Abd-el-Krim in his elder years
|Nickname(s)||Abd el-Krim or Abdelkrim|
|Died|| (aged 80)|
|Allegiance||Republic of the Rif, Morocco|
|Alma mater||University of al-Qarawiyyin|
Mohamed ibn Abdelkrim El-Khattabi (Arabic: محمد بن عبد الكريم الخطابي), better known as Abd el-Krim (1882, Ajdir – 6 February 1963) was a Berber political and military leader. He and his brother Mhemmed led a large-scale revolt by a coalition of Berber Riffian tribes against French and Spanish colonization of the Rif, in northern Morocco. His guerrilla tactics, which included the first-ever use of tunneling as a technique of modern warfare, directly influenced Ho Chi Minh, Mao Zedong and Che Guevara.
Mohamed ibn Abdelkrim was born in Ajdir, across the Alhucemas Bay from the Spanish army's island presidio of Peñón de Alhucemas. He was the son of Abd el-Karim El-Khattabi, a qadi (Islamic judge and chief local leader) of the Aith Yusuf clan of the Aith Uriaghel (or Waryaghar) tribe. Abd el-Krim received a customary formative education at a local school in Ajdir and subsequently attended an institute at Tetouan. At the age of 20, he studied for two years in Fez at the Attarine and Seffarine madrasah and subsequently enrolled as a student at the Qaraouiyine University, the world's oldest instutituion of higher education. Both Mohamed Ben Abdelkerim and his brother M'Hammad received a Spanish education, the latter studying mine engineering in Málaga and Madrid. Both spoke fluent Spanish and Riffian.
Following his studies, Abd el-Krim was worked in Melilla (a Spanish enclave that has been occupied from 1494 to the present day) as a teacher and translator for the OCTAI, the Spanish 'native affairs' office, and as a journalist for the Spanish newspaper Telegrama del Rif (1906–1915). In 1907, he was hired to edit and write articles in Arabic for El Telegrama del Rif, a daily newspaper in Melilla, where he defended the advantages of European—especially Spanish—civilization and technology and their potential to elevate the economic and cultural level of the Moroccan population. In 1910, Abd el-Krim took a position as secretary-interpreter in the Native Affairs Office in Melilla, which brought him into close contact with the Spanish military bureaucracy and the town's civil society and gained a reputation for intelligence, efficiency and discretion.
World War I
Abd el-Krim entered the Spanish administration first as a secretary in the Bureau of Native Affairs, and he was later appointed chief qadi for Melilla in 1915. He taught at a Hispano-Arabic school and was an editor for the Arab section of the newspaper, El Telegrama del Rif.
Before and after the outbreak of World War I, Abd el-Krim was noted as Germanophile, defending it on the basis of arguments brought from the Egyptian and Turkish press. Abd-el-Krim offered himself as broker to the Germans to get them mining licenses in the mountains of Beni Uriaguel. His father was indeed one of the leading elements of the German–Turkish operations in the Rif.
In the midst of the conflict, he was arrested. The Spanish authorities sought to please the French, who had claimed the German agents roamed free in Melilla, thus they proceeded to hear a number of complaints on Abd el-Krim. One of the complaints dealt with an alleged involvement in a conspiracy with the German consul Walter Zechlin (1879–1962). He was imprisoned in Chaouen[clarification needed] from 1916 to 1918 but then escaped. He regained his job as a judge in Melilla. At the end of the war, Abd el-Krim briefly resumed publishing in a Spanish-language newspaper, but, fearing extradition to French Morocco, he returned to his home at Ajdir in January 1919. He was alarmed by the appearance of Spanish agents in Ayt Weryaghel tribal territory and decided to fight for his tribe's independence.
In 1920, Abd el-Krim, together with his brother, began a war of rebellion against the Spanish incursions. His goal was to unite the tribes of the Rif into an independent Republic of the Rif, to dismantle the entire French-Spanish colonial project in Morocco and to introduce modern political reform.
In 1921, as a byproduct of their efforts to destroy the power of a local brigand, Raisuli, Spanish troops approached the unoccupied areas of the Rif. Abd-el-Krim sent their commander, General Manuel Fernández Silvestre, a warning that if the troops crossed the Ameqqran River, he would consider it as an act of war. Silvestre is said to have laughed and, shortly afterwards, crossed the river with 60,000 men and set up a military post in the foothills of Abarran mountains. In June 1921 a sizable Riffian force attacked this post killing 179 of the estimated 250 Spanish troops there. Soon afterwards, Abd el-Krim directed his forces to attack the Spanish lines at Anwal, which they did with great success. During the attack, General Silvestre, head of the Spanish forces, committed suicide when he saw that defeat was inevitable. In three weeks of fierce battles, 18,000 Spanish troops were killed. The Rifians' colossal victory established Abd el-Krim as a master and pioneer of guerrilla warfare, and the president of the Republic of the Rif. By July, the remainder of the 60,000 Spanish soldiers who were not killed or captured had fled to the coast, and into Melilla, defeated by an army of 30,000 Rifian fighters.
The embarrassing defeat of the Spanish forces at Annual and the ensuing massacre of Spaniards at Monte Arruit delivered a coup de grace to the Restoration regime in that country, and what it was known as the African "adventure" became referred to as the Moroccan "mess" or "cancer". A coup d'état led by Miguel Primo de Rivera installed a dictatorship in Spain in September 1923.
By 1924, the Spanish forces had retreated, because of more defeats at the hands of Abd el-Krim, to two isolated[which?] enclaves along the Moroccan coast. France, in any case laid, claim to territory in the southern Rif and realized that allowing another North African colonial power to be defeated by the native Berbers would present a great threat to its control of its North African territories. After Abd el-Krim invaded French-occupied Morocco in April 1925 and made it as far as Fez, France decided to take strong steps to put down the revolt. The French government, in 1925, after conferencing with the Spanish in Madrid, sent a massive French force under Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain to Morocco, where it joined with a Spanish army, with a combined total of more than 250,000 soldiers, supported by large numbers of aircraft and artillery, and began operations against the Rif Republic.
Intense combat lasted ten months, but eventually, the combined French and Spanish armies, which used chemical bombs against the population as well as other weapons, defeated the forces of Abd el-Krim and inflicted extensive damage on the local Berber population. On 26 May 1926, Abd el-Krim surrendered to the French at his then headquarters of Targuist (Targist).
Part of a series on the
|History of Morocco|
As a consequence, he was exiled to the island of Réunion (a French territory in the Indian Ocean) from 1926 to 1947, where he was "given a comfortable estate and generous annual subsidiary". In exile, he continued his fierce anti-Western rhetoric, and he pushed to keep western trends from encroaching on Moroccan culture. In 1947, Abd el-Krim was given permission to live in the south of France after he had been released on health grounds.
However, he succeeded in gaining asylum in Egypt instead and presided there over the Liberation Committee of the Arab Maghreb. After Morocco gained independence in 1956, Mohammed V of Morocco invited him back to Morocco. He refused as long as French forces were on North African soil.
- Asprey, R.B. (2002) War in the Shadows: The Guerrilla in History, iUniverse Publishing. ISBN 0595225942.
- Boyd, C. (1979) Praetorian Politics in Liberal Spain, University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. ISBN 0807813680.
- Carr, R. (1980) Modern Spain: 1875-1980, Oxford University Press: Oxford. ISBN 0192158287.
- Castro, F., Ramonet, I. & Hurley, A. (2008) Fidel Castro: My Life: a Spoken Autobiography, Scribner: New York. ISBN 978-1-4165-5328-1.
- Cowley, R. & Parker, G. (eds.) (1996) The Reader's Companion to Military History, Houghton Mifflin: Boston. ISBN 9780395669693.
- Er, Mevliyar (2015), "Abd-el-Krim al-Khattabi: The Unknown Mentor of Che Guevara", Terrorism and Political Violence, 27 (5), doi:10.1080/09546553.2014.997355CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hart, D.M. (1976) The Aith Waryaghar of the Moroccan Rif, History Fund Publications: Tucson, Arizona. ISBN 978-0816504527.
- Keegan, J. & Wheatcroft, A. (2014) Who's Who in Military History: From 1453 to the Present Day, Routledge Publishing: New York. ISBN 1136414169.
- Pierson, P. (1999) The History of Spain, Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut. ISBN 978-0-313-30272-5.
- Roger-Mathieu, J., ed. (1927), Abdelkrim, Mémoires d'Abd el Krim (in French), Paris: Librairie des Champs ElyséesCS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ruedy, John (1996), Islamism and Secularism in North Africa, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-312-16087-9CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Tahtah, M (1999), Entre pragmatisme, reformisme et modernisme: Le role politico-religieux des Khattabi dans le Rif (Maroc) jusqu'a 1926 (in French), Leuven: PeetersCS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Abd el-Krim". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. pp. 18. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- "عبد الكريم الخطابي". www.aljazeera.net (in Arabic). Retrieved 2020-08-01.
- Castro, Ramonet & Hurley, p. 680.
- Er 2015, pp. 1-23.
- Tahtah 1999, p. 143
- Hart, pp. 370-371.
- Roger-Mathieu 1927, p. 56.
- Tahtah 1999, p. 144.
- Sánchez Pérez 1973, p. 137.
- La Porte, Pablo 2017, p. 516. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLa_Porte,_Pablo2017 (help)
- Boyd, p. 175.
- Carr, p. 94.
- Ruedy 1996, p. 59.
- Pierson, pp. 126-127.
- Asprey, pp. 267-274.
- Gájate Bajo, María (2013). "El desastre de Annual. El pleito de las responsabilidades en la gran prensa (1921 - 1923)". Revista Universitaria de Historia Militar. 2 (3): 119–138. ISSN 2254-6111.
- The date of surrender is in dispute, as some sources say 27 May.
- Cowley & Parker, p. 1.
- Keegan & Wheatcroft, p. 2.
- "الاستاذ المحاسب المرحوم حسن وصفي محمد وصفي". Al Ahram. 11 November 2001. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- "الاميرة/ مني محمد عبد الكريم الخطابي". Al Ahram. 8 April 2008. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- "صفية الجزائري: جدي هو ع القادر الجزائري والخطابي أمرني بمغادرة المغرب بعد أحداث الريف". Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- "صفية الجزائري: رشيد زار الريفيين في 58-59 بأمر من والده محمد بن عبد الكريم الخطابي". Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- "صفية الجزائري: أخ رشيد الخطابي كان يتدرب مع أعبابو قبل المحاولة الانقلابية". Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- "صفية الجزائري: الحسن الثاني كان يخاف أن تنقلب عليه العائلة الخطابية". 12 July 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- "صفية الجزائري: الحسن الثاني خاطب إدريس الخطابي قائلا "الصلاة لا تجوز في القصر". Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- "صفية الجزائري: ابن شقيق الخطابي عُزل من الجيش بعد انقلاب الصخيرات". Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- "صفية الجزائري: الحسن الثاني سلم عمر الخطابي مسدسا وقال له: أفرغه في رأسك". Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- "صفية الجزائري: ابن شقيق الخطابي اقتحم القصر الملكي و"شنق" على مدير التشريفات". Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- La Porte, Pablo (2017). "La espiral irresistible: la Gran Guerra y el Protectorado español en Marruecos". Hispania Nova. Getafe: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. 15: 500–526. doi:10.20318/hn.2017.3499. ISSN 1138-7319.
- Sánchez Pérez, Andrés (1973). "Adbelkrim" (PDF). Revista de Historia Militar. Madrid: Ministerio de Defensa. XVII (34): 123–158. ISSN 0482-5748.
- Abdelkrim, Mémoires d'Abd el Krim / recueillis par J. Roger-Mathieu, (in French), Paris, Librairie des Champs Elysées, 1927
- Abdelkrim, Mémoires II, la Crise franco-marocaine, 1955—1956, (in French), Paris, Plon, 1984
- Bensoussan, David, Il était une fois le Maroc : témoignages du passé judéo-marocain Archived 2012-04-02 at the Wayback Machine, éd. du Lys, www.editionsdulys.ca, Montréal, 2010 (ISBN 2-922505-14-6); Second edition : www.iuniverse.com, Bloomington, IN, 2012, ISBN 978-1-4759-2608-8, 620p. ISBN 978-1-4759-2609-5 (ebook)
- Er, Mevliyar; Rich, Paul B. (July 2015), "Abd el-Krim's guerrilla war against Spain and France in North Africa: An adventure setting for screen melodramas", Small Wars & Insurgencies, 26 (4): 597–615CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Montagne, R. (1954) Révolution au Maroc (in French), Paris: France Empire.
- Pennell, C.R. (1986) A Country with a Government and a Flag: The Rif War in Morocco, 1921-1926, Menas: UK. ISBN 9780906559239.
- Pennell, C. R. (2000) Morocco since 1830: A History, Hurst: London. ISBN 9781850652731.
- Tamburini, F. (Sep 2005) "I gas nella guerra del Rif", Storia Militare, n.145, a.XIII
- Woolman, David S. 1968. Rebels in the Rif: Abd el Krim and the Rif Rebellion, Stanford University Press, California
Media related to Abd el-Krim at Wikimedia Commons