List of Muslim military leaders
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Entries in this chronological list of Muslim military leaders are accompanied by dates of birth and death, branch of Islam, country of birth, field of study, campaigns fought and a short biographical description. The list includes notable conquerors, generals and admirals from early Islamic history to the 21st century.
Muslim military leaders
- Umar ibn Al-Khattāb c.583–3 November 644: 'Umar, Son of Al-Khattab', was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history. He was a senior Sahabi of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He succeeded Abu Bakr (632–634) as the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate on 23 August 634.*Ali ibn Abu Talib 600-661: the last Rashidun caliph
- Khalid ibn al-Walid 592–642: Also known as the "Drawn Sword of God", he led the armies that conquered Palestine and Syria with a limited number of troops. He led successful incursions into the Byzantine and Persian empires.][better source needed]
- Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib c.566–625: Also known as " Lion of God", Muhammad gave him the title Sayyid-ush-Shuhda ("Chief of the Martyrs").
- 'Amr ibn al-'As 592–664: Known as a shrewd politician and general, he is most noted for leading the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640.
- Hussain ibn Ali 8 January 626–10 October 680: He was the son of Ali Ibni Talib and a grandson of Muhammad, who refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid. On 10 October 680 (Muharram 10, 61 AH), he and a small group of followers fought a large army. Husayn and all of his men were beheaded.
- Uqba bin Nafe: He led a Muslim army in northern Africa.
- Musa bin Nusair 640–716: An Umayyad governor and general in North Africa.
- Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef 661–714: An Umayyad administrator of Iraq.
- Muhammad bin Qasim 695–715: An early Arab General who captured Sindh in Pakistan.
- Mukhtar al-Thaqafi c.622–March 687: Born in al-Ṭaʾif, now in Saudi Arabia, he was an early Shia Islamic revolutionary based in Kufa, Iraq, who led an abortive rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphs in vengeance for the death of Husayn ibn 'Ali at the Battle of Karbala
- Tariq ibn-Ziyad d.720: An Amazigh (Berber) general who converted to Islam after the Arab conquest, he later led the Muslim army which conquered Hispania.
- Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi: The founder of the Muslim dynasty in Spain.
- Zaid ibn Ali: An arab who fought the Banu Umayyad.
- Muhammad ibn Qasim: He captured Sind and Multan in Pakistan.
- Isma'il ibn Jafar: An arab who fought the Banu Umayyad.
- Qutaibah bin Muslim: An arab Muslim general who captured Transoxiana.
- Tahir ibn Husayn d.822: A soldier of the Abbasid empire.
- Mahmud of Ghazni 971–1030: Ruler of Ghazni.
- Jawhar as-Siqilli: A commander of Fatimid forces, he founded Cairo and built Al-Azhar Mosque.
- Alp Arslan
- Togrul: founder of the Seljuq Dynasty.
- Yusuf ibn Tashfin: founder of the Almoravid Dynasty in the Islamic West, he secured several decisive military victories against the Christians in Al-Andalus and was able to reunify it under his rule after a period of internal fragmentation known as Muluk Al-Tawaif.
- Muḥammad Shahābuddīn Ghorī
- Nur ad-Din Zangi 1118–1174: A Syrian ruler and military leader who fought in the Crusades.
- Ṣalaḥ ad-Dīn Yusuf ibn Ayyub 1137–March 1193: He unified Egypt, Syria and Palestine under his rule, led the Muslims to victory at the Battle of Hattin and was able to re-claim several cities from the Crusaders, especially Jerusalem.
- Saif ad-Din Ghazi I: A leader during the crusades.
- Qutb-ud-din Aybak: He built the Qutub Minar.
- Razia Sultana: An Indian princess.
- Mu'in ad-Din Unur
- Al-Kamil: A Sunni Kurd leader.
- Baibars: The fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk Bahri dynasty, he fought Crusaders and Mongols.
- Saif ad-Din Qutuz: fought Crusaders and Mongols.
- Qalawun: fought Crusaders.
- Ghiyas ud din Balban
- Ala ud din Khilji: An Indian king who fought the Mongols.
- Osman Ghazi I: The founder of the Ottoman Dynasty.
- Berke Khan: A ruler of the Golden Horde
- Aybak: The founder of the Mamluk Dynasty.
- Saif ad-Din Qutuz
- Tamerlane (Taimur Lame or Timur) 1370–1405: Conqueror of the Middle East and founder of the Timurid dynasty.
- Bayezid I: The victor at the Battle of Nicopolis
- Zheng He 1371–1433: A Chinese mariner, explorer and admiral who was born into a Muslim family but embraced a broader ranging religious faith later.
- Hayreddin Barbarossa 1475–1546: Ottoman Admiral
- Zahiruddin Babur: Conqueror of the Middle East and founder of the powerful Mughal Empire.
- Selim I: Also known as "Yavuz Sultan Selim", he was sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam.
- Mehmed II: Also known as "Mehmed the Conqueror", he captured the Byzantine stronghold of Constantinople.
- Sharifa Fatima: A female Zaidi chieftain of Yemen, she conquered Sana'a.
- Akbar: At the end of his reign as emperor, the Mughal empire covered most of India.
- Chand Bibi
- Dragut: also known as "The Drawn Sword of Islam", Ottoman Naval Commander, Beylerbey, and famed Corsair
- Humayun: Second Mughal emperor.
- Isa Khan Niazi: Commander of Sher Shah Suri.
- Jehangir: His real name was Prince Salim.
- Malik Ambar: An Ethiopian slave who became a general and challenged the might of the Mughal army.
- Sayyed Mahmud Khan: A Commander–in–Chief of the Mughal Empire.
- Sher Shah Sur: Founder the short-lived Sur Dynasty.
- Suleiman the Magnificent: also known as "Kanuni Sultan Süleyman", he was sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam.
- Tahmasp I: He ensured the survival of the Saffavids of Persia.
- Shah Jahan : The 5th Mughal Emperor, remembered for building the Taj Mahal and expanding the Mughal Empire.
- Aurangzeb : Also kown as Aurangzeb Alamgir, he was 6th Mughal Emperor who expanded the Mughal Empire to its largest extent.
- Murad IV : Rejuvenated the Ottoman Empire with reforms and reconquered the city of Yerevan and Baghdad.
- Ma Gui (general)
- Zulfiqar Khan Nusrat Jung
- Daud Khan Panni
- Nadir Shah 1688–1747: Also known as Nadir Qoli Beg and Tahmasp-Qoli Khan, he was shah of Iran and a military leader.
- Ahmad Shah Durrani 1722–177: He was the founder of the Durrani dynasty and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan. He is best known for his victory against the Maratha at the Battle of Panipat (1761).
- Hyder Ali 1722–1782
- Imam Shamil 1797–1871: An Avar (from modern day Dagestan) who is considered both a political and religious leader for Chechens, Dagestanis, and Caucasians.
- Tipu Sultan 1750–1799): Also known as the Tiger of Mysore, he was the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. He Fought against the British Empire and was defeated and killed at Seringapatam on 4 May 1799.
- Diponegoro 1785–1855: He was a Javanese prince who opposed the Dutch colonial rule during the Java War of 1825–1830.
- Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi 1797–186: He is most remembered for his role as a freedom fighter.
- Abd al-Qādir al-Jazā'irī 1808–1883: An Algerian militant against the French occupation.
- Mir Masjidi Khan d.1841: An Afghan resistance leader during the First Anglo-Afghan War.
- Bakht Khan: Indian Muslim commander during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
- Husein Gradaščević: The leader of Great Bosnian uprising.
- Muhammad Ahmad 1844–1885: A Muslim religious leader and militant in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
- Omar Mukhtar 1858–1931 a Libyan leader of resistance against the Italian occupation in Libya
- Bai Chongxi 1893–1966: A general of the Republic of China (ROC).
- Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Karim al-Khattabi 1882–1963: A Berber leader, he fought against the French and Spanish occupations of Northern Morocco.
- Begum Hazrat Mahal: An Indian Queen who fought for independence from the British.
- Ma Zhan'ao 1830–1886: A general of the Qing dynasty.
- Ma Anliang 1855–1920: A general of the Qing dynasty and then of the republic.
- Ma Guoliang: A general of the Qing dynasty.
- Ma Qianling 1824–1909: A general of the Qing dynasty.
- Ma Zhanshan 1885–1950: A general of the Republic of China.
- Ghazi Osman Pasha 1832–1900: An Ottoman field marshal and the hero of the Siege of Plevna.
- Fakhri Pasha 1868–1948: He was the commander of the Ottoman Empire army and governor of Medina from 1916 to 1919.
- Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt 1789–1848: He was the commander of the Egyptian army and crushed the Ottoman Empire army more than once.
- Saad el-Shazly: He was Egypt's chief of staff during the October War 1973 against Israel. he succeded to cross the Suez Canal and destroyed Bar Lev Line.
- "10 best Muslim Commanders, Generals or Leaders?". Quora. Retrieved 9 December 2016.