National Hero of Indonesia

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National Hero of Indonesia (Indonesian: Gelar Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia) is the highest-level title awarded in Indonesia.[1] It is posthumously given by the Government of Indonesia for actions which are deemed to be heroic – defined as "actual deeds which can be remembered and exemplified for all time by other citizens"[a] – or "extraordinary service furthering the interests of the state and people".[b][2] The Ministry of Social Affairs gives seven criteria which an individual must fulfill, as follows:[2]

  1. An Indonesian citizen[c] who is deceased and, during his or her lifetime, led an armed struggle or produced a concept or product useful to the state;
  2. Have continued the struggle throughout his or her life and performed above and beyond the call of duty;
  3. Have had a wide-reaching impact through his or her actions;
  4. Have shown a high degree of nationalism;
  5. Have been of good moral standing and respectable character;
  6. Never surrendered to his or her enemies; and
  7. Never made an act which taints his or her legacy.[d]

Nominations undergo a four-step process and must be approved at each level. A proposal is made by the general populace in a city or regency to the mayor or regent, who must then make a request to the province's governor. The governor then makes a recommendation to the Ministry of Social Affairs, which forwards it to the President, represented by the Board of Titles (Dewan Gelar);[2] this board consists of two academics, two persons of a military background, and three persons who have previously received an award or title.[1] Those selected by the President, as represented by the Board, are awarded the title at a ceremony in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta.[2] Since 2000, the ceremony has occurred in early November – coinciding with Indonesia's Heroes' Day (Hari Pahlawan).[3]

The legal framework for the title, initially styled National Independence Hero (Pahlawan Kemerdekaan Nasional), was established with the release of Presidential Decree No. 241 of 1958. The title was first awarded on 30 August 1959 to the politician turned writer Abdul Muis, who had died the previous month.[4][5][6] This title was used for the rest of Sukarno's rule. When Suharto rose to power in the mid-1960s, the title was given its current name. Special titles at the level of National Hero have also been awarded. Hero of the Revolution (Pahlawan Revolusi) was given in 1965 to ten victims of the failed 30 September Movement coup, while Sukarno and former vice-president Mohammad Hatta were given the title Proclamation Heroes (Pahlawan Proklamasi) in 1988 for their role in reading the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence.[3][4][6]

A total of 147 men and 12 women have been deemed national heroes, most recently Rajiman Wediodiningrat, Lambertus Nicodemus Palar and Tahi Bonar Simatupang in 2013.[7] These heroes have come from all parts of the Indonesian archipelago, from Aceh in the west to Papua in the east. They represent numerous ethnicities, including native Indonesians, ethnic Chinese, and Eurasians. They include prime ministers, guerrillas, government ministers, soldiers, royalty, journalists, and a bishop.

The following list is initially presented in alphabetical order; owing to differing cultural naming conventions, not all entries are sorted by last name. The list is further sortable by year of birth, death, and recognition. Names are standardised using the Perfected Spelling System and thus may not reflect the original spelling.[e]

National Heroes of Indonesia[edit]

A man in a turban, looking forward
Antasari, on a 2,000 rupiah bill
A woman, looking left
Cut Nyak Dhien, on a 10,000 rupiah bill
A grizzled man looking forward
Sisingamangaraja XII, on a 1,000 rupiah bill
Contents
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National Heroes of Indonesia
Name Born Died Notes Elevated Ref(s).
Abdul Halim 1911 1988 Independence activist and politician, fourth Prime Minister of Indonesia 2008 [3][8]
Abdul Haris Nasution 1918 2000 General in the Army, twice appointed Army Chief of Staff 2002 [3][9]
Abdul Kadir 1771 1875 Nobleman from Melawi, promoted economic development, fought against Dutch colonial forces 1999 [3][10]
Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah 1908 1981 Islamic scholar and author 2011 [11]
Abdul Muis 1883 1959 Politician, later author 1959 [f][4][12]
Abdul Rahman Saleh 1909 1947 Early figure in the Air Force, killed when his medical flight was shot down by the Dutch 1974 [4][13]
Abdullah Bau Massepe, AndiAndi Abdullah Bau Massepe 1918 1947 Bugis nobleman, led attacks against Dutch forces during the National Revolution, son of Andi Mappanyukki 2005 [3][14]
Achmad Subarjo 1896 1978 Independence activist and government minister 2009 [3][15]
Adam Malik 1917 1984 Journalist and independence activist, third Vice President of Indonesia 1998 [3][16]
Adnan Kapau Gani 1905 1968 Independence activist turned government minister, smuggled weapons to support the National Revolution 2007 [3][17]
Ageng Serang, NyiNyi Ageng Serang 1752 1828 Javanese guerrilla leader who led attacks on Dutch colonials on several occasions 1974 [3][18]
Agus Salim 1884 1954 Minang Islamic leader, politician, independence activist 1961 [4][19]
Agustinus Adisucipto 1916 1947 Early figure in the Air Force, killed when his medical flight was shot down by the Dutch 1974 [4][20]
Ahmad Dahlan 1868 1934 Javanese Islamic leader, established Muhammadiyah; husband of Siti Walidah 1961 [4][21]
Ahmad Rifa'i 1786 1870 Islamic thinker and writer known for his anti-Dutch stance 2004 [3][22]
Ahmad Yani 1922 1965 Leader of the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement 1965 [4][23]
Alimin 1889 1964 Independence advocate, politician, and Communist Party of Indonesia figure 1964 [4][24]
Amir Hamzah 1911 1946 Poet and nationalist 1975 [3][25]
Antasari 1809 1862 Fought against Dutch colonial forces in the Banjarmasin War 1968 [4][26]
Arie Frederik Lasut 1918 1949 Geologist and educator who was executed by the Dutch 1969 [4][27]
Bagindo Azizchan 1910 1947 Mayor of Padang, resisted Dutch forces during the National Revolution 2005 [3][28]
Basuki Rahmat 1921 1969 General, witness to the Supersemar 1969 [4][29]
Chik di Tiro, TeungkuTeungku Chik di Tiro 1836 1891 Acehnese Islamic figure and guerrilla leader who fought against Dutch colonial forces 1973 [4][30]
Cilik Riwut 1918 1987 Soldier and politician, promoted economic and cultural development in Central Kalimantan 1998 [3][31]
Cipto Mangunkusumo 1886 1943 Javanese politician, mentor to Sukarno 1964 [4][32]
Cokroaminoto 1883 1934 Politician, leader of Sarekat Islam, mentor to Sukarno 1961 [4][33]
Dekker, Ernest DouwesErnest Douwes Dekker 1879 1950 Indo journalist and politician who advocated Indonesian independence 1961 [g][4][34]
Dewi Sartika 1884 1947 Educator, established the country's first school for girls 1966 [4][35]
Dhien, Cut NyakCut Nyak Dhien 1850 1908 Acehnese guerrilla leader who fought against Dutch colonial forces; wife of Teuku Umar 1964 [4][36]
Diponegoro 1785 1855 Son of the Sultan of Yogyakarta, fought a five-year war against Dutch colonial forces 1973 [4][37]
Donald Izacus Panjaitan 1925 1965 General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement 1965 [4][38]
Eddy Martadinata 1921 1966 Admiral in the Navy and diplomat, killed in a helicopter crash 1966 [4][39]
Fakhruddin 1890 1929 Islamic leader, negotiated protection of Indonesian hajj pilgrims 1964 [4][40]
Fatmawati 1923 1980 Sewed the first national flag, social activist, a wife of Sukarno 2000 [3][41]
Ferdinand Lumbantobing 1899 1962 Doctor and politician, fought for the rights of forced labourers 1962 [4][42]
Frans Kaisiepo 1921 1979 Papuan nationalist who helped in the acquisition of Papua 1993 [3][43]
Gatot Mangkupraja 1896 1968 Independence activist and politician, suggested the formation of Defenders of the Homeland 2004 [3][44]
Gatot Subroto 1907 1962 General, deputy chief-of-staff of the Army 1962 [4][45]
Halim Perdanakusuma 1922 1947 Early figure in the Air Force, killed during the National Revolution 1975 [3][46]
Hamengkubuwono I 1717 1792 Sultan of Yogyakarta, fought against the Dutch East India Company, established Yogyakarta 2006 [3][47]
Hamengkubuwono IX 1912 1988 Sultan of Yogyakarta, independence activist, military leader, and politician; second Vice President of Indonesia 1990 [3][48]
Harun Bin Said 1947 1968 Bombed the MacDonald House during the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation 1968 [h][4][49]
Hasan Basri 1923 1984 Soldier during the Indonesian National Revolution, supported the integration of Kalimantan in Indonesia 2001 [3][50]
Hasanuddin 1631 1670 Sultan of Gowa, fought against Dutch colonial forces 1973 [4][51]
Hasyim Asy'ari 1875 1947 Islamic leader, founder of Nahdlatul Ulama 1964 [4][52]
Hazairin 1906 1975 Legal scholar, independence activist, government minister, and educator 1999 [3][53]
Herman Johannes 1912 1992 Engineer, made weapons during the National Revolution, helped establish Gadjah Mada University 2009 [3][54]
Ida Anak Agung Gde Agung 1921 1999 Independence activist and government minister 2007 [3][55]
Idham Chalid 1921 2010 Leader of Nahdlatul Ulama, politician 2011 [11][56]
Ilyas Yakoub 1903 1958 Independence activist, politician, and guerrilla fighter 1999 [3][57]
Imam Bonjol, TuankuTuanku Imam Bonjol 1772 1864 Islamic figure from West Sumatra who fought against Dutch colonial forces in the Padri War 1973 [4][58]
Inten II, RadinRadin Inten II 1834 1856 Nobleman from Lampung, led a revolution against Dutch colonists 1986 [3][59]
Iskandar Muda 1593 1636 Sultan of Aceh, expanded the state's influence 1993 [i][3][60]
Ismail Marzuki 1914 1958 Composer known for numerous patriotic songs 2004 [3][61]
Iswahyudi 1918 1947 Early figure in the Air Force, killed during the National Revolution 1975 [3][62]
Iwa Kusumasumantri 1899 1971 Independence activist, lawyer, and politician 2002 [3][63]
Izaak Huru Doko 1913 1985 Independence activist and educator, helped establish Udayana University 2006 [3][64]
Janatin 1943 1968 Bombed the MacDonald House during the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation 1968 [j][4][65]
Jatikusumo 1917 1992 General in the Army and politician 2002 [3][66]
Jemma, AndiAndi Jemma 1935 1965 Independence activist, led attacks against Dutch forces during the National Revolution 2002 [3][67]
Johannes Abraham Dimara 1916 2000 Papuan army officer who helped in the acquisition of Papua 2010 [68]
Johannes Leimena 1905 1977 Early Minister of Health, developed the Puskesmas clinic system 2010 [68]
Juanda Kartawijaya 1911 1963 Sundanese politician, final Prime Minister of Indonesia 1963 [4][69]
Karel Satsuit Tubun 1928 1965 Police brigadier, killed by the 30 September Movement 1965 [4][70]
Kartini 1879 1904 Javanese women's rights figure 1964 [4][71]
Kasimo, Ignatius JosephIgnatius Joseph Kasimo 1900 1986 Independence activist, Catholic Party leader 2011 [11][72]
Katamso Darmokusumo 1923 1965 General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement 1965 [4][73]
Ketut Jelantik, I GustiI Gusti Ketut Jelantik Unknown 1849 Balinese leader who fought against Dutch colonial forces 1993 [3][74]
Ketut Puja, I GustiI Gusti Ketut Puja 1904 1957 First governor of Bali 2011 [11][75]
Ki Hajar Dewantara 1889 1959 Educator and government minister, established Taman Siswa, brother of Suryopranoto 1959 [4][76]
Ki Sarmidi Mangunsarkoro 1904 1957 Educator with Budi Utomo and Taman Siswa, government minister 2011 [11][77]
Kiras Bangun 1852 1942 Batak guerrilla leader who fought the Dutch colonialists 2005 [3][78]
Kusumah Atmaja 1898 1952 First Chief Justice of the Supreme Court 1965 [4][79]
La Maddukelleng 1700 1765 Nobleman from Paser Sultanate, repelled Dutch forces from Wajo Kingdom 1998 [3][80]
Lambertus Nicodemus Palar 1900 1981 Diplomat, negotiated recognition of Indonesia during the Revolution 2013 [7]
Lie, JohnJohn Lie 1911 1988 Rear Admiral in the Navy, smuggled products to fund the National Revolution 2009 [3][81]
Mahmud Badaruddin II 1767 1852 Sultan of Palembang, fought against English and Dutch colonists 1984 [3][82]
Mangkunegara I 1725 1795 Fought against Dutch colonists and collaborators in Central Java 1988 [3][83]
Mappanyukki, AndiAndi Mappanyukki 1885 1967 Bugis nobleman, led attacks against Dutch forces in the 1920s and 30s, father of Andi Abdullah Bau Massepe 2004 [3][84]
Maria Walanda Maramis 1872 1924 Women's rights advocate and educator 1969 [4][85]
Martha Christina Tiahahu 1800 1818 Guerrilla fighter from Maluku who died in Dutch custody 1969 [4][86]
Marthen Indey 1912 1986 Nationalist and independence activist, promoted Papuan integration in Indonesia 1993 [3][87]
Mas Mansur 1896 1946 Islamic scholar, Muhammadiyah leader 1964 [4][88]
Mas Tirtodarmo Haryono 1924 1965 General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement 1965 [4][89]
Maskun Sumadireja 1907 1986 Independence activist and politician 2004 [3][90]
Meutia, Cut NyakCut Nyak Meutia 1870 1910 Acehnese guerrilla leader who fought against Dutch colonial forces 1964 [4][91]
Mohammad Hatta 1902 1980 Independence activist, First Vice-President of Indonesia 2012 [k][92][93]
Mohammad Husni Thamrin 1894 1941 Politician and independence activist 1960 [4][94]
Mohammad Natsir 1908 1993 Islamic scholar and politician, fifth Prime Minister of Indonesia 2008 [3][95]
Muhammad Hasan, TeukuTeuku Muhammad Hasan 1906 1997 Independence activist, first governor of Sumatra 2006 [3][96]
Muhammad Yamin 1903 1962 Poet turned politician and independence activist 1973 [4][97]
Mustopo 1913 1986 Leader during the Battle of Surabaya, established Dr. Moestopo Dental College 2007 [3][98]
Muwardi 1907 1948 Handled security for the Proclamation of Independence, established a hospital in Surakarta 1964 [4][99]
Nani Wartabone 1907 1986 Independence activist and politician, helped put down the Permesta rebellion 2003 [3][100]
Ngurah Rai, I GustiI Gusti Ngurah Rai 1917 1946 Balinese military leader during National Revolution 1975 [3][101]
Nuku Muhammad Amiruddin 1738 1805 Sultan of Tidore, led several naval battles against Dutch colonial forces 1995 [3][102]
Noer Alie 1914 1992 Islamic leader and educator, led student soldiers during the National Revolution 2006 [3][103]
Nyak Arif, TeukuTeuku Nyak Arif 1899 1946 Acehnese politician and resistance leader, first governor of Aceh 1974 [104]
Opu Daeng Risaju 1880 1964 Early woman politician, fought against the Dutch during the National Revolution 2006 [3][105]
Oto Iskandar di Nata 1897 1945 Politician and independence activist 1973 [4][106]
Pajonga Daeng Ngalie 1901 1958 Coordinated attacks in South Sulawesi during the National Revolution, promoted national integration 2006 [3][107]
Pakubuwono VI 1807 1849 Susuhunan of Surakarta, rebelled against Dutch colonial forces 1964 [4][108]
Pakubuwono X 1866 1939 Susuhunan of Surakarta, supported various projects which furthered Native Indonesian interests 2011 [11][109]
Pattimura 1783 1817 Guerrilla from Maluku who fought against Dutch colonial forces 1973 [4][110]
Pierre Tendean 1939 1965 Soldier in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement 1965 [4][111]
Pong Tiku 1846 1907 Torajan noble, fought against Dutch colonialists 2002 [3][112]
Raja Ali Haji 1809 c. 1870 Historian and poet from Riau 2004 [3][113]
Raja Haji Fisabilillah 1727 1784 Warrior from Riau who fought against Dutch colonial forces 1997 [3][114]
Rajiman Wediodiningrat 1879 1952 First head of the People's Representative Council 2013 [7]
Ranggong Daeng Romo 1915 1947 Led troops in two battles against Dutch forces during the National Revolution 2001 [3][115]
Rasuna Said 1910 1965 Women's rights advocate and nationalist 1974 [3][116]
Robert Wolter Monginsidi 1925 1949 Guerrilla fighter in Makassar during the National Revolution, executed by the Dutch 1973 [4][117]
Saharjo 1909 1963 Minister of Justice, pioneered legal reform in the country 1963 [4][118]
Sam Ratulangi 1890 1949 Minahasa politician and supporter of Indonesian independence 1961 [4][119]
Samanhudi 1878 1956 Businessman, established Sarekat Islam 1961 [4][120]
Silas Papare 1918 1978 Fought for Papua's independence from the Netherlands, promoted Papuan integration in Indonesia 1993 [3][121]
Sisingamangaraja XII 1849 1907 Batak leader who fought a lengthy guerrilla campaign against Dutch colonial forces 1961 [4][114]
Siswondo Parman 1918 1965 General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement 1965 [4][122]
Siti Hartinah 1923 1996 Wife of then-president Suharto, active in social work, established Taman Mini Indonesia Indah 1996 [3][123]
Siti Walidah 1872 1946 Founder of Aisyiyah, Muhammadiyah figure, wife of Ahmad Dahlan, 1971 [l][4][124]
Slamet Riyadi 1927 1950 Brigadier General in the Army, killed while putting down a rebellion in Sulawesi 2007 [3][125]
Sudirman 1916 1950 Commander in Chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces for most of the National Revolution 1964 [m][4][126]
Sugiyapranata, AlbertusAlbertus Sugiyapranata 1896 1963 Javanese Catholic bishop and nationalist 1963 [4][127]
Sugiyono Mangunwiyoto 1926 1965 Colonel in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement 1965 [4][128]
Suharso 1912 1971 Medical pioneer in prosthetics 1973 [4][129]
Sukarjo Wiryopranoto 1903 1962 Independence figure, diplomat, and politician 1962 [4][130]
Sukarno 1901 1970 Independence activist who read the Proclamation of Independence, first President of Indonesia 2012 [k][92][93]
Sultan Agung 1591 1645 Sultan of Mataram, fought against encroaches by the Dutch East India Company 1975 [3][131]
Sultan Daeng Radja, AndiAndi Sultan Daeng Radja 1894 1963 Independence activist and politician 2006 [3][132]
Supeno 1916 1949 Government minister, killed while fighting against the Dutch during the National Revolution 1970 [4][133]
Supomo 1903 1958 First Minister of Justice, helped write the Constitution 1965 [4][134]
Suprapto 1920 1965 General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement 1965 [4][135]
Supriyadi 1925 1945 Leader of a rebellion against the Japanese occupation forces in Blitar 1975 [n][3][136]
Suroso 1893 1981 Politician and independence activist 1986 [3][137]
Suryo 1896 1948 Governor of East Java during the National Revolution 1964 [4][138]
Suryopranoto 1871 1959 Education and workers' rights figure, brother of Ki Hajar Dewantara 1959 [4][139]
Sutan Syahrir 1909 1966 Politician, first Prime Minister of Indonesia 1966 [4][140]
Sutomo 1888 1938 Javanese educator, established Budi Utomo 1961 [o][4][141]
Sutomo 1920 1981 Military officer who led troops in the Battle of Surabaya 2008 [p][3][142]
Sutoyo Siswomiharjo 1922 1965 General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement 1965 [4][143]
Syafruddin Prawiranegara 1911 1989 First governor of Bank Indonesia 2011 [11]
Syarif Kasim II 1893 1968 Sultan of Siak, promoted integration of the East Sumatran kingdoms 1998 [3][133]
Tahi Bonar Simatupang 1920 1990 General who served as chief of staff from 1950 to 1954 2013 [7]
Tambusai, TuankuTuanku Tambusai 1784 1882 Islamic leader from Riau who fought against Dutch colonial forces in the Padri War 1995 [3][144]
Tan Malaka 1884 1949 Minang politician and communist activist 1963 [4][145]
Thaha Syaifuddin 1816 1904 Sultan of Jambi, led an armed revolution against Dutch colonial forces 1977 [3][146]
Tirtayasa 1631 1683 Guerrilla from Banten who fought against the Dutch 1970 [4][147]
Tirto Adhi Suryo 1880 1918 Early journalist, exiled for his anti-Dutch editorials 2006 [3][148]
Umar, TeukuTeuku Umar 1854 1899 Acehnese guerrilla leader who fought against Dutch colonial forces; husband of Cut Nyak Dhien 1973 [4][149]
Untung Surapati 1660 1706 Led several rebellions against the Dutch East India Company 1975 [3][150]
Urip Sumoharjo 1893 1948 Early leader of Indonesian Armed Forces, second in command to Sudirman 1964 [4][151]
Wage Rudolf Supratman 1903 1938 Composer of the national anthem "Indonesia Raya" 1971 [4][152]
Wahid Hasyim 1914 1953 Leader of Nahdlatul Ulama, first Minister of Religion of Indonesia 1964 [4][153]
Wahidin Sudirohusodo 1852 1917 Doctor and leader in Budi Utomo 1973 [4][154]
Wilhelmus Zakaria Johannes 1895 1952 Medical pioneer in radiology 1968 [4][155]
Yos Sudarso 1925 1962 Commodore of the Navy, killed in a confrontation with the Dutch over Netherlands New Guinea 1973 [4][156]
Yusuf Tajul Khalwati 1626 1699 Islamic leader, led a guerrilla rebellion against the Dutch East India Company 1995 [3][157]
Zainal Mustafa 1907 1944 Islamic leader who fought against the Japanese occupation forces 1972 [4][158]
Zainul Arifin 1909 1963 Politician and guerrilla fighter, killed by an assassin targeting Sukarno 1963 [4][159]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ Original: "'... perbuatan nyata yang dapat dikenang dan diteladani sepanjang masa bagi warga masyarakat lainnya."
  2. ^ Original: "... berjasa sangat luar biasa bagi kepentingan bangsa dan negara."
  3. ^ Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 20 of 2009 gives provisions for persons who died before Indonesia's independence in 1945, allowing those who "fought against colonialism in an area that is now part of Indonesia" (Original: "berjuang melawan penjajahan di wilayah yang sekarang menjadi wilayah Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia") to receive the title.
  4. ^ Based on the original:
    1. Warga Negara Indonesia yang telah meninggal dunia dan semasa hidupnya:
      1. Telah memimpin dan melakukan perjuangan bersenjata atau perjuangan politik/ perjuangan dalam bidang lain mencapai/ merebut /memper tahankan/mengisi kemerdekaan serta mewujudkan persatuan dan kesatuan bangsa.
      2. Telah melahirkan gagasan atau pemikiran besar yang dapat menunjang pembangunan bangsa dan negara.
      3. Telah menghasilkan karya besar yang mendatangkan manfaat bagi kesejahteraan masyarakat luas atau meningkatkan harkat dan martabat bangsa Indonesia.
    2. Pengabdian dan Perjuangan yang dilakukannya berlangsung hampir sepanjang hidupnya (tidak sesaat) dan melebihi tugas yang diembannya.
    3. Perjuangan yang dilakukan mempunyai jangkauan luas dan berdampak nasional.
    4. Memiliki konsistensi jiwa dan semangat kebangsaan/nasionalisme yang tinggi.
    5. Memiliki akhlak dan moral yang tinggi.
    6. Tidak menyerah pada lawan/musuh dalam perjuangannya.
    7. Datam riwayat hidupnya tidak pernah melakukan perbuatan tercela yang dapat merusak nilai perjuangannya.
  5. ^ The Indonesian language has undergone several spelling reforms since the country declared its independence in 1945. The Perfected Spelling System, mandated in 1972, is the current official spelling system in Indonesia.
  6. ^ Some sources give his birth year as 1886 or 1890.
  7. ^ Also known by the Sundanese name Danudirja Setiabudi
  8. ^ Also known as Harun Tahir
  9. ^ Year of birth uncertain. Some sources, such as Encyclopedia Britannica, give 1590.
  10. ^ Also known as Usman bin Haji Muhammad Ali.
  11. ^ a b Previously declared a Proclamation Hero in 1986
  12. ^ Generally noted as Nyai Ahmad Dahlan, meaning "wife of Ahmad Dahlan"
  13. ^ 1916 is the date recognised by the Indonesian government. The actual date may be different. Several sources, for example, give 1912 (Said 1991, p. 80).
  14. ^ Date of death uncertain; he disappeared in 1945.
  15. ^ Most often referred to as Dr. Sutomo
  16. ^ Also known as Bung Tomo

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 20 of 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d Indonesian State Secretariat, Prosedur.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br Indonesian State Secretariat, Daftar Nama Pahlawan (2).
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz Indonesian State Secretariat, Daftar Nama Pahlawan (1).
  5. ^ JCG, Abdul Muis.
  6. ^ a b Artaria 2002, p. 539.
  7. ^ a b c d Parlina 2013, Govt names three new national heroes.
  8. ^ Mirnawati 2012, p. 254.
  9. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 251–252.
  10. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 2–3.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g The Jakarta Post 2011, Govt Gives.
  12. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 64–66.
  13. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 185–187.
  14. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 229–230.
  15. ^ Mirnawati 2012, p. 264.
  16. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 227–228.
  17. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 265–266.
  18. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 20–21.
  19. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 80–81.
  20. ^ Mirnawati 2012, p. 190.
  21. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 90–93.
  22. ^ Mirnawati 2012, p. 255.
  23. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 206–207.
  24. ^ Sudarmanto 2007, pp. 90–91.
  25. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 143–144.
  26. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 22–23.
  27. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 158–159.
  28. ^ Mirnawati 2012, p. 234.
  29. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 168–169.
  30. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 52–53.
  31. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 188–189.
  32. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 68–70.
  33. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 82–83.
  34. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 71–72.
  35. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 123–124.
  36. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 4–5.
  37. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 24–25.
  38. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 210–211.
  39. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 181–182.
  40. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 93–94.
  41. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 237–238.
  42. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 160–161.
  43. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 164–165.
  44. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 239–240.
  45. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 170–171.
  46. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 201–202.
  47. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 26–27.
  48. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 197–198.
  49. ^ Mirnawati 2012, p. 178.
  50. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 235–236.
  51. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 42–43.
  52. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 95–96.
  53. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 271–272.
  54. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 241–242.
  55. ^ Mirnawati 2012, p. 248.
  56. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 292–293.
  57. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 244–245.
  58. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 56–57.
  59. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 30–31.
  60. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 44–45.
  61. ^ Mirnawati 2012, p. 249.
  62. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 191–192.
  63. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 276–277.
  64. ^ Mirnawati 2012, p. 250.
  65. ^ Mirnawati 2012, p. 187.
  66. ^ Mirnawati 2012, p. 253.
  67. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 66–67.
  68. ^ a b The Jakarta Post 2010, Doctor, Army Officer.
  69. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 86–87.
  70. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 224–225.
  71. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 121–122.
  72. ^ Mirnawati 2012, p. 300.
  73. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 212–213.
  74. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 8–9.
  75. ^ Mirnawati 2012, p. 298.
  76. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 105–107.
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  78. ^ Mirnawati 2012, p. 258.
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