Margraviate of Moravia

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Margraviate of Moravia
Markrabství moravské (cs)
Markgrafschaft Mähren (de)
Crown land of the Bohemian Crown
(1348–1918)

Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire (1198–1806)
Crown land of the Habsburg Monarchy (1526–1804), of the Austrian Empire (1804–67), and of the Cisleithanian part of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)

1182–1918
Margraviate of Moravia and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown within the Holy Roman Empire (1618)
Margraviate of Moravia (1893)
Capital Olomouc (1182–1641)
Brno (1641–1918)
Languages Moravian dialects of Czech
Polish
German
Religion Roman Catholic
Hussite
Lutheran
Anabaptist
Jewish
Government Margraviate
Margrave
 •  1182–1191 (first) Conrad II of Bohemia
 •  1916–1918 (last) Charles I of Austria
Legislature Provincial Diet
History
 •  Established 1182
 •  Disestablished 1918
Area
 •  1918 22,222 km2 (8,580 sq mi)
Population
 •  1918 est. 2,662,000 
     Density 120/km2 (310/sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Duchy of Bohemia
First Czechoslovak Republic

The Margraviate of Moravia (Czech: Markrabství moravské; German: Markgrafschaft Mähren) or March of Moravia was a marcher state existing from 1182 to 1918 and one of the lands of the Bohemian Crown. It was officially administrated by a margrave in cooperation with a provincial diet. It was variously a de facto independent state, and also subject to the Duchy, later the Kingdom of Bohemia. It comprised the region called Moravia within the modern Czech Republic.

Geography[edit]

The Margraviate lay east of Bohemia proper, with an area about half that region’s size. In the north, the Sudeten Mountains, which extend to the Moravian Gate, formed the border with the Polish Duchy of Silesia, incorporated as a Bohemian crown land upon the 1335 Treaty of Trentschin. In the east and southeast, the western Carpathian Mountains separated it from present-day Slovakia. In the south, the winding Thaya River marked the border with the Duchy of Austria.

Moravians, usually considered a Czech people that speak Moravian dialects, made up the main part of the population. According to a 1910 Cisleithanian census, 27.6% identified themselves as German Moravians.[1] These ethnic Germans would later be expelled after the Second World War. Other ethnic minority groups included Poles, Roma and Slovaks.

History[edit]

After the early medieval Great Moravian realm had been finally defeated by the Árpád princes of Hungary in 907, what is now Slovakia was incorporated as "Upper Hungary" (Felső-Magyarország), while adjacent Moravia passed under the authority of the Duchy of Bohemia. King Otto I of Germany officially granted it to Duke Boleslaus I in turn for his support against the Hungarian forces in the 955 Battle of Lechfeld. Temporarily ruled by King Bolesław I Chrobry of Poland from 999 until 1019, Moravia was re-conquered by Duke Oldřich of Bohemia and ultimately became a land of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas held by the Přemyslid dynasty.[1]

Sitting of Moravian Diet, 17th century

In 1182, the Margraviate was created at the behest of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa by merger of the three Přemyslid appanage principalities of Brno, Olomouc and Znojmo, and given to Conrad II, the son of Prince Conrad of Znojmo. As heir apparent, the future King Ottokar II of Bohemia was appointed Moravian margave by his father Wenceslaus I in 1247. Along with Bohemia, Moravia was ruled by the House of Luxembourg from the extinction of the Přemyslid dynasty until 1437. Jobst, nephew of Emperor Charles IV inherited the Margraviate in 1375, ruled autonomously and was even elected King of the Romans in 1410. Shaken by the Hussite Wars, the Moravian nobles remained loyal supporters of the Luxembourg emperor Sigismund.[1]

In 1469, Moravia was occupied by the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus, who had allied with the Catholic nobility against the rule of George of Poděbrady and had himself elected rival king of Bohemia at Olomouc. The rivalry with King Vladislaus II was settled in the 1479 Peace of Olomouc, whereby Matthias renounced the royal title but retained the rule over the Moravian lands.[2]

With the other lands of the Bohemian Crown, the Margraviate was incorporated into the Habsburg Monarchy upon the death of King Louis II in the 1526 Battle of Mohács. Moravia was ruled as a crown land within the Austrian Empire from 1804 and within Cisleithanian Austria from 1867.[3]

During the foundation of Czechoslovakia after World War I, the Margraviate was transformed into “Moravia Land”, later “Moravia-Silesia Land” in 1918. This autonomy was eliminated in 1949 by the communist government and has not been re-established since.[1]

Government[edit]

The former Moravian Diet building. It now houses the Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic.

The Margrave held ultimate authority in Moravia, throughout the history of the Margraviate. This meant that as its Margraves became more foreign, so too did governance of the Margraviate.

Moravia possessed a legislature, known as the Moravian Diet. The assembly has its origins in 1288, with the Colloquium generale, or curia generalis.[4] This was a meeting of the upper nobility, knights, the Bishop of Olomouc, abbots and ambassadors from royal cities. These meetings gradually evolved into the diet.

The power of this diet waxed and waned throughout history. By the end of the Margraviate, the diet was almost powerless. The diet consisted of three estates of the realm: the estate of upper nobility, the estate of the lower nobility, and the estate of prelates and burghers.[5] With the February Patent of 1861, the diet was reformed into a more egalitarian body. It still retained the same structure, but the members changed. It consisted of assembly seats for landowners, city-dwellers, and rural farmers. This was retained until the diet was abolished after the fall of the Dual Monarchy.[5]

Moravian eagle[edit]

Unnoficial coat of arms of Moravia by Hugo Gerard Ströhl

The coat of arms of Moravia is charged with a crowned silver-red chequered eagle with golden claws and tongue. It first appeared in the seal of Margrave Přemysl (1209-1239), a younger son of King Ottokar I of Bohemia. After 1462 is Moravian eagle gold-red chequered[2], but never accepted by moravian assembly.

Administration[edit]

Until 1848[edit]

In the mid 14th century Emperor Charles IV, also King of Bohemia and Margrave of Moravia, established administrative divisions called kraje. These subdivisions were named for their capitals, some of which were:

After 1848[edit]

Moravian and Austrian Silesian districts, 1897

After the 1848 revolutions, the kraje were replaced by political districts (politický okres), which were largely retained by the Czechoslovak administration after 1918:

Rulers of Moravia[edit]

Dukes of Moravia[edit]

Přemyslid dynasty[edit]

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Bretislaus I Bretislav trun.jpg 1002/5 1019/29-1033 10 January 1055 Moravia Judith of Schweinfurt
1020
four children
Son of Ulrich of Bohemia. First separation of Moravia from Bohemia. His father usurped his place for a year.
Ulrich I Oldrzych.jpg 975 1033-1034 9 November 1034 Moravia Unknown
no children

Božena
c.1002
(morganatic)
one child
After his death, his son was replaced in Moravia.
Bretislaus I Bretislav trun.jpg 1002/5 1034-1055 10 January 1055 Moravia Judith of Schweinfurt
1020
four children
Recovered his throne. After his death his sons shared the inheritance.
Conrad I Konrad I.jpg c.1035 1055-1056 6 September 1092 Moravia-Brno Wirpirk of Tengling
1054
two children
Received Brno after the partition of 1055. In the next year his brother Spytihněv ascended to Bohemia and reunited it with all Moravian lands.
Vratislaus I Vratislav II 140x190.jpg c.1035 1055-1056 14 January 1092 Moravia-Olomouc Maria
before 1057
no children

Adelaide of Hungary I
1057
four children

Świętosława of Poland
1062
five children
Received Olomouc after the partition of 1055. In the next year his brother Spytihněv ascended to Bohemia and reunited it with all Moravian lands.
Otto I the Fair Herzog Leopold II. Babenberg.jpg 1045 1055-1056 9 June 1087 Moravia-Znojmo Euphemia of Hungary
before 1073
two children
Received Znojmo after the partition of 1055. In the next year his brother Spytihněv ascended to Bohemia and reunited it with all Moravian lands.
Spytihněv I Spytihnev2vesvatovitskeapo.jpg 1031 1056-1061 28 January 1061 Moravia Ida of Wettin
c.1054
one child
United Bohemian and Moravian lands.
Conrad I Konrad I.jpg c.1035 1061-1092 6 September 1092 Moravia-Brno and Moravia-Znojmo Wirpirk of Tengling
1054
two children
Received Brno and Znojmo. In 1092 divided the land between his two sons.
Otto I the Fair Herzog Leopold II. Babenberg.jpg 1045 1061-1087 9 June 1087 Moravia-Olomouc Euphemia of Hungary
before 1073
two children
Received Olomouc after the partition of 1061.
Boleslaus 1062 1087-1091 11 August 1091 Moravia-Olomouc Unmarried Received Olomouc after the partition of 1061.
Svatopluk I the Lion Świętopełk Ołomuniecki.jpg 1075 1091-1109 21 September 1109 Moravia-Olomouc Unknown
one child
Ruled jointly.
Otto II the Black 1085 1091-1123 18 February 1126 Moravia-Olomouc Unknown
one child
Ulrich II H13vacl.jpg c.1035 1092-1112 5 January 1113 Moravia-Brno Adelaide
two children
Son of Conrad I. Received Brno after the partition of 1092.
Leopold I ? 1092-1112 15 March 1112 Moravia-Znojmo Ida of Austria
one child
Son of Conrad I. Received Znojmo after the partition of 1092.
Ulrich II H13vacl.jpg c.1035 1112-1113 5 January 1113 Moravia-Brno and Moravia-Znojmo Sophia of Berg
1113
three children
Reunited in 1112 Brno and Znojmo.
Sobeslaus I Sobiesław I.jpg c.1075 1113-1123 14 February 1140 Moravia-Brno and Moravia-Znojmo Adelaide of Hungary II
1123
five children
Son of Vratislaus I.
Conrad II Konrad II.jpg c.1075 1123-1161 14 February 1140 Moravia-Znojmo Maria of Serbia
1132
four children
Son of Vratislaus I.
Otto II the Black 1085 1123-1126 18 February 1126 Moravia-Olomouc and Moravia-Brno Unknown
one child
Wenceslaus Henry Dom svateho Vaclava - Premyslovci.jpg 1107 1123-1130 1 March 1130 Moravia-Olomouc Unmarried
Vratislaus II c.1111 1126-1146 1146 Moravia-Brno A Russian princess
1132
threee children
Leopold II 1102 1130-1137 1143 Moravia-Olomouc Unmarried Son of Bořivoj II, Duke of Bohemia.
Vladislaus ? 1137-1140 1165 Moravia-Olomouc Unmarried Son of Sobeslaus I.
Otto III 1122 1140-1160 12 May 1160 Moravia-Olomouc Durancia
five children
Son of Otto II.
Spytihněv II ? 1146?-1182 1199 Moravia-Brno Umarried In 1182 abdicated for Conrad III.
Frederick I Dux Fridrich.jpg 1142 1160-1173 25 March 1189 Moravia-Olomouc Elizabeth of Hungary
1157
six children
Son of Vladislaus II, Duke of Bohemia.
Conrad III Otto PecetKonradaIIOty.jpg c.1136 1161-1178 9 September 1191 Moravia-Znojmo Hellicha of Wittelsbach
before 1176
no children
Son of Conrad II.
Ulrich III 1134 1173-1177 18 October 1177 Moravia-Olomouc Cecilia of Thuringia
no children

Sophia of Meissen
no children
Son of Vladislaus II, Duke of Bohemia.
Wenceslaus 1137 1177-1178 after 1192 Moravia-Olomouc Unmarried Son of Sobeslaus I. Abdicated for Conrad III.
Conrad III Otto PecetKonradaIIOty.jpg c.1136 1178-1182 9 September 1191 Moravia-Znojmo and Moravia-Olomouc Hellicha of Wittelsbach
before 1176
no children
Son of Conrad II. United Znojmo and Olomouc. Brno joined in 1182, when he also became the first Margrave of Moravia.

Margraves of Moravia[edit]

Přemyslid dynasty[edit]

united with Bohemia 1189-1197

directly held by King Rudolph I of Germany 1278-1283

Various dynasties[edit]

Luxembourgs[edit]

Various dynasties[edit]

Jagiellons[edit]

Habsburgs[edit]

Under the united rule of the Bohemian kings from 1611 (see List of rulers of Bohemia).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Pánek, Jaroslav; Tůma, Oldřich (2009). A History of the Czech Lands. Prague: Charles University Press. ISBN 978-80-246-1645-2. 
  2. ^ a b Prinz, Friedrich (1993). Deutsche Geschichte in Osten Europas: Böhmen und Mähren. Berlin: Wolf Jobst Siedler Verlag GmbH. p. 381. ISBN 3-88680-200-0. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 
  3. ^ Urban, Otto (1998). "V.". Czech Society 1848–1918. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43155-7. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 
  4. ^ Válka, Josef (1995). Dějiny Moravy: Morava reformace, renesance a baroka (in Czech). Brno: Muzejní a vlastivědná společnost v Brně. ISBN 9788085048629. Retrieved 7 March 2013. 
  5. ^ a b David, Jiří (2009). "Moravian estatism and provincial councils in the second half of the 17th century". Folia historica Bohemica. 1. 24: 111–165. ISSN 0231-7494. 

External links[edit]