Multiculturalism in Australia

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Multiculturalism in Australia is today reflected by the multicultural composition of its people, its immigration policies, its prohibition on discrimination, equality before the law of all persons, as well as various cultural policies which promote diversity, such as the formation of the Special Broadcasting Service.[1]

According to the 2011 census, 26% of the population were born overseas and a further 20% had at least one parent born overseas.[2] Aboriginal Australians make up approximately 2.5% of the population.[3] Australia's diverse migrant communities have brought with them food, lifestyle and cultural practices, which have been absorbed into mainstream Australian culture.[4][5]

Historically, Australia did not accept all persons, and adhered to the White Australia Policy. The policy was dismantled after World War II by various changes to immigration policy.

History[edit]

Pre-Federation[edit]

Prior to settlement by Europeans, the Australian continent was not a single nation, but hosted many different Aboriginal cultures and between 200 and 400 active languages at any one time.[citation needed] According to the 2006 census some 150 indigenous languages are still spoken.[citation needed] The present nation of Australia resulted from a process of immigration intended to fill the continent (also excluding potential rivals to the British Empire). Settlers from the United Kingdom, after 1800 including Ireland, were the earliest people that were not native to the continent to live in Australia. Dutch colonisation and possible visits to Australia by explorers and/or traders from China,[citation needed] did not lead to permanent settlement. Until 1901, Australia existed as a group of independent British settler colonies.

White Australia policy: 1900s to 1973[edit]

The Immigration Restriction Act 1901, known informally as the White Australia policy, restricted non-European immigration to Australia from 1901 to 1973. The policy limited the ethnic and cultural diversity of the immigrant population. The policy was an attempt to preserve the British ethno-cultural identity of the Australian nation, promote European immigration, and to exclude persons who did not fit the European, predominately Anglo-Celtic, character of Australian society. As the twentieth century progressed and the number of migrants from the United Kingdom became insufficient to meet labour shortages, immigrants came increasingly from other parts of Europe, such as Italy, Greece, Germany, the Netherlands, and the former Yugoslavia.[6]

People whose parents were both born in Australia percentage of the population in Australia divided geographically by statistical local area, as of the 2011 census

Multiculturalism adopted: 1970s - Present[edit]

Following the initial moves of the Whitlam Labor government in 1973, further official national multicultural policies were implemented by Fraser's Conservative Coalition government in 1978.[7] The Labor Government of Bob Hawke continued with these policies during the 1980s and early 1990s, and were further supported by Paul Keating up to his electoral defeat 1996. CALD (or Culturally and Linguistually Diverse) policies continue to be implemented at all levels of government and public service, such as medical support systems which cater specifically to non-English speaking residents.[8]

The meaning of multiculturalism has changed significantly since its formal introduction to Australia. Originally it was understood by the mainstream population as a need for acceptance that many members of the Australian community originally came from different cultures and still had ties to it.[9] However, it came to mean the rights of migrants within mainstream Australia to express their cultural identity. It is now often used to refer to the notion that people in Australia have multiple cultural or ethnic backgrounds.

The overall level of immigration to Australia has grown during the last decades. Net overseas immigrants increased from 30,000 in 1993[10] to 118,000 in 2003–04,[11] and 200,000 in 2015.

According to the 2011 census, 26% of the population were born overseas, with a further 20% having at least one parent born overseas.[2] Of the population born overseas, 82% lived in the capital cities.[2] Aboriginal Australians make up approximately 2.5% of the population.[3] As of 2008, Australia was ranked 18th in the world in terms of net migration per capita, ahead of Canada, the USA and most of Europe.[12]

According to the National Agenda for a Multicultural Australia, the Australian government is concerned with three broad policy areas: cultural identity, social justice, and economic efficiency.[13]

The top ten religions in Australia account for less than 63% of the population.[14]

Projects[edit]

A number of projects by government and non-government entities have been established to facilitate multiculturalism in Australia.

The capital, Canberra, has developed a tradition of holding the National Multicultural Festival, held over a week in February.[15] There is also Harmony Day which seeks to promote a tolerant and culturally diverse society.

Critique and debate[edit]

Political positions[edit]

In 1996, John Howard's Liberal-National Coalition was elected to government. Howard had long been a critic of multiculturalism, releasing his One Australia policy in the late 1980s which called for a reduction in Asian immigration.[citation needed] He later retracted the policy, citing his then position as wrong.[citation needed] Shortly after the Howard government took office, a new independent member of Parliament, Pauline Hanson, made her maiden speech in which she was highly critical of multiculturalism, saying that a multicultural society could never be strong.[citation needed] Hanson went on to form her own political party, One Nation. One Nation campaigned strongly against official multiculturalism, arguing that it represented "a threat to the very basis of the Australian culture, identity and shared values" and that there was "no reason why migrant cultures should be maintained at the expense of our shared, national culture.".[16]

Despite many calls for Howard to censure Hanson,[citation needed] his response was to state that her speech indicated a new freedom of expression in Australia on such issues, and that he believed strongly in freedom of speech.[citation needed] Rather than official multiculturalism, Howard advocated instead the idea of a "shared national identity", albeit one strongly grounded in certain recognisably Anglo-Celtic Australian themes, such as "mateship" and a "fair go".[citation needed] The name of the Department of Immigration, Multiculturalism and Indigenous Affairs was changed to the "Department of Immigration and Citizenship". However, Australia maintained a policy of multiculturalism, and government introduced expanded dual-citizenship rights.[citation needed]

Intellectual critique[edit]

The earliest academic critics of multiculturalism in Australia were the philosophers Lachlan Chipman[17] and Frank Knopfelmacher,[18] sociologist Tanya Birrell[19] and the political scientist Raymond Sestito.[20][when?] Chipman and Knopfelmacher were concerned with threats to social cohesion, while Birrell's concern was that multiculturalism obscures the social costs associated with large scale immigration that fall most heavily on the most recently arrived and unskilled immigrants. Sestito's arguments were based on the role of political parties. He argued that political parties were instrumental in pursuing multicultural policies, and that these policies would put strain on the political system and would not promote better understanding in the Australian community.[21][22]

Prime Minister John Curtin Supported White Australia policy, saying "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race."[14]

Prime Minister Stanley Bruce was a supporter of the White Australia Policy, and made it an issue in his campaign for the 1925 Australian Federal election.[23]

It is necessary that we should determine what are the ideals towards which every Australian would desire to strive. I think those ideals might well be stated as being to secure our national safety, and to ensure the maintenance of our White Australia Policy to continue as an integral portion of the British Empire.[23] We intend to keep this country white and not allow its people to be faced with the problems that at present are practically insoluble in many parts of the world.[24]

Historian Geoffrey Blainey achieved mainstream recognition as a critic of multiculturalism when he wrote that multiculturalism threatened to transform Australia into a "cluster of tribes". In his 1984 book All for Australia, Blainey criticized multiculturalism for tending to emphasise the rights of ethnic minorities at the expense of the majority population and for being "anti-British", despite the British being the largest group to have migrated to Australia. According to Blainey, such policies created divisions and threatened national cohesion. He argued that "the evidence is clear that many multicultural societies have failed and that the human cost of the failure has been high" and warned that "we should think very carefully about the perils of converting Australia into a giant multicultural laboratory for the assumed benefit of the peoples of the world."[25]

In one of his numerous criticisms of multiculturalism, Blainey wrote:

For the millions of Australians who have no other nation to fall back upon, multiculturalism is almost an insult. It is divisive. It threatens social cohesion. It could, in the long-term, also endanger Australia's military security because it sets up enclaves which in a crisis could appeal to their own homelands for help.

Blainey remained a persistent critic of multiculturalism into the 1990s, denouncing multiculturalism as "morally, intellectually and economically ... a sham."

Historian John Hirst argued that while multiculturalism might serve the needs of ethnic politics and the demands of certain ethnic groups for government funding for the promotion of their separate ethnic identity, it is a perilous concept on which to found national policy.[26] Hirst identified contradictory statements by political leaders that suggested the term was a nonsense concept. These included the policies of Prime Minister Bob Hawke, a proponent of multiculturalism while at the same time promoting a citizenship campaign and stressing the common elements of our culture,[27] and anti-multiculturalism statements by Prime Minister Howard, who aroused the ire of multiculturalists who thought that he was suggesting closing down Italian restaurants and prohibiting the speaking of the Italian language when he proposed no such thing.[26]

According to Hirst, multiculturalism denies the existence of a host Australian culture:

Insofar as multiculturalism makes what it calls 'Anglo-Celts' the equivalent of Italians and Turks, it denies the very notion of a host. [Multiculturalists assert] we are all immigrants of many cultures, contributing to a multicultural society. This may serve the needs of ethnic politics. As a serious historical or sociological analysis it is nonsense. To found policy on it may be perilous.[26]

Critics have argued that multiculturalism was introduced as official policy in Australia without public support or consultation. According to academic Mark Lopez: "Multiculturalism was developed by a small number of academics, social workers and activists, initially located on the fringe of the political arena of immigration, settlement and welfare. The authors responsible for versions of the ideology were also principal actors in the struggle to advance their beliefs and make them government policy". Lopez asserts that through "core groups and activists' sympathisers and contacts ... multiculturalism became government policy ... because the multiculturalists and their supporters were able to influence the ideological content of the Minister's sources of policy ... Contemporary public opinion polls implied ... in the general population, a widespread resentment, or a lack of interest, of the kinds of ideas advanced by multiculturalists. ... The original constituency for multiculturalism was small; popular opinion was an obstacle, not an asset, for the multiculturalists." Furthermore, according to Lopez: "Multiculturalism was not simply picked up and appreciated and implemented by policy makers, government and the major political parties ... [I]n every episode that resulted in the progress of multiculturalism, the effectiveness of the political lobbyists was a decisive factor. ... [Multiculturalism was] tirelessly promoted and manoeuvered forward".[7] However, the above argument have been contested by others, who note that "Government sponsored conferences were in fact held at least once a year from 1950 to discuss immigration issues and to provide information for both government and the Australian public".[28]

Critics associated with the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Monash University have argued that both Right and Left factions in the Australian Labor Party have adopted a multicultural stance for the purposes of increasing their support within the party.[29] A manifestation of this embrace of multiculturalism has been the creation of ethnic branches within the Labor Party and ethnic branch stacking.[30]

Following the upsurge of support for the One Nation Party in 1996, Lebanese-born Australian anthropologist Ghassan Hage published a critique in 1997 of Australian multiculturalism in the book White Nation.[31] Drawing on theoretical frameworks from Whiteness studies, Jacques Lacan and Pierre Bourdieu, Hage examined a range of everyday discourses that implicated both anti-multiculturalists and pro-multiculturalists alike.[citation needed]

Australian political ethologist Frank Salter, author of On Genetic Interests: Family, Ethnicity, and Humanity in an Age of Mass Migration, has argued that multiculturalism forms "part of an ideological-administrative system that is helping swamp the Australian nation through ethnically diverse immigration." This, in turn, is "putting at risk the nation's ability to produce the public goods that nations excel in producing: relative cohesion and harmony, public altruism, trust, efficient government and political stability."[32]

Salter has written:

Diversity is not the only deleterious side effect of multiculturalism. Another is to perpetuate population growth because immigration is part of the quid pro quo offered ethnic minorities in exchange for votes. Perpetual large scale immigration cannot be sustained for well-rehearsed environmental reasons. In the end failure to regulate population growth causes severe suffering and social and economic dislocation. It follows that multiculturalism should be counteracted as part of a responsible population policy. The conflict between the two policies is already evident. The charge of racism is often directed at recommendations for reducing immigration overall, even without changing the ethnic mix.[32]

In Salter's view, the current model of multiculturalism is flawed as it tends to be "asymmetrical" and exclude Australia's historic Anglo-Celtic majority as a legitimate interest group.[32] He has also linked multiculturalism to growing ethnic socio-economic stratification in Australia, stating:

Inequality in Australia increasingly has an ethnic face. Aborigines continue to occupy the lowest rung on the socio-economic ladder. Despite the points system for assessing immigrants, some ethnic minorities have high rates of unemployment and criminality. Many white Australians are losing out to competition from immigrants. Selective public schools show spectacular overrepresentation of Chinese and other Asian students, an imbalance that feeds through to elite universities and thence to the professions. Ethnic socioeconomic stratification is growing as the population becomes more diverse.[32]

In contrast to the multicultural doctrine which promotes ethnic diversity, Salter has expounded the case for limiting diversity within the nation-state, asserting that "multi-ethnic societies are often confronted with the problem of discrimination and group conflict." According to Salter:

Cross-cultural comparisons reveal the wisdom of Australia's first prime minister Edmund Barton who believed that ethnic homogeneity must be the cornerstone of Australian nation-building. More ethnically homogeneous nations are better able to build public goods, are more democratic, less corrupt, have higher productivity and less inequality, are more trusting and care more for the disadvantaged, develop social and economic capital faster, have lower crime rates, are more resistant to external shocks, and are better global citizens, for example by giving more foreign aid. Moreover, they are less prone to civil war, the greatest source of violent death in the twentieth century.[33]

Writer Greg Clancy has argued that, since its introduction, multiculturalism has been manipulated for personal and individual group advantage at the expense of Australian society and its institutions. In his book The Conspiracies of Multiculturalism, Clancy linked multiculturalism to corruption, increased crime, a damaged social order, campaigns of public deception, the undermining of national security and threats to free speech.[34] According to Clancy, multiculturalism favours some groups in Australian society over others and that the "multicultural group had a special status developed for them".[34]

In exploring the discourse of multiculturalism others have argued that the threat to social cohesion and national identity have been overstated.[35][36] For instance, Ramakrishan (2013) argues that the "largely European" cultural traditions of the population have been maintained despite greater ethnic diversity.[35] Others have asserted that the emphasis on notions such as 'Identity, citizenship, social cohesion and integration' serves more as a catchphrase rather than pragmatic attempts to address the given issues.[37] Kerkyasharian (2008) argues:

Of course, most of the debate over multiculturalism has nothing to do with actual government policies or laws on cultural diversity. Detractors have no viable policy alternative, other than the imposition of a nebulous set of 'Australian values'. When pressed to define these values, they will usually cite some broad principles, such as fairness, equality and so on. All well and good – because multiculturalism stands for these same principles.[37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Molloy, Bruce (1993). "Changing Cultural Channels: SBS-TV, Imparja and Australian Television". Communication Institute for Online Scholarship. 
  2. ^ a b c "Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census". ABS. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of. "Main Features - 2011 Census Counts — Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples". www.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-12-15. 
  4. ^ "About Australia: Our Country". australia.gov.au. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  5. ^ "About Australia: People, culture and lifestyle". Dfat.gov.au. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  6. ^ Graeme Hugo, Paul Callister, Juthika Badkar (2008). Graeme Hugo, Soogil Young, eds. Labour Mobility in the Asia-Pacific Region: Dynamics, Issues and a New APEC Agenda : A Survey and Analyses of Governance Challenges on Labour Migration for APEC Economies. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore. p. 148. ISBN 978-981-230-895-5. 
  7. ^ a b Mark Lopez (2000),The Origins of Multiculturalism in Australian Politics 1945–1975, Melbourne University Press, Carlton South, Victoria (ISBN 0-522-84895-8)
  8. ^ "Information for non-English speakers". NPS Medicines Talk. June 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  9. ^ Lyle Allan (1983), 'A Selective Annotated Bibliography of Multiculturalism', in Social Alternatives (University of Queensland), Vol.3, No.3, July, page 65.
  10. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics, International migration
  11. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics, 3101.0 Australian Demographic Statistics
  12. ^ http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/imm_net_mig_rat-immigration-net-migration-rate#definition
  13. ^ "National Agenda for a Multicultural Australia". immi.gov.au. 
  14. ^ a b http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/research/_pdf/poa-2008.pdf
  15. ^ National Multicultural Festival, accessed 2009-04-19
  16. ^ "One Nation's Immigration, Population and Social Cohesion Policy 1998". Australianpolitics.com. Retrieved 2012-02-01. 
  17. ^ Lachlan Chipman (1980), 'The Menace of Multiculturalism,' in Quadrant, Vol. 24, No. 10, October, pp. 3–6
  18. ^ Frank Knopfelmacher (1982), 'The case against multi-culturalism,' in Robert Manne (ed.), The New Conservatism in Australia, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Victoria, pages 40–66
  19. ^ Tanya Birrell (1978), 'Migration and the Dilemmas of Multiculturalism,' in Robert Birrell and Colin Hay (eds.), The Immigration Issue in Australia, A Sociological Symposium, Department of Sociology, School of Social Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, pages 132–146
  20. ^ Raymond Sestito (1982), The Politics of Multiculturalism, The Centre for Independent Studies, Sydney, New South Wales (ISBN 0-949769-06-1)
  21. ^ Raymond Sestito (1982), The Politics of Multiculturalism, The Centre for Independent Studies, Sydney, New South Wales (ISBN 0-949769-06-1), pages 30–36
  22. ^ Lyle Allan (1983), 'A Selective Annotated Bibliography of Multiculturalism', in Social Alternatives (University of Queensland), Vol.3, No.3, July, page 68
  23. ^ a b "ISSUES OF THE ELECTIONS". The Age (21,999). Victoria, Australia. 6 October 1925. p. 11. Retrieved 9 December 2016 – via National Library of Australia. 
  24. ^ Bowen, James; Bowen, Margarita (2002). The Great Barrier Reef: History, Science, Heritage. Cambridge University Press. p. 301. ISBN 0-521-82430-3. Retrieved 24 January 2008. 
  25. ^ Blainey, Geoffrey (1984). All For Australia, North Ryde, NSW: Methuen Haynes (ISBN 0-454-00828-7)
  26. ^ a b c John Hirst, Sense and Nonsense in Australian History, Black Inc. Agenda, Melbourne (ISBN 978-0-9775949-3-1), page22
  27. ^ John Hirst, Sense and Nonsense in Australian History, Black Inc. Agenda, Melbourne (ISBN 978-0-9775949-3-1), page23
  28. ^ Hughes, Linda (1997). "Multiculturalism: How Far Can Australia Go?". Journal of Christian Education. 40 (3): 17–25. 
  29. ^ Ernest Healy (1993), 'Ethnic ALP Branches - The Balkanisation of Labor,' in People and Place Vol.1, No.4, Pages 37–43
  30. ^ Ernest Healy (1993), 'Ethnic ALP Branches - The Balkanisation of Labor,' in People and Place Vol.1, No.4, Pages 37
  31. ^ "Hage, G. (1997) White Nation: Fantasies of White supremacy in a multicultural society, Annandale, NSW: Pluto Press (ISBN 1-86403-056-9)"
  32. ^ a b c d Salter, Frank. ""The Need to Reform or Dismantle Multiculturalism", Submission to the Inquiry into Multiculturalism in Australia" (PDF). Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  33. ^ Frank Salter, "When Diversity Meets Ethnic Kinship: Interesting Times?", The Independent Australian, Issue No. 16, Spring 2008.
  34. ^ a b Clancy, Greg (2006). The Conspiracies of Multiculturalism: The Betrayal that Divided Australia, Gordon, NSW: Sunda Publications
  35. ^ a b Ramakrishna, D; 2013. "Multiculturalism in America, Australia and India". Social Change (SAGE Publications). 43 (1): 99–110. 
  36. ^ Foster, L & Stockley, D (1980). "Multiculturalism in the Australian Context". Journal of Sociology. 16 (2): 109–114. 
  37. ^ a b Kerkyasharian, Stepan (2008). "Defending multiculturalism". Around the Globe. 4 (3): 26–27. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Allan, Lyle (1983), 'A Selective Annotated Bibliography of Multiculturalism', in Social Alternatives (University of Queensland), Vol.3, No.3, July, pages 65–72.
  • Blainey, Geoffrey (1984), All For Australia, Methuen Haynes, North Ryde, New South Wales. ISBN 0-454-00828-7
  • Bostock, William W. (1977), Alternatives of Ethnicity, Cat and Fiddle Press, Hobart, Tasmania. ISBN 0-85853-030-9
  • Clancy, Greg (2006), The Conspiracies of Multiculturalism. The Betrayal That Divided Australia, Sunda Publications, Gordon, New South Wales. ISBN 0-9581564-1-7
  • Hirst, John (2005), Sense and Nonsense in Australian History, Black Inc. Agenda, Melbourne, Victoria. ISBN 978-0-9775949-3-1
  • Lopez, Mark (2000), The Origins of Multiculturalism in Australian Politics 1945–1975, Melbourne University Press, Carlton South, Victoria. ISBN 0-522-84895-8
  • Sestito, Raymond (1982), The Politics of Multiculturalism, Centre for Independent Studies, St Leonards, New South Wales. ISBN 0-949769-06-1
  • Soutphommasane, Tim (2012) Don't go back to where you came from : why multiculturalism works, Sydney, N.S.W.: NewSouth Pub., ISBN 978-1-74223-336-9
  • Theophanous, Andrew C. (1995), Understanding Multiculturalism and Australian Identity, Elikia Books, Carlton South, Victoria. ISBN 1-875335-04-8