordings Limited v. Sony Music Entertainment (S.D.N.Y). Text
  5. ^ Commission File No. 000-17436 — CKX, INC., Washington, D.C.: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2007, pp. 10–11, retrieved March 3, 2018 
  6. ^ "Grammy Award Winner Kelly Clarkson Releases "Piece By Piece (Idol Version)"" (Press release). RCA Records. February 29, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  7. ^ Newman, Melissa (April 3, 2015). "Now Free From Her 'Idol' Contract, What's Kelly Clarkson Worth?". Billboard. Billboard-The Hollywood Reporter Group. Archived from the original on April 7, 2015. Retrieved April 7, 2015. 
  8. ^ Polanco, Luis (March 8, 2016). "Kelly Clarkson Has No Problem With Her Current RCA Team, Despite 'Blackmail' Remark". Billboard. Billboard-The Hollywood Reporter Group. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c "Kelly Clarkson Signs Worldwide Deal with Atlantic Records" (Press release). New York: Warner Music Group. June 24, 2016. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Ganz, Cary (October 19, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson Is Nobody's Puppet". The New York Times. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  11. ^ Billboard staff (July 28, 2015). "Billboard's 2016 Nashville Power Players List Revealed: Who Rules Music City?". Billboard. Billboard-The Hollywood Reporter Group. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  12. ^ a b Friedman, Roger (June 24, 2016). "Kelly Clarkson Jumps to Atlantic Records, Finally Reunited with Her Original Producer". Showbiz 411. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  13. ^ Biedenharn, Isabella (November 29, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson: Hamilton Mixtape was 'hardest thing I've ever done'". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. Retrieved September 13, 2017. 
  14. ^ a b c d Johnston, Maura (October 26, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson: 'I Am a Whole Lot of Woman, and That's OK'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  15. ^ Thankful (booklet). Kelly Clarkson. RCA Records/19 Recordings/S Records. 2003. 07884-20083-5. 
  16. ^ Breakaway (booklet). Kelly Clarkson. RCA Records/19 Recordings/S Records. 2004. 82876-64491-2. 
  17. ^ a b Blistein, Jon (September 7, 2017). "Hear Kelly Clarkson's Galvanic New Songs 'Love So Soft,' 'Move You'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  18. ^ a b c d Biedenharn, Isabella (September 30, 2016). "Kelly Clarkson on her soul album: 'I've wanted to make this record since I was in junior high'". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  19. ^ a b Nelson, Jeff (September 30, 2016). "Kelly Clarkson Says Her Next Album Will Not Be "Stronger 2.0": 'I Get to Really Sing on It'". People. Time Inc. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  20. ^ a b c Dresdale, Andrea (October 14, 2016). "Kelly Clarkson Says Recording Soulful New Album Is "Effortless"". ABC News. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  21. ^ Citations concerning songwriters who had submitted material for Clarkson's eighth studio album:
  22. ^ My December (booklet). Kelly Clarkson. RCA Records/19 Recordings/S Records. 2007. 88697-32715-2. 
  23. ^ Feeney, Nolan (October 30, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson's secret weapon on Meaning of Life? Her backup singers". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  24. ^ a b c Davis, Arianna (October 27, 2017). "This Simple Advice From Kelly Clarkson Will Blow Your Mind". Refinery29. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  25. ^ a b c d Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (October 27, 2017). "Meaning of Life – Kelly Clarkson". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  26. ^ Kelly Clarkson explains the title of her new album 'Meaning of Life'. The Today Show. NBCUniversal. September 8, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  27. ^ Cohen, Samantha (September 20, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson Tells Bob & Christine The 'Meaning of Life'". WLTW. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  28. ^ a b Hunt, Chase (September 8, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson goes YouTube live to give 'Meaning of Life' details". AXS. AEG. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  29. ^ Marine, Brooke (January 28, 2018). "How Kelly Clarkson Finally Released the Album She's Wanted to Make Since Junior High". W. Condé Nast. Retrieved July 3, 2018. 
  30. ^ a b c Kitchener, Shaun (October 27, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson – Meaning of Life Review". Daily Express. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  31. ^ a b c d Goldberg, Haley. "Kelly Clarkson Told Us Why the Lows Are Key to Your Story". Shine Text. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  32. ^ a b c Gamboa, Glenn (October 25, 2017). "'Meaning of Life' review: Kelly Clarkson's soulful stunner". Newsday. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  33. ^ Bell, Josh (October 26, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson shakes up her approach on 'Meaning of Life'". Las Vegas Weekly. Greenspun Media Group. Retrieved July 3, 2018. 
  34. ^ a b Bruner, Raisa (October 26, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson Delivers Soul and Sass to 'Meaning of Life'". Time. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  35. ^ Gerard, Chris (November 2, 2017). "New Kelly Clarkson album is welcome change". Washington Blade. Brown, Naff, Pitts Omnimedia. Retrieved July 3, 2018. 
  36. ^ a b "Multiple Grammy Award-Winning Superstar Kelly Clarkson and Platinum-Selling Singer-Songwriter Brett Eldredge Partner with Cracker Barrel Old Country Store® for "Rocking and Stockings" Performances". Cracker Barrel (Press release). Lebanon, Tennessee: The Globe and Mail. November 15, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  37. ^ a b c d Feeney, Nolan (October 27, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson's Meaning of Life: Revisit EW's Fall Music Preview cover story". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. Retrieved October 27, 2017. 
  38. ^ a b c d e Nied, Mike (October 19, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson Uncovers The "Meaning Of Life" On New Buzz Track". Idolator. Hive Media. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  39. ^ Feeney, Nolan (September 15, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson Is (Still!) Our Idol In EW's Fall Music Preview". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. (1481). ISSN 1049-0434. Retrieved September 13, 2017.  (subscription required)
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i Feeney, Nolan (September 13, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson played us her new album, Meaning of Life. Here are 7 songs you'll love". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. Retrieved September 13, 2017. 
  41. ^ Boron, Allison (November 30, 2017). "Kobalt Songwriter Amy Kuney on Writing with Her Own 'American Idol'". Kobalt Music Group. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  42. ^ a b c d e f g Nied, Mike (October 27, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson's 'Meaning Of Life': Album Review". Idolator. Hive Media. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  43. ^ Clott Kanter, Sharon (November 8, 2016). "Kelly Clarkson Plans to Release New Single in April and Album in June: 'We Have a Good Batch of Songs Already'". People. Time Inc. Archived from the original on November 8, 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  44. ^ a b Garner, George (December 19, 2017). "Since she's been gone: Why Kelly Clarkson is embracing a "new chapter" of her career". Music Week. Retrieved March 3, 2018.  (subscription required)
  45. ^ McIntyre, Hugh (September 7, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson Reappears With A Pair Of New Singles, 'Love So Soft' And 'Move You'". Forbes. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  46. ^ Cook-Wilson, Winston (September 7, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson Releases Singles "Love So Soft" and "Move You", Announces New Album Meaning of Life". Spin. Eldridge Industries. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  47. ^ Montgomery, Daniel (December 7, 2017). "2018 Grammy predictions: Can Kelly Clarkson win Pop Solo Performance for first time 'Since U Been Gone'?". Gold Derby. PMC. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  48. ^ Murray, Gordon (November 9, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson's 'Love So Soft' Hits No. 1 on Dance Club Songs Chart". Billboard. Billboard-The Hollywood Reporter Group. Retrieved March 5, 2018. 
  49. ^ Hyer, Joe (February 12, 2018). "Kelly Clarkson Reveals "I Don't Think About You" Is The Second Single from 'Meaning of Life'". WNVZ. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  50. ^ Hunt, Chase (June 9, 2018). "Kelly Clarkson releases 'Heat' as new single". AXS. United States: Anschutz Entertainment Group. Archived from the original on June 15, 2018. Retrieved June 15, 2018. 
  51. ^ Roffman, Marisa (February 8, 2018). "Kelly Clarkson Says She's Definitely Going to Win 'The Voice' Season 14". TV Insider. NTVB Media. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  52. ^ Kreps, Daniel (September 14, 2018). "Kelly Clarkson Maps Out 2019 'Meaning of Life' Tour". Rolling Stone. Retrieved September 14, 2018. 
  53. ^ Aswad, Jem (September 7, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson Premieres New Album, 'Meaning of Life,' at Intimate New York Concert". Variety. PMC. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  54. ^ Kreps, Daniel (September 29, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson Details New Album 'Meaning of Life'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  55. ^ "Kelly Clarkson Confirmed for iHeartRadio Canada's First Secret Session". iHeartRadio Canada (Press release). Toronto: Bell Media. September 25, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  56. ^ a b "iHeartMedia Presents the iHeartRadio Album Release Party with Kelly Clarkson, in Partnership with We Are LA". iHeartMedia (Press release). Los Angeles: Business Wire. October 23, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  57. ^ Levy, Joe (November 30, 2017). "Women in Music 2017: Atlantic Records' Julie Greenwald Named Executive of the Year". Billboard. Billboard-The Hollywood Reporter Group. Retrieved March 5, 2018. 
  58. ^ "WATCH: Kelly Clarkson shares the Meaning of Life with SiriusXM... Twice!". Sirius XM Holdings. November 15, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  59. ^ Citations concerning televised performances of "Love So Soft" at the:
  60. ^ "Kristen Bell, Mila Kunis & Kathryn Hahn; Kelly Clarkson". The Ellen DeGeneres Show. Season 15. Episode 144. NTVB Media. April 26, 2018. Retrieved May 10, 2018. 
  61. ^ Kaufman (2017).
  62. ^ "Kelly Clarkson: "I Don't Think About You" und "Didn't I" live in der "Today Show"" (in German). Germany: Warner Music Group. February 27, 2018. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  63. ^ Dawn, Randee (June 8, 2018). "Kelly Clarkson turns up the 'Heat' at her TODAY concert". The Today Show. NBCUniversal. Retrieved June 13, 2018. 
  64. ^ "Kelly Clarkson Performs at Opening Night Ceremony of 2018 US Open". Billboard. August 28, 2018. Retrieved September 12, 2018. 
  65. ^ Blistein (2017).
  66. ^ Cirisano, Tatiana (May 20, 2018). "Kelly Clarkson Shows Off a 'Whole Lotta Woman' in Confident Billboard Music Awards 2018 Performance". Billboard. Billboard-The Hollywood Reporter Group. Retrieved May 25, 2018. 
  67. ^ Braca, Nica (February 28, 2018). "Kelly Clarkson Performs 'Didn't I' on 'Late Night,' Discusses Meeting Steve Carell". Billboard. Billboard-The Hollywood Reporter Group. Retrieved March 5, 2018. 
  68. ^ Nied, Mike (February 28, 2018). "Kelly Clarkson's 'Meaning Of Life': Album Review". Idolator. Hive Media. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  69. ^ Dixon, Marcus James (December 19, 2017). "'The Voice' finale: Kelly Clarkson debuts new single 'Medicine' before joining Season 14 as a coach [WATCH]". Gold Derby. PMC. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  70. ^ Montgomery, Daniel (May 7, 2018). "'The Voice' Top 10: It's 'Challenge Week' so which artists will make it to the Top 8?". Gold Derby. PMC. Retrieved May 10, 2018. 
  71. ^ "Meaning of Life by Kelly Clarkson". AnyDecentMusic?. October 27, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  72. ^ a b "Meaning of Life by Kelly Clarkson". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. October 27, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  73. ^ a b Greenblatt, Leah (October 26, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson has a new kind of confidence on Meaning of Life: EW review". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  74. ^ a b Davies, Hannah J. (October 26, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson: Meaning of Life review – a classier soul diva emerges". The Guardian. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  75. ^ a b Cragg, Michael (October 29, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson: Meaning of Life review – big melodies with a twist". The Observer. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  76. ^ Cinquemani, Sal (October 18, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson: Meaning of Life – Album Review". Slant Magazine. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  77. ^ Hodgkinson, Will (October 27, 2017). "Pop review: Kelly Clarkson: Meaning of Life". The Times. News UK. Retrieved March 3, 2018.  (subscription required)
  78. ^ Montgomery, Daniel (December 19, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson 'Meaning of Life' reviews: She embraces R&B on her 'euphorically liberated' new album". Gold Derby. PMC. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  79. ^ Feldberg, Isaac (October 26, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson pours her soul into 'Meaning of Life'". The Boston Globe. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  80. ^ Jenkins, Craig (October 31, 2017). "Review: Sam Smith and Kelly Clarkson". Vulture. New York Media. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  81. ^ St. Asaph, Katherine (November 8, 2017). "Review: Kelly Clarkson's Meaning of Life Is a Puzzling Return to the Start of Her Career". Spin. Eldridge Industries. Retrieved July 3, 2018. 
  82. ^ McIntyre, Hugh (November 6, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson, Chris Brown And Several Rappers Post New Albums Inside The U.S. Top 10". Forbes. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  83. ^ "Kelly Clarkson's "Meaning of Life" debuts at number two; Kelly and Demi Lovato to perform at AMAs". ABC News. November 6, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  84. ^ Caufield, Keith (November 1, 2017). "Kelly Clarkson Set for Eighth Top 10 Album on Billboard 200 Chart". Billboard. Billboard-The Hollywood Reporter Group. Retrieved March 5, 2018. 
  85. ^ "Billboard Digital Albums: November 18, 2017". Billboard. Billboard-The Hollywood Reporter Group. November 18, 2017. Retrieved March 5, 2018. 
  86. ^ "Billboard Vinyl Albums: November 18, 2017". Billboard. Billboard-The Hollywood Reporter Group. November 18, 2017. Retrieved March 5, 2018. 
  87. ^ FYI staff (November 5, 2017). "Downie, The Hip, Kelly Clarkson Hot On The Albums Chart This Week". FYI Music News. Retrieved September 5, 2017. 
  88. ^ Manning, James (November 6, 2017). "ARIA Charts: Chris Brown, Kelly Clarkson & Hanson land top 10 albums". Mediaweek. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  89. ^ Myers, Justin (November 3, 2017). "Michael Ball and Alfie Boe score a second Number 1 with Together Again". Official Charts Company. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  90. ^ "Official Irish Albums Chart Top 50 – 3 November 2017 - 9 November 2017". IRMA. Official Charts Company. November 3, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  91. ^ "Schweizer Hitparade – Top 100 Alben – 05.11.2017" (PDF). Schweizer Hitparade (pdf) (in German). GfK Entertainment. November 5, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  92. ^ "Austria TOP 40 – Alben – 10.11.2017". Ö3 Austria. GfK Entertainment. November 10, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  93. ^ "Offizielle Deutsche Charts Top 100 Album-Charts – 3 November 2017". Offizielle Deutsche Charts. GfK Entertainment. November 3, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
  94. ^ "Dutch Album Top 100 – 4/11/2017". MegaCharts. November 4, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2018. 
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  105. ^ a b c Various citations concerning the October 27, 2017, release of Meaning of Life:
  106. ^ Meaning of Life (booklet). Kelly Clarkson. Atlantic Records. 2017. 563941-2. 
  107. ^ "Australiancharts.com – Kelly Clarkson – Meaning of Life". Hung Medien. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  108. ^ "Austriancharts.at – Kelly Clarkson – Meaning of Life" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  109. ^ "Ultratop.be – Kelly Clarkson – Meaning of Life" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  110. ^ "Ultratop.be – Kelly Clarkson – Meaning of Life" (in French). Hung Medien. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  111. ^ "Kelly Clarkson Chart History (Canadian Albums)". Billboard. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  112. ^ "Dutchcharts.nl – Kelly Clarkson – Meaning of Life" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  113. ^ "Lescharts.com – Kelly Clarkson – Meaning of Life". Hung Medien. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  114. ^ "Offiziellecharts.de – Kelly Clarkson – Meaning of Life" (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  115. ^ "GFK Chart-Track Albums: Week 44, 2017". Chart-Track. IRMA. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  116. ^ "Oricon Top 50 Albums: 2017-11-06" (in Japanese). Oricon. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  117. ^ "Charts.org.nz – Kelly Clarkson – Meaning of Life". Hung Medien. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  118. ^ "Official Scottish Albums Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  119. ^ "South Korea Gaon Album Chart". On the page, select "2017.10.29~2015.11.04" to obtain the corresponding chart. Gaon Chart Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  120. ^ "Spanishcharts.com – Kelly Clarkson – Meaning of Life". Hung Medien. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  121. ^ "Swisscharts.com – Kelly Clarkson – Meaning of Life". Hung Medien. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  122. ^ "Kelly Clarkson | Artist | Official Charts". UK Albums Chart. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  123. ^ "Kelly Clarkson Chart History (Billboard 200)". Billboard. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  124. ^ "Kelly Clarkson Chart History (Top Tastemaker Albums)". Billboard. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  125. ^ Various citations concerning the May 4, 2018, release of Meaning of Life:

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]