|Founded||November 28, 1922|
June 6, 2014 (Spin-off)
|Defunct||January 10, 1990|
January 31, 2018 (Spin-off)
|Fate||Merged with Warner Communications; later spun-off and acquired by Meredith Corporation which eventually merged with Dotdash to form Dotdash Meredith in 2021|
|Headquarters||225 Liberty Street, |
|Joseph A. Ripp|
(President and CEO)
|Revenue||US$3.1 billion (2015)|
|−US$823 million (2015)|
|−US$881 million (2015)|
|Total assets||US$4.8 billion (2015)|
|Total equity||US$1.8 billion (2015)|
Number of employees
|Footnotes / references|
Time Inc. was an American worldwide mass media corporation founded on November 28, 1922, by Henry Luce and Briton Hadden and based in New York City. It owned and published over 100 magazine brands, including its namesake Time, Sports Illustrated, Travel + Leisure, Food & Wine, Fortune, People, InStyle, Life, Golf Magazine, Southern Living, Essence, Real Simple, and Entertainment Weekly. It also had subsidiaries which it co-operated with the UK magazine house Time Inc. UK (which was later sold and since has been rebranded to TI Media), whose major titles include What's on TV, NME, Country Life, and Wallpaper. Time Inc. also co-operated over 60 websites and digital-only titles including MyRecipes, Extra Crispy, TheSnug, HelloGiggles, and MIMI.
In 1990, Time Inc. merged with Warner Communications to form the media conglomerate Time Warner (now Warner Bros. Discovery). In 2018, media company Meredith Corporation acquired Time Inc. for $2.8 billion. Meredith was then acquired by IAC and merged with Dotdash to form Dotdash Meredith three years later, thus resulting in IAC gaining most of the former Time Inc. assets.
Nightly discussions of the concept of a news magazine led its founders Henry Luce and Briton Hadden, both age 23, to quit their jobs in 1922. Later that same year, they formed Time Inc. Having raised $86,000 of a $100,000 goal, the first issue of Time was published on March 3, 1923, as the first weekly news magazine in the United States. Luce served as business manager while Hadden was editor-in-chief. Luce and Hadden annually alternated year-to-year the titles of president and secretary-treasurer. Upon Hadden's sudden death in 1929, Luce assumed Hadden's position.
Luce launched the business magazine Fortune in February 1930 and created/founded the pictorial Life magazine in 1936, and launched House & Home in 1952 and Sports Illustrated in 1954. He also produced The March of Time radio and newsreel series. By the mid-1960s, Time Inc. was the largest and most prestigious magazine publisher in the world. (Dwight Macdonald, a Fortune staffer during the 1930s, referred to him as "Il Luce", a play on the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, who was called "Il Duce".) Once ambitious to become Secretary of State in a Republican administration, Luce wrote a famous article in Life magazine in 1941, called "The American Century", which defined the role of American foreign policy for the remainder of the 20th century, and perhaps beyond.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt, aware that most publishers were opposed to him, issued a decree in 1943 that blocked all publishers and media executives from visits to combat areas; he put General George Marshall in charge of enforcement. The main target was Luce, who had long opposed FDR. Historian Alan Brinkley argues the move was "badly mistaken", for had Luce been allowed to travel, he would have been an enthusiastic cheerleader for American forces around the globe. But stranded in New York City, Luce's frustration and anger expressed itself in hard-edged partisanship. Luce, supported by Editor T. S. Matthews, appointed Whittaker Chambers as acting Foreign News editor in 1944, despite the feuds Chambers had with reporters in the field.
In the 1950s, the Time Inc. executive Brumbaugh made presentations to the Post Office Department to explain how Time Inc. was using a zoning system to speed the delivery of its magazines. Although the Post Office Department had instigated zones in 1943, they were inconsistently applied. As cited in FYI, Time Inc.'s internal newsletter "'Fewer than 40% of the cities were properly zoned,' he recalls. 'I went to the Post Office Department and showed them how we were making the zone system work.'" In 1963, the United States Post Office introduced ZIP codes.
Luce, who remained editor-in-chief of all his publications until 1964, maintained a position as an influential member of the Republican Party. Holding anti-communist sentiments, he used Time to support right-wing dictatorships in the name of fighting communism. An instrumental figure behind the so-called "China Lobby", he played a large role in steering American foreign policy and popular sentiment in favor of Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Soong Mei-ling in their war against the Japanese. (The Chiangs appeared in the cover of Time eleven times between 1927 and 1955.
Merger with Warner Communications
In 1987, Time Inc. lost its ownership stake in the USA Network, which it held since 1981, after attempting to acquire CNN. The merger of Time Inc. and Warner Communications was announced on March 4, 1989. During the summer of that same year, Paramount Communications (formerly Gulf+Western) launched a $12.2 billion hostile bid to acquire Time Inc. in an attempt to end a stock swap merger deal between Time and Warner Communications. This caused Time to raise its bid for Warner to $14.9 billion in cash and stock. Paramount responded by filing a lawsuit in a Delaware court to block the Time/Warner merger. The court ruled twice in favor of Time, forcing Paramount to drop both the Time acquisition and the lawsuit, and allowing the formation of the two companies' merger which was completed on January 10, 1990. Effectively, Time took over Warner, resulting in a new corporate structure and the new combined company being called "Time Warner".
In 2008, Time Inc. launched Maghound, an internet-based magazine membership service that featured approximately 300 magazine titles from both Time Inc. brands and external publishing companies. On January 19, 2010, Time Inc. acquired StyleFeeder, a personal shopping engine.
In August 2010, Time Inc. announced that Ann S. Moore, its chairman and chief executive, would step down as CEO and be replaced by Jack Griffin, an executive with Meredith Corporation, the nation's second-largest publisher of consumer magazines. In September 2010, Time Inc. entered into a licensing agreement with Kolkata-based ABP Group, one of India's largest media conglomerates, to publish Fortune India magazine and the yearly Fortune India 500 list. Griffin was ousted after a brief tenure, eventually being replaced by Laura Lang, who served about a year.
On March 6, 2013, Time Warner announced plans to spin-off Time Inc. into a publicly traded company. Time Warner's chairman/CEO Jeff Bewkes said that the split would allow Time Warner to focus entirely on its television and film businesses, and Time Inc. to focus on its core print media businesses. It was announced in May 2014 that Time Inc. would become a publicly traded company on June 6 of that year. The spin-off was completed on June 9, 2014. As of September 13, 2016, Rich Battista was promoted to president and CEO, replacing Joseph A. Ripp.
Time Inc. purchased American Express Publishing Corporation's suite of titles, including Travel + Leisure, Food & Wine, Departures, Black Ink and Executive Travel on October 1, 2013. On January 14, 2014, Time Inc. announced that Colin Bodell was joining the company in the newly created position of executive vice president and chief technology officer. However, he was let go May 19, 2016 On February 5, 2014, Time Inc. announced that it was cutting 500 jobs with most of the layoffs at American Express Publishing. From April 2014 to mid-2017, the Chairman of Time Inc. was Joseph A. Ripp, who had been Chief Executive since September 2013 and continued as Executive Chairman when replaced as CEO by Battista. Though Ripp had intended to remain Executive Chairman until 2018, he wound up leaving the board in 2017 and John Fahey served as non-executive chairman for the months prior to the company's sale to Meredith. On May 28, 2015, Time Inc. announced the purchase of entertainment and sports news site FanSided. In July 2015, Time Inc. acquired League Athletics in Tucson, SportsSignup in Saratoga Springs, and iScore in Los Alamitos. The three companies will be a part of Sports Illustrated Play.
After attempting a few TV shows in 2014 and 2015, the company formed Time Inc. Productions in 2016 as its in-house production company. On February 11, 2016, Time Inc. announced that it has acquired Viant, a leading people based marketing platform and owner of MySpace. With the purchase of Time Warner by AT&T, it was agreed that Time Warner television assets such as HBO also came under the AT&T umbrella; after WarnerMedia spun off from AT&T in 2021, these assets came under the fold of Warner Bros. Discovery.
Meredith and IAC purchases
In February 2017, it was reported that Meredith Corporation and a group of investors led by Edgar Bronfman Jr. were considering purchasing Time Inc. In 2016, Time Inc. acquired Bizrate Insights. On April 28, 2017, the company's board of directors dropped the plan of selling the company and instead focus on growth strategies.
On November 26, 2017, it was announced that Meredith Corporation would acquire Time Inc. in a $2.8 billion deal. $640 million in backing will be provided by Koch Equity Development, but the Koch family will not have a board seat or otherwise influence the company's operations. Prior to the sale closing in January 2018, Time Inc. sold Essence Communications to Richelieu Dennis, the founder of hair- and skin-care products maker Sundial Brands. In January 2018, Meredith removed signage and references to Time, Inc., and Time, Inc. website was redirected to the Meredith's website.
In March 2018, only six weeks after the closure of the deal, Meredith announced that it would lay off 1,200 employees, and explore the sale of Time, Fortune, Money, and Sports Illustrated. The company felt that these brands did not align with its core, lifestyle-oriented properties.
Howard Milstein had announced on February 7, 2018, that he would acquire Golf Magazine from Meredith, and Time Inc. UK was sold to the British private equity group Epiris (later rebranded to TI Media) in late February. In September 2018, Meredith announced that it would re-sell Time to Marc Benioff and his wife Lynne for $190 million. Although Benioff is the chairman and co-CEO of Salesforce.com, Time will remain separate from the company, and Benioff will not be involved in its daily operations. In November 2018, Meredith announced to sell Fortune to Thai businessman Chatchaval Jiaravanon for $150 million. In December 2021, Meredith was acquired by IAC's Dotdash and became Dotdash Meredith; Barry Diller, the head of IAC, had previous relations with Time Inc. in the early 1980s when he was head of Paramount and helped make Time Inc. at one point a co-owner of the USA Network.
Time's offices were originally in the Chrysler Building. In 1938, they moved to the seven upper floors of the newly-built 1 Rockefeller Plaza in Rockefeller Center, which was named the "Time & Life Building". In 1960, they moved to fifteen floors of a new building, also in Rockefeller Center, 1271 Avenue of the Americas, which took on the name "Time & Life Building". Time rented additional offices in the adjacent 135 West 50th Street building. In 2014, Time moved to Brookfield Place in lower Manhattan.
In the early years, when the company was just Time magazine, Luce served as business manager while Hadden was editor-in-chief, and they annually alternated the positions of president and secretary-treasurer. On Hadden's sudden death in 1929 Luce took his position and business management was entrusted to Roy E. Larsen, who had been one of their first hires. Luce cultivated a philosophy of "church and state", where the editorial and business management were separate up to the board of directors level. (This was functionally ended with the departure of McManus from the Time Warner board, and formally by Ripp in 2013).
- 1929–1964 Henry Luce (then "Editorial Chairman" to his death in 1967)
- 1964–1979 Hedley Donovan
- 1979–1987 Henry Anatole Grunwald
- 1987–1994 Jason McManus
McManus left the board of what had become Time Warner shortly before retiring, and his replacement Norman Pearlstine and successors John Huey (2006-2012) and Martha Nelson (2013) were never directors of the parent. The title was then abolished.
- Luce (alternating with Hadden to 1929) to 1939
- 1939–1960 Roy E. Larsen (then chairman executive committee to 1969,then vice chairman to shortly before his death in 1979)
- 1960–1969 James A. Linen
- 1969–1980 James R. Shepley
- 1980–1986 J. Richard Munro
- 1986–1990 Nicholas J. Nicholas Jr.
Linen became chairman of the executive committee for a time after serving as president, then was succeeded by Shepley, who retained that position for a time after he, in turn, stepped down as president.
Chairmen of the board
- 1929–1942 Henry Luce
- 1942–1960 Maurice T. Moore (husband of Luce's sister Elisabeth Luce Moore)
- 1960–1980 Andrew Heiskell
- 1980–1986 Ralph P. Davidson
- 1986–1990 J. Richard Munro
Davidson also served as chairman of the executive committee after stepping down as chairman of the board. Munro was chairman of the executive committee of Time Warner from 1990 to 1996.
Chief executive officers
- 1964?–1980 Heiskell
- 1980–1990 Munro
On the merger with Warner Communications Munro and then Nicholas were co-CEOs of Time Warner with Steve Ross until 1992 when Ross squeezed Nicholas out. Gerald M. Levin, who had come up through Time's non-publishing operations, succeeded Ross later that year and in 2002 was succeeded by Richard Parsons who had never been connected to legacy Time Inc. (his successor Jeff Bewkes, leader of the parent when Time Inc. was spun off, had like Levin come from the non-publishing operations).
Heads of Time within a parent
The Time, Inc. (the comma remained part of the formal title until the Warner merger but the company ceased to use it in 1933) corporate entity diversified out of publishing in the 1970s and 1980s, purchasing what was later spun off as Temple-Inland paper company and various broadcasting and cable television operations such as HBO and what became Time Warner Cable. As the distinction between the overall corporation and the magazine operation grew, the position that had been "Group Vice President, Magazines" or "Executive Vice President, Magazines" became president and chief executive of a "magazine group" in 1985 (under Kelso F. Sutton to 1986,and then Reginald K. Brack Jr.) and then became president and CEO of a newly incorporated subsidiary,"The Time Inc. Magazine Company" in 1988 (initially with John A. Meyers as chairman). In 1992, Time Warner reorganized so that the non-magazine parts of Time Inc. came directly under the parent and the Time Inc. name was downgraded to only include the magazine company, so the officers of the "Magazine Company" became the officers of what was now Time Inc. Later that year, CEO Brack shifted to chairman with Don Logan as president; he stepped down in favor of Logan as CEO in 1994 and chairman in 1997. Logan moved up to a group oversight position including additional Time Warner operations in 2002 (Ann S. Moore succeeding him at the magazine operation) and left the company in 2005. Leaders after Moore are noted above.
- Spangler, Todd (September 13, 2016). "Rich Battista Named Time Inc. CEO As Joe Ripp Steps Aside for Health Reasons". Variety. Los Angeles: Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
- "TIME Income Statement - Balance Sheet - Cash Flow - Time Inc. Common Stock Stock - Yahoo Finance".
- Yahoo! Finance Staff. "Time Inc. Profile". Yahoo! Finance. New York City: Oath Inc. Retrieved May 29, 2016.
- Dave, Paresh (October 19, 2015). "Why Zooey Deschanel's media startup HelloGiggles sold to Time Inc". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- "Time Inc. Acquires HelloGiggles, a Leading Mobile and Social Millennial Women's Lifestyle Brand" (Press release). October 19, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Meredith Corporation Announces Completion Of Time Inc. Acquisition And Reports Fiscal 2018 Second Quarter And First Half Results" (Press release). Meredith Corporation. January 31, 2018. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
- Hays, Kali (February 1, 2018). "Time Inc., Now Meredith and More Changes to Come". Women's Wear Daily. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
- "History of TIME". Time. New York City: Time Inc. Archived from the original on March 4, 2005. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Henry R. Luce: End of a Pilgrimage". Time. New York City: Time Inc. March 10, 1967. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Brinkley 2010, pp. 302–303.
- Brinkley 2010, pp. 322–393.
- "Time, Inc". Retrieved March 29, 2018.
- "Time magazine historical search". Time. New York City: Time Inc. Archived from the original on June 30, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
- Salmans, Sandra (August 28, 1983). "Barry Diller's Latest Starring Role". The New York Times. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
- Altschuler, Jane (May 3, 2006). "Kay Koplovitz: Network Creator/Executive". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
- "Time Inc. and Warner to Merge, Creating Largest Media Company". The New York Times. March 5, 1989.
- Leaf, Clifton (February 2, 2018). "On Groundhog Day, A Meditation on the Healthiness of Renewal". Fortune. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
- Bill Saporito,"The Inside Story of Time Warner",Fortune,November 20,1989
- Time Warner to shutter Pathfinder Cnet News, April 26, 1999
- "The Netflix Hope: Time Inc's Maghound Set To Launch in Sept". Forbes. June 27, 2008. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- Wauters, Robin (January 19, 2010). "Confirmed:Time Inc. buys personal shopping engine StyleFeeder". TechCrunch. United States: Oath Inc. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- Carr, David (August 4, 2010). "Ex-Meredith officer to be Time's chief". The New York Times. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- Goyal, Anubhav (September 27, 2010). "Fortune launches Indian edition". Media Newsline. Archived from the original on March 29, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- Ellis, Blake. "Time Inc. names ad firm chief as new CEO". CNNMoney. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
- Isidore, James O'Toole and Chris (July 22, 2013). "Magazine publisher Time Inc. taps veteran executive Joe Ripp to be CEO". CNNMoney. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
- Steigrad, Alexandra (February 5, 2014). "Time Inc. Lays Out Restructuring". WWD. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
- Lieberman, David (March 6, 2013). "Time Warner plans to spin off Time Inc". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- Lieberman, David (May 8, 2014). "Time Inc To Go Public On June 6". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- "Time Warner (TWX) Completes Time Inc. (TIME) Spinoff". TheStreet.com. June 9, 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- "Media It's Official: Time Inc. Buys AmEx's Food & Wine, Travel & Leisure Magazines". Ad Age. September 10, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2013.
- "Time Inc. Names Colin Bodell Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer". Business Wire. January 14, 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- Kelly, Keith (May 9, 2016). "Time Inc. fires CTO Colin Bodell". New York Post. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Kaufman, Leslie (February 4, 2014). "Time Inc. to Cut 500 Jobs Ahead of Spinoff". The New York Times. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Joseph A. Ripp". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- "Time Inc" (PDF). Edgar Online. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Ingram, Mathew (September 13, 2016). "Time Inc. CEO Joe Ripp Steps Down As New Chief Promises Growth Is Coming". Fortune. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
- "John Fahey Appointed Non-Executive Chairman of Time Inc.; Dan Rosensweig Nominated to Board of Directors". Business Wire. May 10, 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
- "Time Inc. acquires FanSided, a sports and entertainment digital network". Sports Illustrated. May 26, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2016.
- Steigrad, Alexandra (May 26, 2015). "Time Inc. Buys FanSided, Talks Future Deals". Women's Wear Daily. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Steigrad, Alexandra (July 7, 2015). "Time Inc. Invests in Sports Illustrated With Three Acquisitions". Women's Wear Daily. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Yu, Roger (July 8, 2015). "Time Inc. expands youth sports business with acquisitions". USA Today. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Spangler, Todd (February 17, 2016). "Time Inc. Acquires Two YouTube Auto Channels". Variety. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "Time Inc. Creates Sports Illustrated Play, a New Business Devoted to Youth Sports". Business Wire. July 7, 2016. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Applefeld Olson, Cathy (January 11, 2018). "At Time Inc. Productions, It's All About the Brands - Cynopsis Media". Cynopsis Media. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
- Lunden, Ingrid (February 11, 2016). "Time Inc Acquires Viant, Owner Of Myspace And A Vast Ad Tech Network". TechCrunch. United States: Oath Inc. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
- Thomas Gryta; Keach Hagey; Dana Cimmiluca (October 22, 2016). "AT&T Reaches Deal to Buy Time Warner for $86 Billion". The Wall Street Journal. News Corp. Retrieved April 10, 2023.
- Alex Sherman (May 16, 2021). "AT&T in advanced talks to merge WarnerMedia with Discovery, deal expected as soon as tomorrow". CNBC. NBCUniversal News Group. Retrieved April 10, 2023.
- Drew FitzGerald; Cara Lombardo; Joe Flint (May 17, 2021). "AT&T Agrees to Merge Media Business With Discovery". The Wall Street Journal. News Corp.
- Trachtenberg, Jeffrey (February 7, 2017). "Meredith, Bronfman Move Forward in Effort to Acquire Time Inc". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- O'Shea, Chris (September 7, 2016). "Time Inc. Buys Survey Company BizRate Insights". AdWeek. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- Ember, Sydney (April 28, 2017). "Time Inc. Decides Not to Sell Itself". The New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- Nyren, Erin; Littleton, Cynthia (November 26, 2017). "Meredith Corp. Acquires Time Inc. in $2.8 Billion Koch Brothers-Backed Deal". Variety. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- Ember, Sydney; Ross, Andrew (November 26, 2017). "Time Inc. Sells Itself to Meredith Corp., Backed by Koch Brothers". The New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
- Spangler, Todd (January 3, 2018). "Time Inc. Sells Essence to Black-Owned Independent Venture". Variety. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
- Gold, Howard R. (February 1, 2018). "Who killed Time Inc.?". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
- Spangler, Todd (March 21, 2018). "Meredith Laying Off 1,200, Will Explore Sale of Time, SI, Fortune and Money Brands". Variety. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
- "Banker shells out big bucks to buy Golf Magazine". New York Post. February 8, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
- Sweney, Mark (February 26, 2018). "Marie Claire publisher Time Inc UK sold to private equity group". the Guardian. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
- Shu, Catherine (September 17, 2018). "Marc and Lynne Benioff will buy Time magazine from Meredith for $190M". TechCrunch. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
- Pompeo, Joe (November 9, 2018). "Fortune's New Buyer Isn't Marc Benioff—But for $150 Million, Who Cares!". The Hive. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
- Kelly, Keith J. (November 9, 2018). "Thai business tycoon buys Fortune magazine for $150 million". Retrieved December 25, 2018.
- Jett, Tyler (December 1, 2021). "Sale of Meredith Corp. final as Gray Television, IAC/Interactive's Dotdash take over". Des Moines Register. Retrieved April 10, 2023.
- Tracy, Marc (October 6, 2021). "Barry Diller's Dotdash Agrees to Buy Meredith, a Magazine Giant". The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2023.
- "Business Moving Marked by Speed" (PDF). The New York Times. May 2, 1938. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
- "A New Home for 'Life': Rockefeller Center moves toward West", Life, April 4, 1960, p. 17-23
- "Time Inc. to Move to Lower Manhattan's Brookfield Place". Bloomberg. May 22, 2014. Retrieved October 17, 2016.
- Morris, Keiko (May 23, 2014). "Time Inc. to Leave Midtown After 55 Years". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved July 15, 2021.
- "Time Inc. Shakeup: Editors to Report to Business Side, Editor-in-Chief Martha Nelson Exits". adage.com. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
- "Time Bombs". City Journal. December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
- "NY Times obituary". The New York Times. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
- Anderson, Susan Heller (November 3, 1988). "James R. Shepley Is Dead at 71; Chief of Time Inc. From '69 to '80". Retrieved December 25, 2018 – via NYTimes.com.
- "Ralph P. Davidson, former chairman of Time Inc. and Kennedy Center, dies at 86". The Washington Post. August 2, 2014. Archived from the original on April 12, 2021.
- Zonana, Victor F.; Citron, Alan (February 21, 1992). "Co-CEO Nicholas Ousted in Clash at Time Warner : * Communications: New President Gerald M. Levin pioneered Time's entry into cable programming". Retrieved December 25, 2018 – via LA Times.
- Guide to the Time Inc. Records Overview[permanent dead link], New York University Library
- "Time Inc. Thursday announced a restructuring of its magazine." United Press International. November 21, 1985. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
- "Chicago Tribune,"2 Time Inc. Execs Make a Job Swap"". Retrieved December 25, 2018.
- "Form of Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation". Retrieved December 25, 2018.
- Levin, Gary (April 23, 1997). "Brack to exit slot as Time Inc. chair". Variety. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
- Brinkley, Alan (2010). The Publisher: Henry Luce and His American Century. New York: Vintage Books. pp. 302–303, 322–393. ISBN 978-0679741541.