Nichiren Shōshū

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Symbol of Nichiren Shoshu
Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism
Head Temple Taisekiji Sohonzan
Taisekiji Head Temple, Fujinomiya, Japan
ClassificationNichiren Buddhism
ScriptureLotus Sutra
Gosho writings of Nichiren
TheologyHokke Buddhism
High PriestNichi Nyo Shonin
LiturgyLiturgy of Nichiren Shoshu
FounderNichiren Daishonin
Minobu, Yamanashi, later transferred to Taisekiji
Members628,000 lay members (December 2017)[citation needed]
Official websiteNichiren Shoshu Website
LogoRound crane

Nichiren Shōshū (Kanji: 日蓮正宗, English: Orthodox School of Nichiren) is a branch of Nichiren Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th-century Japanese Buddhist priest Nichiren (1222–1282), claiming him as its founder through his disciple Nikko Shonin (1246–1333), the founder of Head Temple Taiseki-ji, near Mount Fuji. Nichiren Shōshū lay adherents are called Hokkeko members. The Enichizan Myohoji Temple located in Los Angeles, California serves as the organization's headquarters within the United States.[citation needed]

The sect is based on the teachings of Nichiren. Its main object of worship is the Dai Gohonzon, and its logo is the round crane bird (Japanese: Tsuru-no-Maru). Both its leadership and adherents ascribe the honorific title to Nichiren, as the “Original True Buddha” (御本仏: “Go-Honbutsu”) and the Dai-Shonin (Great Teacher) while maintaining that the sole legitimate successor to both his ministry and legacy is Nikko Shonin alone and the successive high priests of Nichiren Shōshū, lead by the current High Priest of the sect, Hayase Myoe Ajari Nichinyo Shonin, who ascended to the position on 15 December 2005.[citation needed]


The round crane used as the official logo of Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism.

Nichiren Shōshū is a Mahayana Buddhist sect. Its original name is Nichiren School (Shu) of the Fuji area, branch of Taisekiji Temple, indicating the general naming of sects at the time, though not united, and then divided in different localized traditions. After the Meiji restoration, it was given its own name, Nichiren Shoshu, in 1912. Its head temple Taiseki-ji, is located on the lower slopes of Mount Fuji in Japan. Taiseki-ji is visited regularly by Nichiren Shōshū believers from around the world who come to chant to the Dai Gohonzon, which they claim was described by Nichiren as ”…the essence of my Buddhahood written in Sumi Ink.”[citation needed]

Unlike other Mahayana Buddhist practices, Nichiren expounded the Lotus Sutra and chanting Nam-myōhō-renge-kyō as a way for anyone to obtain Enlightenment regardless of one's position in life, condition of circumstances, gender and occupational role as well as not necessarily waiting to be reincarnated into another future existence.[1]

Nichiren Shōshū claims over 700 local temples and additional temple-like facilities (propagation centers) in Japan.[citation needed] It also claims 24 overseas official designated temples[citation needed] and 678,000 registered members.[citation needed]

Nichiren Shōshū claims a direct lineage, called Yuijo Ichinen Kechimyaku Sojo, of successive High Priests from Nikko Shonin, who they believe was chosen by Nichiren to carry on the propagation of his Buddhist practice in the Latter Day of the Law, a claim that other Nichiren Buddhist sects assert as well, such as Nichiren-shū.[2] Nichiren Shōshū claims this lineage is set forth in the following Nichiren documents:[citation needed]

  1. The Law that Nichiren propagated throughout his life (Nichiren ichi-go guho fu-zo-ku-sho)
  2. The Ikegami Transfer Document (Minobu-Sanfu-Zokusho)
  3. The 106 Articles of Nichiren Shōshū (Hya-Ku-Rokka-Sho)

The current leader of the sect is the 68th High Priest, Nichinyo Shōnin (1935–).[citation needed] Nichiren Shōshū priests distinguish themselves from those of most other schools by wearing only white and grey vestment robes and a white surplice, as they believe Nichiren did.[citation needed] Since the Meiji period, Nichiren Shōshū priests, like other Japanese Buddhist sects, have been permitted to marry.[citation needed]


Lay believers belong to official congregations known as Hokkekō groups, designed to encourage solidarity among fellow members to study the Nichiren Shoshu doctrines and plan one's Tozan pilgrimage to the head temple in Japan. Most attend services at a local temple or in private homes when no temple is nearby.[citation needed] Services are usually officiated by a priest, but lay leaders sometimes fill in when no priest is available.[citation needed] When they gather, believers frequently study Nichiren Shōshū teachings, particularly the various writings of Nichiren, called Gosho. A leader in a local group or district is called Koto while a widely held position on a grander scale was once called So-Koto, now expired and no longer used. The present Dai-Koto leader of the Hokkeko Federation is Mr. Koichiro Hoshino.[citation needed]

The official symbol of Nichiren Shōshū is the crane bird (Tsuru). More specifically, the posture of the crane is in a circular position (Tsuru-no-Maru). Another symbol is the eight wheel of Noble Eightfold Path called Rimbo (Treasure Ring) used by all Buddhist sects, as well as the tortoise crest for Nikko Shonin, who is considered by the school to be the sole and legitimate successor to Nichiren. The Three Friends of Winter combination crest is also present in the temple altars, representing Nichimoku Shonin.[citation needed]


Buddhist Juzu prayer beads with white cords and balls, the only color and format permitted within Nichiren Shoshu practice.

Nichiren Shōshū doctrine extends the Tiantai classification of the Buddhist sutras into five time periods and eight categories (五時八教: goji-hakkyō), its theory of 3,000 interpenetrating realms within a single life-moment (一 念 三 千: Ichinen Sanzen), and its view of the Three Truths (三諦: Santai). In addition, the school holds that in revealing and propagating his teachings, Nichiren was fulfilling a prophecy made by the Shakyamuni Buddha; 563?–483? BC) in the 21st chapter of the Lotus Sutra which states the following:[citation needed]

Like the rays of the sun and the moon that dispel the darkness of phenomena, this person will practice in the world, dispel the darkness of all humanity and lead immeasurable numbers of bodhisattvas to finally attain the one vehicle.[citation needed]

  1. (Namu Butsu) - Nichiren Shōshū teaches that Nichiren is the True Buddha for the modern age corresponding to the present Buddhist age and on for eternity—for this reason by referring to him as Nichiren Daishōnin ("Great Sage Nichiren").
  2. (Namu Ho) - The Dharma, or Mystic Law (Myōhō: mystic in the sense of profound, sublime, or unfathomable), is the True Buddha's ultimate teaching, crystallized in Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō.
  3. (Namu So) - The Sangha refers to the collective of Nichiren Shōshū priests who serve to protect and preserve the doctrines and dogma of Nichiren Shōshū.

The Three Great Secret Laws[edit]

According to the doctrinal beliefs of Nichiren Shoshu, Nichiren instituted the mastery three spiritual disciplines:[citation needed]

  1. Precepts - designed to help practitioners replace the negative causes that they tend to make with positive ones.
  2. Meditation - designed to tranquil and focus the mind towards purity.
  3. Wisdom - designed to discern the causes of negative passions and desires and embody the Buddhist universal truth.

Nichiren Shoshu teaches that Nichiren revealed the Three Great Secret Laws:[citation needed]

  1. The Dai-Gohonzon as the Supreme Object of Worship, sourcing to the vow of Precepts.
  2. The Daimoku of Nam Myoho Renge Kyo as the Supreme Invocation, sourcing to its meditational practice.
  3. The Dai-Sekiji no Honmon Kaidan (Tai-sekiji) as the Platform of the High Sanctuary of Essential Teaching, sourcing to its authoritative office of Wisdom.


Several ceremonies are conducted within Nichiren Shoshu, some as memorials for lauded figures, others in commemoration or celebration of momentous events, as well as life-cycle event ceremonies for individuals including conversion to Buddhism, marriages and funerals.[citation needed] One of the important ceremonies is called Gojukai, which is a ceremony for the "Acceptance of the Precepts". Gojukai literally means "to receive the precept".[citation needed]This ceremony is conducted when a person converts to the faith and practice of Nichiren Buddhism and involves the recipient vowing to uphold the teachings of Nichiren Daishonen.[citation needed] The ceremony, officiated by a priest, involves the recitation of the Lotus Sutra, Gongyo, followed by chanting of Daimoku, Shodai, and an observance of the silent prayers.[citation needed] The officiating priest will then administer the oath of acceptance in which three questions are asked to the recipient, who answers "I do".[citation needed]

Daily practice[edit]

A Tokudo, or graduation ceremony at the Mutsubo building in Taisekiji.

Nichiren Shōshū teaches that personal enlightenment can be achieved in one's present form and lifetime (即身成仏 sokushin jōbutsu). Chanting Nam-Myōhō-Renge-Kyō is central to their practice. Only by chanting Nam-myōhō-renge-kyō to the Gohonzon is a person believed to change, or expiate, bad karma and achieve enlightenment. In this process, the individual chooses to lead others to an enlightened state of being.[citation needed]

Nam-Myōhō-Renge-Kyō is called the Daimoku (題目: "title"), since it comprises Nam and the Japanese title of the Lotus Sutra, Myōhō-Renge-Kyō. It can be understood as a sort of invocation meaning "I submit myself (or "dedicate, commit my life") to the Mystic Law containing the Cause and Effect of the enlightenment of all Buddhas." The believer's practice (gyōriki: power of practice) and faith (shinriki: power of faith) are believed to call forth the power of the Buddha (butsuriki) and the power of the Dharma (Law) inherent in the Gohonzon (hōriki). This practice and faith are thought to expiate the believer's "negative karma", and bring forth a higher life condition.[citation needed]

The daily practice of Nichiren Shōshū believers consists of performing gongyō (chanting) twice daily, once in the morning and once in the evening. Gongyō entails chanting a portion of Chapter 2 (Expedient Means) and all of Chapter 16 (Life Span of the Thus Come One) of the Lotus Sutra and chanting Nam-Myōhō-Renge-Kyō to the Gohonzon, while focusing on the Chinese character 妙 [Japanese: myō] (Eng. Mystic; Wonderful), the second character of the Daimoku.[citation needed]

Morning gongyō consists of a series of five sutra recitations followed by silently recited, prescribed prayers. Evening gongyō encompasses only three sutra recitations and the second, third, and fifth of the same silent prayers. This practice, particularly when shared with others, is regarded as the "true cause" for attaining enlightenment. A traditional bell is used to announce prayers for the Buddhist protection gods of Shoten Zenjin as well as to announce the dead relatives prayed for during Gongyo services.[citation needed]

Object of worship[edit]

Early photograph of the Dai-Gohonzon at Taiseki-ji, printed by historian Kumada Ijō's. From the 1913 book Nichiren Shōnin, 8th edition, pp. 375.

The Dai Gohonzon (also called: Dai-Gohonzon of the High Sanctuary of Essential Teachings) is a calligraphic mandala inscribed with Sanskrit and Chinese characters on a plank of Japanese camphorwood and the supreme object of veneration for the Shōshū school. The Nichiren Shōshū school claims that Nichiren inscribed it on 12 October 1279 (Japanese: Koan).[citation needed]

The religious importance of this item to Nichiren Shoshu is that the sect claims the ninpō-ikka or "unity of the Person and the Buddhist Law" and the Dai Gohonzon is revered as the personification of Nichiren himself. Every Nichiren Shōshū temple and household possesses a gohonzon that the sect claims is a transcription of the Dai Gohonzon.[citation needed]

The Dai Gohonzon is enshrined at the Hoando worship hall [3] within the Taiseki-ji Grand Main Temple complex grounds at the foot of Mount Fuji. The temple priesthood will only expose the image for constant public veneration once Kosen-rufu is achieved, maintaining the beliefs of Nichiren Shōshū as the primary religion in the world.[citation needed] Unlike the other Gohonzons enshrined at the Head Temple, it is not enshrined with shikimi branches.[citation needed]

Fenghuangs on the Taiseki-ji main entrance of the Dai-Gohonzon sanctuary.

Transcriptions of the Dai Gohonzon, made by successive High Priests of Nichiren Shōshū, are called gohonzon (go, honorific prefix indicating respect).[citation needed] Most gohonzons in temples are wood tablets in which the inscription is carved; the tablets are coated with black urushi and have gilded characters.[citation needed] Gohonzons enshrined in temples and other similar facilities are personally inscribed by one of the successive High Priests.[citation needed]

Hokkeko followers may make a request to receive a personal gohonzon to their local temple chief priest. These gohonzons are facsimiles printed on paper and presented as a small scroll, measuring approximately 7" x 15" inches. The local chief priest sends all requests to the Head Temple. As these requests are granted, gohonzons are then delivered to the recipient's local priest and he bestows them on the individual members. In this ritual, the recipient vows to sincerely believe in Nichiren's teachings and to practice and uphold the gohonzon of the Three Great Secret Laws.[citation needed]

List of High Priests[edit]

The 65th High Priest Nichijun Shonin officiating the Gongyo prayers in October 1959 at the Jozai-ji temple in Ikebukuro, Toshima, Japan.
List of High Priests of Nichiren Shoshu[citation needed]
Rank High Priest Date of Birth Date of Death
1 Nichiren Daishonin 16 February 1222 13 October 1282
2 Nikko Shonin 8 March 1246 7 February 1333
3 Nichimoku Shonin 28 April 1260 15 November 1333
4 Nichido Shonin 1283 26 February 1341
5 Nichigyo Shonin Unrecorded 13 August 1369
6 Nichiji Shonin Unrecorded 4 June 1406
7 Nichi a Shonin Unrecorded 10 March 1407
8 Nichi-ei Shonin 7 November 1353 4 August 1419
9 Nichiu Shonin 16 April 1402 29 September 1482
10 Nichijo Shonin Unrecorded 20 November 1472
11 Nittei Shonin Unrecorded 7 April 1472
12 Nitchin Shonin 1469 24 June 1527
13 Nichi-in Shonin 1518 6 July 1589
14 Nisshu Shonin 1555 17 August 1617
15 Nissho Shonin 1562 7 April 1622
16 Nichiju Shonin 1567 21 February 1632
17 Nissei Shonin 1600 5 November 1683
18 Nichi-ei Shonin 3 March 1594 7 March 1638
19 Nisshun Shonin 1610 12 November 1669
20 Nitten Shonin 1611 21 September 1686
21 Nichinin Shonin 1612 4 September 1680
22 Nisshun Shonin 1637 29 October 1691
23 Nikkei Shonin 1648 14 November 1707
24 Nichi-ei Shonin 1650 24 February 1715
25 Nichiyu Shonin 1669 28 December 1729
26 Nichikan Shonin 7 August 1665 19 August 1726
27 Nichiyo Shonin 1670 4 June 1723
28 Nissho Shonin 1681 25 August 1734
29 Nitto Shonin 3 March 1689 1 December 1737
30 Nitchu Shonin 1687 11 October 1743
31 Nichi-in Shonin 17 October 1687 14 June 1769
32 Nikkyo Shonin 1704 12 August 1757
33 Nichigen Shonin 15 August 1711 26 February 1778
34 Nisshin Shonin 1714 26 July 1765
35 Nichi-on Shonin 1716 3 July 1774
36 Nikken Shonin 1717 3 October 1791
37 Nippo Shonin 23 January 1731 26 May 1803
38 Nittai Shonin 1731 20 February 1785
39 Nichijun Shonin 1736 30 July 1801
40 Nichinin Shonin 1747 25 August 1795
41 Nichimon Shonin 1751 14 August 1796
42 Nichigon Shonin 1748 11 July 1797
43 Nisso Shonin 1759 3 December 1805
44 Nissen Shonin 1760 7 January 1822
45 Nichirei Shonin Unrecorded 8 May 1808
46 Nitcho Shonin 1766 27 January 1817
47 Nisshu Shonin 1769 22 September 1816
48 Nichiryo Shonin 18 February 1771 29 May 1851
49 Nisso Shonin 1773 8 May 1830
50 Nichijo Shonin 1795 1 May 1836
51 Nichi-ei Shonin 1798 9 July 1877
52 Nichiden Shonin 25 August 1817 24 June 1890
53 Nichijo Shonin 11 October 1831 25 June 1892
54 Nichi-in Shonin 16 March 1829 2 June 1880
55 Nippu Shonin 5 February 1835 4 March 1919
56 Nichi-o Shonin 1848 15 June 1922
57 Nissho Shonin 24 May 1865 26 January 1928
58 Nitchu Shonin 18 December 1861 18 August 1923
59 Nichiko Shonin 24 February 1867 23 November 1957
60 Nichikai Shonin 23 August 1873 21 November 1943
61 Nichiryu Shonin 10 August 1874 24 March 1947
62 Nikkyo Shonin 18 September 1869 17 June 1945
63 Nichiman Shonin 5 March 1873 7 January 1951
64 Nissho Shonin 24 September 1879 14 October 1957
65 Nichijun Shonin 10 October 1898 17 November 1959
66 Nittatsu Shonin 15 April 1902 22 July 1979
67 Nikken Shonin 19 December 1922 (resigned on 16 December 2005)
20 September 2019
68 Nichinyo Shonin 25 February 1935 Current High Priest (Incumbent)
since 16 December 2005
  • The dates denote the date of death of each high priest.

Expelled lay and priestly groups[edit]

The following groups, which had been associated with Nichiren Shoshu, were expelled in the years 1974 (Kenshokai), 1980 (Shoshinkai), and 1991 (Soka Gakkai).

Kenshokai (顕正会) — (1974)[edit]

In 1974, a lay group called Myōshinkō from the Myokoji Temple in Shinagawa ward in Tokyo was expelled by High Priest Nittatsu Hosoi from Nichiren Shōshū after holding a public protest against Soka Gakkai for claiming that the Shohondo building was the true and permanent national sanctuary of the Dai Gohonzon as mandated by Nichiren, even without the conversion of Emperor Showa.[citation needed] The group was known for being brazen in confronting Soka Gakkai and being confrontational with the late Nittatsu Shonin, resulting in a lawsuit against him amidst public protest. They are known for reciting two Hiki-Daimoku and one regular, a developed practice that has unknown origins. The group is highly devoted to the Dai Gohonzon enshrined at Taisekiji even without the support or affiliation of Nichiren Shōshū.[citation needed]

The group later changed its name to Fuji Taisekiji Kenshōkai. Kenshōkai has been described as one of the fastest growing denominations of Buddhism in Japan.[4] The Kenshokai uses an enlarged, variant copy of the Dai Gohonzon image from the year 1728 by Nichikan Shonin, the 26th High Priest of Head Temple Taisekiji. The image uses the exact same brown ornamental border used by Nichiren Shoshu.

Shōshinkai (正信会) — (1980)[edit]

In 1980, a group of Nichiren Shōshū priests and lay supporters called Shōshinkai (English: Correct Faith Group) were expelled from the Head Temple by 67th High Priest Nikken Shonin for questioning the legitimacy of the new head abbot Nikken and for criticising Soka Gakkai's influence on temple affairs.[citation needed] At the time, Soka Gakkai supported Nikken's claim to be the rightful successor of Nittatsu Hosoi as high priest. Shōshinkai continues to refer to itself as the true Nichiren Shōshū. Shōshinkai later founded a dissident association of Nichiren Shoshu priests seeking reformation and began transcribing their own version of the Gohonzon rather than taking a transcribed copy from one of the Nichiren Shōshū high priests. Most of them have aged or deceased, and their temples have since reverted back to Nichiren Shoshu administration after their death, having been replaced with younger priests affiliated with the Head Temple Taiseki-ji. Some of these older priests have also joined other Nichiren sects or made their own, such as the case in Taiwan. [5][6]

Soka Gakkai (創価学会) — (1991)[edit]

The former building of Dai-Kyakuden donated by members of the Soka Gakkai, (English: Grand Reception Hall), built in 1 March 1959, expanded in 1964 and demolished in September 1995. Photo circa 19 August 1993.

Nichiren Shōshū excommunicated the Soka Gakkai and the Soka Gakkai International (SGI) on 28 November 1991.[7][8]

Soka Gakkai had emerged as a lay organization affiliated with one of the temples located in the Taiseki-ji land complex, founded by Tsunesaburo Makiguchi, who was converted by Sokei Mitani, the principal of Meijiro Kenshin Junior and Senior High School to Nichiren Shoshu on 4 June 1928.[citation needed] The organization grew under second president Jōsei Toda, and continued to base its teachings on Nichiren Shōshū until the development of doctrinal conflicts with the third Soka Gakkai President and Soka Gakkai International president, Daisaku Ikeda.

As early as 1956, such doctrinal conflicts simmered, evident by the alleged declaration of second president of Soka Gakkai, Josei Toda to the 65th High Priest Nichijun Shonin during the reconstruction of Myoden-ji Temple, claiming the organizational leadership no longer upheld Nichiren Shoshu doctrines.[9]

On 10 May 1974, the Vice-President of Soka Gakkai, Hiroshi Hojo, submitted a written report to Daisaku Ikeda proposing a schism with Nichiren Shōshū, using the example of Protestants and Roman Catholics as "differences".[citation needed] In response, High Priest Nittatsu Hosoi refused the proposal to create a board committee that would oversee temple affairs and its bookkeeping practices, while mentioning his gratitude for the construction of the Shohondo building. Furthermore, Nittatsu acknowledged the possibility of the split, and specifically threatened to place the Dai-Gohonzon back into the Nichiren Shōshū treasury building (御宝蔵: Gohōzō) where only a select few faithful would be able to venerate the image.[citation needed] The climax which ultimately led to the resignation of third president Daisaku Ikeda in 1979 from his post as Sokoto or lay leader went hand in hand with the formal excommunication by High Priest Nikken Abe.[citation needed]

These and other conflicts resulted in a complete and formal disassociation of the two sides after Nichiren Shōshū excommunicated the leaders of the Sōka Gakkai and stripped it of its status as a lay organization of Nichiren Shōshū in 1991. Ultimately, Daisaku Ikeda was excommunicated from the role of Sokoto or lay leader by High Priest Nikken, while the formal decree of excommunication invalidated the tax exempt status of Soka Gakkai under Japanese law due to its lack of temple affiliation.[citation needed]

Further causes of conflict came when the temple priesthood began to notice the construction of Community Centers instead of funding construction of new Nichiren Shōshū temples. On 30 September 1997, Nichiren Shōshū finally excommunicated all Soka Gakkai International members.[10][11]:69

Opposing views[edit]

Most significant is the alleged monopoly of Nichiren Buddhism through the devotional Tozan pilgrimages to the Dai Gohonzon, alleging it to be a forgery, unsubstantiated by historical provenance, stolen and hostaged, or outright commercialized for either profit or exclusivity.[12]

The opinion of academic researchers such as American author Daniel Alfred Metraux,[13] claims the issue of doctrinal authority as the central point of the conflict:

“The (Nichiren Shoshu) priesthood claims that it is the sole custodian of religious authority and preservation of dogma, while the Soka Gakkai leadership claims that the scriptural writings of Nichiren, not the priesthood, represent the ultimate source of authority, and that any individual with deep faith in Nichiren's teachings can attain enlightenment without the assistance of a Nichiren Shōshū priest.”[14][15]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ International (SGI), Soka Gakkai. "On Attaining Buddhahood in This Lifetime | Soka Gakkai International (SGI)". Retrieved 2020-05-29.
  2. ^ Bromley, David G.; Hammond, Phillip E.; Seminary), New Ecumenical Research Association (Unification Theological (1987). The Future of New Religious Movements. Mercer University Press. ISBN 978-0-86554-238-9.
  3. ^
  4. ^ Stone, Jacqueline (2012). "The Sin of "Slandering the True Dharma"". Sins and Sinners: Perspectives from Asian Religions. Brill. p. 147. ISBN 978-9004229464.
  5. ^ Shoshū Hashaku Guide (Jp: 諸宗破折ガイド: Guide to refuting [erroneous teachings of] other schools). Taiseki-ji, 2003 (no ISBN); pp. 178–79.
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ McLaughlin, Levi (2012). "Did Aum Change Everything? What Soka Gakkai Before, During, and After the Aum Shinrikyo Affair Tells Us About the Persistent "Otherness" of New Religions in Japan". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 39 (1): 51–75. Archived from the original on 2013-12-23.
  12. ^ Clarke, Peter B.; Somers, Jeffrey (2013-10-18). Japanese New Religions in the West. ISBN 9781134241385.
  13. ^
  14. ^ D. Metraux, "The dispute between the Sōka Gakkai and the Nichiren Shōshū priesthood: A lay revolution against a conservative clergy", Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. Vol 19 (4), p. 326, 1992. Archived from the original
  15. ^ Reader, Ian (1995). "Review of "A Time to Chant" by Wilson and Dobbelaere". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 22 (1-2), 223

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