Ninjas in popular culture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Ninja in popular culture)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Three people in black costumes
People dressed as ninjas during the 2009 Himeji Castle Festival in Himeji, Hyōgo, Japan

Ninjas are stock characters in Japanese and world popular culture. They are historically known as Japanese spies, assassins, or thieves who formed their own caste outside the usual feudal divisions of lords, samurai surfs, etc. Ninjas were secretive and refused to speak of themselves, so much that their existence is doubted. In today's popular culture, the concept of secret master warriors is appealing and has been widely accepted. The following examples are separated into anime, armed groups, internet, literature, music, novels, other, products, sports, television and business. Ninjas in live-action films and video games are discussed in separate articles.

History[edit]

Ninja killing a snake with a sword
Jiraiya battles a snake with the help of a toad; woodblock print on paper by Utagawa Kuniyoshi, about 1843
People posing in costume
Kyushu Ninja Preservation Society members in 2012

The ninja first entered popular culture in the Edo period, when folktales and plays about ninjas were conceived. In modern Japan, ninjas are seen as a national myth that stems from a combination of old folk tales and modern day popular culture.[1] Stories about the ninja are usually based on historical figures. For instance, many similar tales exist about a daimyō (lord) challenging a ninja to prove his worth, usually by stealing his pillow or weapon while he slept.[2]:14

Ninja-themed international media franchises include the 1980s Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles comic book and animated series, and the late-1990s Naruto manga and anime series.[3][4]

Legendary abilities[edit]

Superhuman or supernatural powers were sometimes associated with the ninja. Such powers include flight, invisibility, shapeshifting, the ability to "split" into multiple bodies, the summoning of animals, and control over the five classical elements. These notions stemmed from popular imagination regarding the ninja's mysterious status, as well as romantic ideas found in later Japanese art during the Edo period. Magical powers were sometimes rooted in the ninja's own efforts to disseminate fanciful information. For example, Nakagawa Shoshujin, the 17th-century founder of Nakagawa-ryū, or martial art style, claimed in his own writings (Okufuji Monogatari) that he had the ability to transform into birds and animals.[2]:13

Perceived control over the elements may be grounded in real tactics, which were categorized by association with forces of nature. For example, the practice of starting fires in order to cover a ninja's trail falls under katon-no-jutsu ("fire techniques").[5]

Actor portraying Nikki Danjō, a villain from the kabuki play Sendai Hagi. Shown with hands in a kuji-in seal, which allows him to transform into a giant rat. Woodblock print on paper. Kunisada, 1857.

The ninja's adaption of kites in espionage and warfare is another subject of legends. Accounts exist of ninjas being lifted into the air by kites, where they flew over hostile terrain and descended into or dropped bombs on enemy territory.[6] Kites were indeed used in Japanese warfare, but mostly for the purpose of sending messages and relaying signals.[7]:257 Turnbull suggests that kites lifting a man into midair might have been technically feasible, but states that the use of kites to form a human "hang glider" falls squarely in the realm of fantasy.[2]:22–23

Kuji-kiri[edit]

Kuji-kiri is an esoteric practice which, when performed with an array of hand "seals" (kuji-in), was meant to allow the ninja to enact superhuman feats.

The kuji ("nine characters") is a concept originating from Taoism, where it was a string of nine words used in charms and incantations.[8]:2–3 In China, this tradition mixed with Buddhist beliefs, assigning each of the nine words to a Buddhist deity. The kuji may have arrived in Japan via Buddhism,8-11}} where it flourished within Shugendō.[8]:13 Here too, each word in the kuji was associated with Buddhist deities, animals from Taoist mythology, and later, Shinto kami.[8]:24–27 The mudrā, a series of hand symbols representing different Buddhas, was applied to the kuji by Buddhists, possibly through the esoteric Mikkyō teachings.[8]:24–25 The yamabushi ascetics of Shugendō adopted this practice, using the hand gestures in spiritual, healing, and exorcism rituals.[9] Later, the use of kuji passed onto certain bujutsu (martial arts) and ninjutsu schools, where it was said to have many purposes.[8]:31–33 The application of kuji to produce a desired effect was called "cutting" (kiri) the kuji. Intended effects range from physical and mental concentration, to more incredible claims about rendering an opponent immobile, or even the casting of magical spells.[8]:31 These legends were captured in popular culture, which interpreted the kuji-kiri as a precursor to magical acts.

Examples[edit]

Anime and manga[edit]

Four people in costume
Ninja Hattori-kun cosplayers at Comiket 76

The following manga and anime series feature ninjas:

Young person in costume, holding a scroll and artist's brush
Cosplay of the Naruto character Sai

Sanpei Shirato has written ninja-themed manga, including Akame – The Red Eyes,[citation needed] Band of Ninja (Ninja Bugeicho) (later adapted into an anime film),[24] Kaze no Ishimaru,[25] Ninpou Hiwa, Ookami Kozou, Ninja Senpuu, The Legend of Kamui and Watari (later adapted into the live-action film Watari, the Ninja Boy).[26]

The following stories contain a ninja character, but are not ninja-themed:

Supporting ninja appearances include Ah! Itoshi no Banchousama (Hirayama Hayaka's ninja bodyguard), Bobobo-bo Bo-bobo (OVER's Ninja Assassin Corp and the Ultimate Five Assassins), Code Geass (Sayoko Shinozaki), Cutey Honey, Dinosaur King (episode "Ninja Nightmare"),[29] F-Zero: GP Legend (Dream), Hero Tales, Hunter x Hunter (Hanzo and Machi), Hyper Police (Kasumi), Kamen no Maid Guy (ninja maids Shizuku and Tsurara), King Arthur, Kinnikuman (the Ninja), Kirby: Right Back at Ya! (Kirby becomes a ninja and works with Benikage and Yamikage in the episode "Visiting Ninja, Benikage!"), Kotetsu no Daibouken (Kagari), Lone Wolf and Cub, Machine Robo: Battle Hackers, Magical Nyan Nyan Taruto (Rakugan), Magical Princess Minky Momo ("Ninja Arrived! Momo is Ninja"), Mega Man Star Force (the Tribe-On transformation Green Ninja), Metal Fighter Miku ("Pretty Four vs The Lady Ninjas"), Miami Guns, My-HiME/My-Otome (Akira Okuzaki), Nagasarete Airantou (Mikoto), Oh My Goddess! (Marller's ninja trio), Planetes (Tanabe's neighbors in "The Lunar Flying Squirrels"),[30] the Pokémon series and Pokémon: The Electric Tale of Pikachu (Aya, Koga-Kyō and Janine-Anzu), PQ Angels, Raimuiro Ryuukitan X (Kasuri Hattori), Ranma 1/2 (Konatsu, Sasuke Sarugakure, and Shirokuro), Saber Marionette, Sailor Moon (the villain of the week Oniwabandana[31]), Sakura Wars, Samurai Champloo ("Bogus Booty" and "Baseball Blues"), Samurai Girl: Real Bout High School, Sengoku Collection (Kotaro Fuuma), Sonic X (the E-91 Lady Ninja and Espio the Chameleon), Sorcerer Hunters, The King of Braves GaoGaiGar (Yūsha Ō GaoGaiGā) (Volfogg), Those Who Hunt Elves, Tower of Etruria (Palmyra),[32] Ultraman (Alien Baltan), Yami to Bōshi to Hon no Tabibito, Yakitate! Japan ("Nin Nin Nin!! My Way of Ninja!"), Yoshimune (Kunoichi) and YuYu Hakusho (Team Shadow Channelers).

Armed groups[edit]

Several paramilitary, police and militia groups use the names "Ninja" or "Ninjas":

Film[edit]

Games[edit]

Video games[edit]

In addition to video games, several game-development companies use "ninja" in their name: Ninja Studio, Ninja Theory, Ninjaforce, NinjaKiwi,[42] and Team Ninja. In massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), "ninja", "loot ninja" or "ninja looter" pejoratively describes a player who has stolen something from another player.[43]

Traditional games[edit]

Ninja-themed role-playing games (RPGs) include:

Ninja ara also featured in collectible card games such as Legend of the Five Rings CCG, Magic: The Gathering (where the ability Ninjutsu was introduced in the set Betrayers of Kamigawa[48]) and Mortal Kombat Kard Game, and in some miniature wargaming games, such as Heroscape.[49]

Internet[edit]

Ninja-themed websites include:

In information technology, "cyber ninja" are sophisticated counter-hackers.[54]

Literature[edit]

Novels[edit]

Ninja-themed novels include:

Ninja have minor roles in Shōgun, Thief of Time, Vineland[60] and the Young Samurai series.

Non-Japanese comics[edit]

Scantily-clad young woman with a sword
Psylocke cosplayer, 2014

In the Marvel Universe, ninjas have been heroes and villains. Examples include Spider-Man's foe White Ninja, X-Men members Psylocke, Revanche and supporting character Yukio, Ghost Rider's foes Deathwatch and Death Ninja, Wolverine's mentor Ogun, Hawkeye (as Ninja Ronin), the Punisher's friend Katherine Yakamoto (from Shadowmasters), and Pacific Overlords operative Kuroko (Aya Komatsu). In the Marvel Mangaverse, Spider-Man is the last member of a ninja clan. A sinister ninja cult, the Hand, appears in X-Men and Daredevil. The cult and its associates were responsible for the martial training of Psylocke, Elektra, Daredevil, Black Tarantula, Kitty Pryde, Lady Bullseye and Wolverine. The Hand's heroic counterpart is The Chaste, which struggles with its Korean offshoot the True Believers (including Dragonfly Meiko Yin).

Characters with mystical, superhuman martial-arts abilities attributed to ninja appear in the DC Universe. Bruce Wayne received ninja training prior to becoming Batman. Another character portrayed similarly to a ninja is master martial artist and assassin Lady Shiva; Shiva killed Armless Master, who trained Catwoman and Hellhound. One alternative-universe comic substitutes Batman with a Japanese female ninja named Komori (Bat).[61] An alternative version of Robin, Tengu, was raised by Cat-Ninja (Catwoman) in feudal Japan. DC's The New 52 introduced Kunoichi, a member of the Blackhawks.

In the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (TMNT) series, the main characters and many of their friends and foes are ninja, mainly from the Foot Clan (a pastiche of Marvel's group, the Hand): Donatello, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, Splinter, Shredder and Karai.

The comic version of G.I. Joe has featured more ninja than the cartoon series. Story arcs involved Scarlett, Snake Eyes, Storm Shadow, Jinx, Kamakura, Firefly and the Arashikage ninja clan, an extended family of ninja characters. Cobra Commander's son, Billy Kessler, and the shape-shifter Zartan also received ninja training from the Arashikage clan and their associates.

Other ninja-themed comics include:

Short-lived titles include Codename: Ninja[citation needed] and Zombee.[65] The Amelia Rules! series included A Very Ninja Christmas.

Ninja have supporting roles in Karate Kommandos,[66] Lucha Libre Les Naufragés d'Ythaq, Masters of the Universe (Ninjor),[67] Rebirth (the hero's ally, Eiji Inaba),[68] Sam Noir (villains),[69] Scott Pilgrim (Roxanne "Roxie" Richter), Spike: Shadow Puppets, Sonic the Hedgehog (Uma Arachnis and the Arachne), The Order of the Stick (Therkla and others), The Tick (Oedipus),[70] and Usagi Yojimbo (ninja of the Neko,[71] Mogura and Komori clans, including Kashira Chizu).[72]

Music[edit]

Several musicians and bands have the word "ninja" in their names:

A number of titles include "ninja" or "kunoichi":

Songs with "ninja" in their titles include "Deadly Lethal Ninja Assassin" by Reuben (on We Should Have Gone To University), "Hoodie Ninja" by mc chris (on mc chris is dead), "Imaginary Ninjas" by Vince Dicola (on Falling off a Clef), "Inner Ninja" by Classified (on Classified),[75] "Ninja Goon" by Gruvis Malt (on Sound Soldiers), "Ninja Hi-skool" by Bis (on Play Some Real Songs: the Live Album), "We Are Ninja" by Frank Chickens (on We Are Frank Chickens), "Ninja Highschooool" by Peelander-Z (on P-Pop-High School), "Ninja Rap" by Vanilla Ice (on the TMNT II soundtrack), "Ninja Step" by RZA (on the Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai soundtrack), "Ninja Quiet" by Marco Beltrami (on World War Z: Music from the Motion Picture), "Supa Ninjaz" by Method Man (on The Pillage), and "This Secret Ninja" by AFI (on Very Proud of Ya). Ninja Tune is a London-based independent record label. Built by Ninjas is a music video production group formed by Jaret Reddick and Heath Balderston.[76][77] Fans of the rap group Insane Clown Posse, known as juggalos, sometimes refer to themselves as "ninja".[78]

Ninja appear in the music video for the Presidents of the United States of America's song, "Peaches". Cheryl Cole dressed as a female ninja and performed with a group of similarly-dressed dancers in the TV special, Cheryl Cole's Night In.[79] Members of Momoiro Clover Z dressed as ninja for the music video for "D' no Junjō".[80] Rika Adachi performed in a music video based on a song from Naruto.[81]

Other[edit]

According to Indeed.com, there was a 7,000-percent increase in the number of job listings with the word "ninja" from 2006 to 2012.[82] A former Russian soldier who committed robberies in Italy in black attire and a bow was called a "Russian ninja" by the BBC.[83] The video-game series Tenchu was adapted for the Japanese stage.[84] In 2006, Miss Japan Kurara Chibana appeared in a ninja-samurai costume for the Miss Universe competition.[85][86] Goth Ninja, a type of Japanese street fashion, became popular in 2009.[87]

Products[edit]

Products named for ninja include:

  • Ninja-IDE, a cross-platform integrated development environment
  • Fuwa Maru, "ninja snacks" by Tohato[88]
  • Lego Ninja Lego bricks, followed by Lego Ninjago
  • Lego Minifigures series one includes a ninja mini-figure.
  • Liquid Ninja, an energy drink[89]
  • N.I.N.J.A. MITES, an Italian bootleg keshi
  • Ninja, a series of sport bikes by Kawasaki
  • Ninja, a brand of food processors manufactured by Euro-Pro[90]
  • Ninja, a brand of web tools.[91]
  • Ninja 4WD, a competition buggy by Tokyo Marui
  • Ninja Blocks, a sensor-control system[92]
  • Ninja Paintball, a brand of paintball accessories[93]
  • Nodal Ninja, a photographic-equipment manufacturer[94]
  • Stage Ninja, a brand of music accessories[95]

Other products are CardNinja, a wallet phone case;[96] Majestouch NINJA Tenkeyless, a computer keyboard from Diatec Corp;[97] Modela Ninja Pibow, an enclosure for the Raspberry Pi computer;[98] Ninja Driver, a USB stick wrap;[99] Ninja Flex, a safety glove;[100] NINJA Plus, a CPU cooler by the Japanese company Scythe;[101] Ninja Remote, a television-control device and IR jammer[102] and SwimmingNinja, a swimbait lure.[103]

In software, CartNinja is a browser application;[104] Ninja Email Security is the former name of the VIPRE Email Security for Exchange antivirus and antispam filter;[105][106] Ninja Lite is a video telephony program,[107] and Photo Ninja is a RAW converter program.[108]

Sports[edit]

Iga F.C. Kunoichi is a Japanese L. League women's association football team.[109] The New Haven Ninjas are an American football team in New Haven, Connecticut. The American Ninja is the stage name of wrestler Brian Adams, and the Black Ninja is the stage name of wrestler Cocoa Samoa. The Canadian NINJAs are a professional wrestling tag team. "Ninja" is a nickname of Brazilian MMA fighter Murilo Rua, and "The Ninja" is the nickname of Filipino boxer Bert Batawang. Ninja Chops wrestles in the Naked Women's Wrestling League.[110] Super Ninja is a ring name of several professional wrestlers, including Keiji Mutoh and Rip Oliver.

Television[edit]

Series[edit]

Non-anime, ninja-themed TV series include:

Ninja-themed Super Sentai and Power Rangers shows include Ninja Sentai Kakuranger, Ninpū Sentai Hurricaneger and Shuriken Sentai Ninninger; footage from Kakuranger was used in season three of Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, Hurricaneger was adapted into Power Rangers Ninja Storm, and Ninninger was adapted to Power Rangers Ninja Steel and Power Rangers Super Ninja Steel. Ninja villains appear in other Super Sentai series, such as GoGo Sentai Boukenger (Negative Syndicate's Dark Shadow clan: Gekkou, Yaiba and Shizuka), Power Rangers: Operation Overdrive (Miratrix and other Kamdor henchmen), Hyakujuu Sentai Gaoranger (Ninja Org Duke Dorodoro; Onikage in Power Rangers: Wild Force), Kyōryū Sentai Zyuranger (Dora Ninja; Dark Warrior in Mighty Morphin Power Rangers season one), Denkou Choujin Gridman (Shinobilar), and Mahou Sentai Magiranger (Kirikage).

Ninja characters appeared in the live-action series Arrow ("League of Assassins"), Baretta ("The Ninja"), Big Wolf on Campus ("Play It Again, Samurai"), Castle ("The Way of the Ninja"), Charmed ("Awakened"), Criminal Minds ("True Night"), Danger Theatre ("Lethal Luau"), Dude, What Would Happen ("Ninja Slicing"), Knight Rider (1982) ("Knight of the Rising Sun"), Kyojuu Tokusou Juspion (the Five Space Ninjas), Kung Fu ("The Assassin"), Loiter Squad, Lost Girl ("Big in Japan"), Magnum P.I. ("The Arrow That is Not Aimed"), Martial Law ("Bad Seed") and ("This Shogun For Hire"), Mito Kōmon (Tsuge no Tobizaru and Kagerō Ogin), Mortal Kombat: Konquest (alternative versions of Kitana, Mileena, Reptile, Scorpion and Sub-Zero), My Name is Earl ("Creative Writing"), Quincy, M.E. ("Touch of Death"), She Spies ("Fondles"), Shōgun,[121] Simon & Simon ("Opposites Attack"), Space Sheriff Shaider (Girls' Army), That '70s Show ("Jackie Moves On"), The Greatest American Hero ("Thirty Seconds Over Little Tokyo"), Verbotene Liebe.

They appeared in the non-anime cartoon series The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius ("Crouching Jimmy, Hidden Sheen"), Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog ("Robo-Ninja"), The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3 ("Sneaky Lying Cheating Giant Ninja Koopas"), American Dragon: Jake Long (Huntsman and Rose), Batman Beyond (Curaré of the League of Assassins[122]), Batman: The Animated Series (Kyodai Ken in "Night of the Ninja" and "Day of the Samurai"),[123] Beware the Batman ("Family" and "Sacrifice"), Black Dynamite ("Just Beat It or Jackson Five Across Yo' Eyes"),[124] Chop Socky Chooks (Ninja Chimps),[125] Karate Kommandos (Super Ninja), Code Monkeys ("Revenge of Matsui"), Codename: Kids Next Door (Teen Ninjas), Conan the Adventurer ("Shadow Walkers",[126] "Dragon's Breath" and "Sword, Sai and Shuriken"), Danny Phantom (Bertrand), Digimon Savers (Falcomon), Eon Kid (Black Beauty and her ninja robot army), Family Guy (in "Wasted Talent" and "I Take Thee Quagmire"), Happy Tree Friends (Generic Tee Ninjas), Jackie Chan Adventures (the Shadowkhan), Johnny Test (one of Johnny's transformation is Ninja Johnny), Kim Possible (the Yamanouchi ninja school), The Legend of Prince Valiant ("The Ghost"),[127] The Legend of Zelda (Sing), The Penguins of Madagascar ("Mental Hen/Siege the Day" and "Street Smarts/Nighty Night Ninja"), Phineas and Ferb ("What a Croc!/Ferb TV"), Planet Sketch (Ninja Handyman),[128] The Real Adventures of Jonny Quest ("Night of the Zinja"),[citation needed] Robot Chicken, Road Rovers ("Let Sleeping Dogs Lie"), Samurai Jack ("Samurai versus Ninja"), The Simpsons (in "The Telltale Head" Bart Simpson disguises as a ninja; in "Treehouse of Horror XVIII" one of the aliens is dressed as a ninja, in "Husbands and Knives" the Comic Book Guy has ninja weapons, and in "Yokel Chords" Bart plays a spoof video game with a female ninja), Skunk Fu (Ninja Monkeys), South Park ("Good Times with Weapons" and "Fantastic Easter Special"), Stroker and Hoop ("Ninja Worrier" and "Chopping Spree"),[129] Superman: The Animated Series (Death Fist Ninja), Teen Titans (in "Masks", Beast Boy has a video game "Super Ninja Showdown 8"), The Transformers (Greatshot, Nightbird and Prowl), The Venture Bros. (Otaku Senzuri), Wolverine and the X-Men and Xiaolin Showdown (Tubbimura).

Ninja appeared in commercials for Alior Sync bank,[130] Anime Network,[131] Bombay Sapphire,[132] Clamato,[133] FedEx,[134] Free Realms,[135] Honda Civic Si,[136] Mitsubishi UFJ Securities,[137] MyHome.ie,[138] Nicorette,[139] Nike,[140] Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection,[141] Oregon Lottery,[142] Pepsi,[143] Pop-Tarts,[144] and Sure.[145][146]

Business[edit]

Subway train with cartoon characters and lettering on its side
Iga Railway Line ninja-themed trains in Mie Prefecture, Japan in 2010
Four young women dressed in black
Attendees of a 2011 one-day ninja camp in Koga Ninja Village, Kōka, Shiga[147]

Iga Ueno Ninja Festa, the annual ninja festival in Iga in the former province of Iga, has had ninja-inspired performances, competitions and opportunities to practice ninja skills since 1964.[148] Iga also has the Iga-ryu Ninja Museum, ninja-style restaurants and cafes.[1] In the United States, ninja-themed restaurants include Ninja New York in New York City[149] and the Flying Ninja sushi bar in San Francisco.[citation needed] There are American roller coasters named Ninja, such as Ninja in California and The Ninja in Missouri.

Other ninja attractions in Japan[1][150][151] include the Koga Ninja Village[152] and Kogaryu Ninjutsu Yashiki (Ninja Houses)[153] in Koga-gun, Shiga Prefecture, the Togakushi Ninja Village for children,[154] the Togakushi Ninpo Museum and Karakuri Yashiki (Ninja House)[155] in Togakushi, Nagano, the Edo Wonderland[156] theme park in Nikkō, Tochigi and the restaurants Men no Sato[157] and Ninja Akasaka in Tokyo[158] and Ninja Kyoto in Kyoto.[159][160]

Businesses include Ninja Jump, an American company producing licensed inflatables;[161] Web Ninja, an Australian e-commerce website-design team;[162] Ninja Message, an Australian direct-to-voicemail service;[163] Ninja Tracking Systems, a British GPS developer;[164] Ninja Polish, an online nail-polish retailer;[165] Ninja Pyrate, a fire-show-equipment workshop;[166] Crystal Ninja, a crystal design studio;[167] Lactose Ninja, a manufacturer of lactose-intolerance remedies[168] and the Ninja Company, a Eurasian toy manufacturer.[169]

1998 East Java ninja scare[edit]

The 1998 East Java ninja scare was an outbreak of mass hysteria in East Java, Indonesia, in which the local population believed they were being targeted by sorcerers known as ninja, who were blamed for mysterious killings of religious leaders by assassins dressed in black. As many as 150-300 “sorcerers” were killed between February and October, with the most deaths occurring between August and September.[170]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Stephen Phelan (2011-02-26). "Tall tales and tiny assassins at Japan's ninja festival". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-06-05. 
  2. ^ a b c Turnbull, Stephen (2004). Ninja AD 1460 - 1650 (3rd ed.). Oxford: Osprey. ISBN 9781841765259. 
  3. ^ "FROM THE ARCHIVES – Black Belt Magazine". Blackbeltmag.com. Archived from the original on November 17, 2009. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  4. ^ Hendrix, Grady (2007-06-26). "The state of the ninja". Slate.com. Retrieved 2015-06-05. 
  5. ^ Mol, Serge (2003). Classical Weaponry of Japan: Special Weapons and Tactics of the Martial Arts (1st ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha International. p. 176. ISBN 9784770029416. 
  6. ^ Draeger, Donn F.; Smith, Robert W. (1985). Comprehensive Asian Fighting Arts (1st ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha International. pp. 128–129. ISBN 9780870114366. 
  7. ^ Buckley, Sandra (2001). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Japanese Culture (1st ed.). New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415143448. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Waterhouse, David (1996). Religion in Japan: Arrows to Heaven and Earth (Reprint ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521550284. 
  9. ^ Teeuwen, Mark; Rambelli, Fabio (2003). Buddhas and Kami in Japan: Honji Suijaku as a Combinatory Paradigm (Reprinted\page=327 ed.). London: Routledge Curzon. ISBN 9780415297479. 
  10. ^ "黒の獅士 - 電子書籍・コミックはeBookJapan". Ebookjapan.jp. Retrieved 2015-06-10. 
  11. ^ "Black Lion : Anime Reviews : AAW". Animeworld.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  12. ^ "アニメ「BRAVE10」公式サイト". Brave10.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  13. ^ "Vintage Ninja". Vintage Ninja. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  14. ^ はころく 作. "くノ一はじめました! - 少年ジャンプルーキー". Rookie.shonenjump.com. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  15. ^ "ڳŷԾۡۤΰ6仳/硧̡Ź ɴ̴ ŷԾŹ". ŷԾ. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  16. ^ "Last Kunoichi Vol. #1". Mania.com. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  17. ^ a b "Kyoto International Manga Museum". Kyotomm.jp. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  18. ^ "さすがの猿飛 1巻【電子書籍のソク読み】豊富な無料試し読み". ソク読み. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  19. ^ "さすがの猿飛DVD-BOX". Amazon.co.jp. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  20. ^ "Amazon.co.jp: さすがの猿飛 (1) (MF文庫): 細野 不二彦: 本". Amazon.co.jp. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  21. ^ "Database" (PDF). Ne.jp. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  22. ^ "残念くのいち伝 - 日本最大級の無料Webコミック[COMICメテオ]". Comic-meteor.jp. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  23. ^ "Vintage Ninja". Vintage Ninja. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  24. ^ "Vintage Ninja". Vintage Ninja. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  25. ^ "Visionary character design". Vintage Ninja. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  26. ^ "Vintage Ninja". Vintage Ninja. 2012-07-31. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  27. ^ Tobias, Scott (2009-04-30). "Millennium Actress | Film | The New Cult Canon". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  28. ^ "Sailor Victory". Mania.com. Archived from the original on 2009-07-18. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  29. ^ 4KidsTV (June 9, 2010). "Dinosaur King: Ninja Nightmare – YouTube" (YouTube). 
  30. ^ Morton, Bryan (January 3, 2006). "Planetes Vol. #2". Mania.com. Retrieved 2013-01-14. 
  31. ^ "the oracle :: Oniwabandana". Soul-hunter.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  32. ^ Ross, Carloss. "THEM Anime Reviews 4.0 - Tower of Etruria". Themanime.org. Retrieved 2013-01-14. 
  33. ^ Reuters AlertNet (October 10, 2007), Elite "Ninja" police free hostages in Sao Tome, Reuters, retrieved August 26, 2009 
  34. ^ Tsoumou, Christian (June 8, 2007), Congo's Ninja rebels burn weapons and pledge peace, Reuters, retrieved August 26, 2009 
  35. ^ Robinson, Natasha; Madden, James (April 13, 2007), Captain Dragan set for extradition, The Australian, retrieved August 26, 2009 
  36. ^ "Serbian Media Bombard Public With Nazi Footage, 'Kninjas'". Community.seattletimes.nwsource.com. 1991-12-25. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  37. ^ "The Real Captain Dragan – ABC News". Abc.net.au. 2011-05-27. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 
  38. ^ Lane, Max (March 1, 1995), 'Ninja' terror in East Timor, Green Left Online, retrieved August 26, 2009 
  39. ^ BBC News (October 24, 1998), Indonesia's 'ninja' war, BBC News, retrieved August 26, 2009 
  40. ^ Christopher Dickey (1995). "The Ninjas Crack Down". newsweek.com. Retrieved 2011-01-12. 
  41. ^ Waco – The Inside Story, FRONTLINE, PBS 1995
  42. ^ "Free Online Games". Ninja Kiwi. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  43. ^ "Top 10 Ninjas In Video Games - Cheat Code Central". Cheatcc.com. Retrieved 2015-06-05. 
  44. ^ "Iron & Silk – Atlas Games: Charting New Realms of Imagination". Atlas Games. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  45. ^ "Legend of the Five Rings - Roleplaying Game - Products". Web.archive.org. 2008-10-11. Archived from the original on 2008-10-11. Retrieved 2016-08-12. 
  46. ^ "Palladium Books Store Rifts® World Book 8: Japan". Palladium-store.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  47. ^ Alex Flagg; Scott Gearin; Patrick Kapera (2007-12-24). "World on Fire". Crafty Games. Archived from the original on 2014-05-13. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  48. ^ "Betrayers of Kamigawa Theme Deck – Ninjutsu". Wizards.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  49. ^ "Heroscape - Search Results". Search.atomz.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  50. ^ "Ikenhisu full episodes". YouTube. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  51. ^ "One Warm Night - Original Series". YouTube. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  52. ^ "Vexika". Vexika.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  53. ^ "Zombies vs. Ninjas". Youtube.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  54. ^ Drew, Christopher (2009-12-29). "Cybersecurity – Wanted - 'Cyber Ninjas'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  55. ^ "#4 New York Ninjas". Americanchillers.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  56. ^ a b "Vintage Ninja". Vintageninja.net. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  57. ^ "Tulku, a tale of modern Ninja – Stephen K. Hayes". Google Books. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  58. ^ "ニンジャスレイヤー書籍公式サイト". Ninjaslayer.jp. Archived from the original on 2013-10-12. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  59. ^ 原作:風野真知雄. "株式会社KADOKAWAオフィシャルサイト|妻は、くノ一". Kadokawa.co.jp. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  60. ^ Beckett, Andy (2012-11-09). "Rereading: Vineland by Thomas Pynchon | Books". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  61. ^ Justice League of America: Shogun of Steel (Elseworlds, 2002).
  62. ^ Brian Truitt (7 May 2013). "'Half Past Danger' is adventure time for Stephen Mooney". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  63. ^ "Eric's Image Comics Review: SAMURAI'S BLOOD #5". Gotham-news.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  64. ^ "WHISPER covers". Vintage Ninja. 2012-05-04. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  65. ^ "Zombee Review – Comics Review at IGN". Uk.comics.ign.com. 2006-10-24. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  66. ^ "Stupid Comics". Misterkitty.org. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  67. ^ "Ninjor". He-Man.org. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  68. ^ "Eiji Inaba (anime/manga character)". Animevice.com. Archived from the original on September 26, 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  69. ^ "Sam Noir". Thrillingdetective.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  70. ^ Michael R. Legg (1998-09-27). "The Tick comics gallery of superheroes". Thetick.ws. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  71. ^ "Neko Ninja – Usagi Yojimbo Dojo". Usagiyojimbo.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  72. ^ "Usagi Yojimbo Dojo – Kashira Chizu". Usagiyojimbo.com. 2004-01-13. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  73. ^ "#43. Ninja Crew "We Destroy" (1986) — The 50 Best New Orleans Rap Songs". Complex. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  74. ^ "DANGEROUS くノ一 | アカシック". Akasick.info. 2015-05-11. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  75. ^ "Classified feat. David Myles - Inner Ninja [Official Video]". YouTube. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  76. ^ "BOWLING FOR SOUP". rockonmagazine.com. 1 June 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2011. 
  77. ^ "BUILT BY NINJAS >> ABOUT". builtbyninjas.com. 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2011. 
  78. ^ "In the Land of the Juggalos". VICE. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  79. ^ Sophie Freeman (2009-12-10). "Cheryl Cole prepares for Saturday's X Factor fight with Ninja routine on TV special | Mail Online". London: Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  80. ^ "D'の純情/ももいろクローバーZ Full ver.(D'NO JUNJOU/MOMOIRO CLOVER Z)". YouTube. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  81. ^ "足立梨花、初の"くノ一"姿を披露「戦ってます!」 - モデルプレス". Mdpr.jp. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  82. ^ McMillan, Robert (2012-05-21). "Looking for a Coding Job? Better a Ninja Than a Brogrammer". Wired. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 
  83. ^ Fraser, Christian (2007-06-12). "Europe | Russian 'ninja' arrested in Italy". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  84. ^ "舞台版「天誅」でござる! 元新体操選手の江田結香が魅せる くノ一アクション - Ameba News [アメーバニュース]" (in Japanese). News.ameba.jp. 1994-12-01. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  85. ^ "News on Japan – Miss Universe in ninja high heels". News.3yen.com. 2006-07-19. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  86. ^ "14 Incredibly Hot Japanese Women (You've Never Heard Of) | Gunaxin Girls". Girls.gunaxin.com. 2009-09-10. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 
  87. ^ Betts, Kate (2009-12-08). "Goth Ninja – The Top 10 Everything of 2009". TIME. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  88. ^ "株式会社 東ハト/商品カタログ/ふわ丸". Tohato.jp. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  89. ^ "Liquid Ninja Energy Drink". Liquidninjaenergy.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  90. ^ "Ninja®: Kitchen Products for Every Culinary Conquest | Official Site". Ninjakitchen.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  91. ^ "Ninja Web Systems :: CMS, E-Marketing, Catalogue, E-Store. Perth, West Australia". Ninja-web.com.au. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  92. ^ "The Ninja Platform". Ninja Blocks. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  93. ^ "index". Ninjapaintball.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  94. ^ "Nodal Ninja website". Nodalninja.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  95. ^ "Stage Ninja® - The World's First Retractable Audio and Power Cables for the Music & Entertainment Industries". Stageninja.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  96. ^ "Combine Your Wallet & Your Smartphone". CardNinja. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  97. ^ "Diatec Corp / Products Information". Diatec.co.jp. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  98. ^ "Modela Ninja Pibow - Enclosure for Raspberry Pi Model A Computer ID: 1319 - $14.95 : Adafruit Industries, Unique & fun DIY electronics and kits". Adafruit.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  99. ^ "Ninja Driver - Flash Drive - Figure". Bone Collection. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  100. ^ "Memphis Gloves-Ninja Flex Gloves". Envirosafetyproducts.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  101. ^ "Ninja PLUS Rev.B CPU Kühler: CPU Kühler, Lüfter, Lüftersteuerung, PC Netzteile von Scythe". Scythe-eu.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  102. ^ "Ninja Remote Stealth Television Gadget and IR Jammer". ThinkGeek. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  103. ^ "Jackll Product:Swimming Ninja". Jackall-lures.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  104. ^ "CartNinja - A Shopping Cart That Converts". Cartninja.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  105. ^ "Ninja Email Security". SC Magazine. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  106. ^ "Email Security Software - Antispam Software - Malware Protection - VIPRE Email Security for Exchange". Sunbeltsoftware.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  107. ^ "VoIP Consumer & SOHO Products and Co-Brand & White Labels". Globaliptel.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  108. ^ "PictureCode home page: Photo Ninja". Picturecode.com. 2013-10-18. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  109. ^ "伊賀フットボールクラブ くノ一". Igafc.jp. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  110. ^ Julian Cram. "dbmagazine au dv ivNinjaChops". dBmagazine.com.au. Archived from the original on 2006-02-05. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  111. ^ "ninja ex". ninja ex. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  112. ^ "Judy Ongg as KAGERO". Vintage Ninja. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  113. ^ "鞍馬天狗見参~嵐寛寿郎と「鞍馬天狗」". 5f.biglobe.ne.jp. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  114. ^ "パチンコビスタ(パチビス) パチンコ・パチスロ業界ニュース 藤商事『CR鞍馬天狗』新機種発表会". Pachinkovista.com. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  115. ^ "Majin Hunter Mitsurugi". Vintage Ninja. 2011-10-28. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  116. ^ "The Official Nakamura Hashinosuke Home Page". Kabuki-japan.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  117. ^ "不朽の時代劇ライブラリー 第2集 忍法かげろう斬り DVD-BOX 1". Amazon.jp. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  118. ^ Dore, Shalini (2008-09-04). "Variety Reviews – Samurai Girl". Variety.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  119. ^ "「妻は、くノ一」|NHKオンライン". Nhk.or.jp. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  120. ^ "BS時代劇「妻は、くノ一 ~最終章~」|NHKオンライン". Nhk.or.jp. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  121. ^ "Ninja scenes in SHOGUN". Vintageninja.net. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  122. ^ Fitzpatrick, Kevin (2011-01-31). "Curare – The Silent Killers of Film and TV". UGO.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  123. ^ "Bios – Kyodai Ken | The World's Finest – Batman: The Animated Series". Worldsfinestonline.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  124. ^ "'Jackson Five Across Yo' Eyes' or 'Just Beat It' - Black Dynamite on Adult Swim Video". Adult Swim. 24 November 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  125. ^ "Chop Socky Chooks – Characters". Chopsockychooks.weebly.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  126. ^ "Shadow Walkers". ConanTheAdventurer.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  127. ^ "Episode Summaries". Valarnrow.i8.com. Archived from the original on 2007-05-03. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  128. ^ "Ninja Handyman". Planet Sketch. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  129. ^ "Stroker and Hoop : Ninja Worrier - Adult Swim Gold Episodes". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on April 6, 2012. Retrieved 2016-02-19. 
  130. ^ "Ninja reklamuje Alior Sync (wideo)". Wirtualnemedia.pl. 2012-06-18. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  131. ^ "Funny Ninja Commercial". YouTube. 2008-11-23. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  132. ^ "Ninja Commercial – Bombay Sapphire". YouTube. 2007-11-10. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  133. ^ "Motts Clamato Commercial – Ninjas (kung foo fighting)". YouTube. 2010-08-11. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  134. ^ "Funny FedEx Commercial – Bear, hunter, ninja". YouTube. 2006-12-04. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  135. ^ "Free Realms Ninja Prank Commercial". YouTube. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  136. ^ "2012 Honda Civic Ninja Commercial from JL Freed Honda". YouTube. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  137. ^ "Pub UFJ Tsubasa Securities Ninja". YouTube. 2009-09-15. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  138. ^ "Ninja Nuns". YouTube. 2006-11-27. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  139. ^ "Nicorette Ad Ninjas". YouTube. 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  140. ^ "Nike Ninja Commercial". Youtube.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  141. ^ "Nintendo WiFi Ninja Commercial". YouTube. 2008-02-02. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  142. ^ "Oregon State Lotto Sudoku Ninja Commercial". YouTube. 2008-01-12. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  143. ^ "Pepsi ninjas". YouTube. 2008-06-21. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  144. ^ "Pop Tarts Ninja". YouTube. 2011-04-16. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  145. ^ "Sure Ninja". YouTube. 2006-07-09. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  146. ^ "Sure Ninjas". YouTube. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  147. ^ "Become a Ninjutsu expert at the Ninja's hometown – Koka Ninja Village : Travel Guide of Shiga Prefecture - go.biwako". En.biwako-visitors.jp. 2010-11-28. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  148. ^ Kim Kyung Hoon (2008-04-08). "Japan village exposes secret world of ninja fighters | World | Reuters". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  149. ^ Hiro Odaira. "NINJA NEW YORK Restaurant, Finest Japanese Cuisine". Ninjanewyork.com. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  150. ^ "Guide to Japanese Ninja attractions – Japan Travel Guide". Gojapan.about.com. 2013-07-25. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  151. ^ "Touring Famous Ninja Villages – Travel – Kids". Web Japan. Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  152. ^ "甲賀の里 忍術村". Koka.ninpou.jp. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  153. ^ "甲賀流忍術屋敷 公式ホームページ". Kouka-ninjya.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  154. ^ "チビッ子忍者村ー信州戸隠 そばと忍者の里 | 信州戸隠・子供から大人まで楽しめる忍者アミューズメントパーク". Ninjamura.com. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  155. ^ "戸隠民俗館・からくり屋敷・忍法". Flame.jp. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  156. ^ "Edo Wonderland 日光江戸村". Edowonderland.net. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  157. ^ Brian Ashcraft. "Female Ninja Serve Up Noodles Amidst Silly Complaints". Kotaku. Gawker Media. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  158. ^ "Ninja Akasaka". Ninja Akasaka. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  159. ^ "NINJA KYOTO Restaurant&Labyrinth|忍者京都迷宮殿". Ninja-kyoto.co.jp. 2009-11-14. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  160. ^ "「NINJA KYOTO」にビアホール-「くノ一」が踊るメニューも - 烏丸経済新聞". Karasuma.keizai.biz. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  161. ^ "home of licensed bounce houses, waterslides, jumpers and games". Ninja Jump. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  162. ^ "Ecommerce Accounting Software Integrated into Website Design". Web Ninja. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  163. ^ "| Home". Ninjamessage.com.au. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  164. ^ "Ninja Tracking Systems | GPS Tracking | GPS Tracker". Ninjatracking.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  165. ^ "Ninja Polish". Ninja Polish. 2013-09-18. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  166. ^ "NinjaPyrate.com". NinjaPyrate.com. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  167. ^ "Custom, MADE WITH SWAROVSKI速 ELEMENTS Cell Phone Bling & Clothing Accessories". Crystal Ninja. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  168. ^ ">> Taking the Scary Out of Dairy!". Lactose Ninja. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  169. ^ "Tube Town toys and Pop-up toys from". The Ninja Corporation. Retrieved 2013-11-03. 
  170. ^ Kristof, Nicholas D. (October 20, 1998). "Fears of Sorcerers Spur Killings in Java". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2018. 

Footnotes[edit]

  • Adams, Andrew (1970), Ninja: The Invisible Assassins, Black Belt Communications, ISBN 978-0-89750-030-2 
  • Bunch, Bryan H.; Hellemans, Alexander (2004), The history of science and technology: a browser's guide to the great discoveries, inventions, and the people who made them, from the dawn of time to today, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, ISBN 978-0-618-22123-3 
  • Chamberlain, Basil Hall (2005), The Kojiki: records of ancient matters, Tuttle Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8048-3675-3 
  • Crowdy, Terry (2006), The enemy within: a history of espionage, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1-84176-933-2 
  • Deal, William E. (2007), Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-195331264 
  • Draeger, Donn F.; Smith, Robert W. (1981), Comprehensive Asian fighting arts, Kodansha, ISBN 978-0-87011-436-6 
  • Fiévé, Nicolas; Waley, Paul (2003), Japanese capitals in historical perspective: place, power and memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-7007-1409-4 
  • Friday, Karl F. (2007), The first samurai: the life and legend of the warrior rebel, Taira Masakado, Wiley, ISBN 978-0-471-76082-5 
  • Howell, Anthony (1999), The analysis of performance art: a guide to its theory and practice, Routledge, ISBN 978-90-5755-085-0 
  • Green, Thomas A. (2001), Martial arts of the world: an encyclopedia, Volume 2: Ninjutsu, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-1-57607-150-2 
  • Kawaguchi, Sunao (2008), Super Ninja Retsuden, PHP Research Institute, ISBN 978-4-569-67073-7 
  • McCullough, Helen Craig (2004), The Taiheiki: A Chronicle of Medieval Japan, Tuttle Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8048-3538-1 
  • Mol, Serge (2003), Classical weaponry of Japan: special weapons and tactics of the martial arts, Kodansha, ISBN 978-4-7700-2941-6 
  • Morton, William Scott; Olenik, J. Kenneth (2004), Japan: its history and culture, fourth edition, McGraw-Hill Professional, ISBN 978-0-07-141280-3 
  • Nihon Hakugaku Kurabu (2006), Unsolved Mysteries of Japanese History, PHP Research Institute, ISBN 978-4-569-65652-6 
  • Nihon Hakugaku Kurabu (2004), Zuketsu Rekishi no Igai na Ketsumatsu, PHP Research Institute, ISBN 978-4-569-64061-7 
  • Perkins, Dorothy (1991), Encyclopedia of Japan: Japanese History and Culture, from Abacus to Zori, Facts on File, ISBN 978-0-8160-1934-2 
  • Ratti, Oscar; Westbrook, Adele (1991), Secrets of the samurai: a survey of the martial arts of feudal Japan, Tuttle Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8048-1684-7 
  • Reed, Edward James (1880), Japan: its history, traditions, and religions: With the narrative of a visit in 1879, Volume 2, John Murray, OCLC 1309476 
  • Satake, Akihiro; Yasumada, Hideo; Kudō, Rikio; Ōtani, Masao; Yamazaki, Yoshiyuki (2003), Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei: Man'yōshū Volume 4, Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4-00-240004-2 
  • Takagi, Ichinosuke; Gomi, Tomohide; Ōno, Susumu (1962), Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei: Man'yōshū Volume 4, Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4-00-060007-9 
  • Tatsuya, Tsuji (1991), The Cambridge history of Japan Volume 4: Early Modern Japan: Chapter 9, translated by Harold Bolitho, edited by John Whitney Hall, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-22355-3 
  • Teeuwen, Mark; Rambelli, Fabio (2002), Buddhas and kami in Japan: honji suijaku as a combinatory paradigm, RoutledgeCurzon, ISBN 978-0-415-29747-9 
  • Turnbull, Stephen (2007), Warriors of Medieval Japan, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1-84603-220-2 
  • Moriyama, T. (1998). "Weekend Adventures Outside of Tokyo", Shufunotomo Co. Ltd., Tokyo Japan, ISBN 4-07-975049-8.
  • Frederic, L. (2002). "Japan Encyclopedia", Belknap Harvard, ISBN 0-674-01753-6

Further reading[edit]

  • Fujibayashi, Masatake; Nakajima, Atsumi. (1996). Shōninki: Ninjutsu densho. Tokyo: Shinjinbutsu Ōraisha. OCLC 222455224.
  • Fujita, Seiko. (2004). Saigo no Ninja Dorondoron. Tokyo: Shinpūsha. ISBN 978-4-7974-9488-4.
  • Fukai, Masaumi. (1992). Edojō oniwaban : Tokugawa Shōgun no mimi to me. Tokyo: Chūō Kōronsha. ISBN 978-4-12-101073-5.
  • Hokinoichi, Hanawa. (1923–1933). Buke Myōmokushō. Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kōbunkan. OCLC 42921561.
  • Ishikawa, Masatomo. (1982). Shinobi no sato no kiroku. Tokyo: Suiyōsha. ISBN 978-4-88066-110-0.
  • Mol, Serge (2016). Takeda Shinobi Hiden: Unveiling Takeda Shingen's Secret Ninja Legacy. Eibusha. pp. 1–192. ISBN 978-90-813361-3-0. 
  • Mol, Serge (2008). Invisible armor: An Introduction to the Esoteric Dimension of Japan’s Classical Warrior Arts. Eibusha. pp. 1–160. ISBN 978-90-8133610-9. 
  • Nawa, Yumio. (1972). Hisshō no heihō ninjutsu no kenkyū: gendai o ikinuku michi. Tokyo: Nichibō Shuppansha. OCLC 122985441.
  • Nawa. Yumio. (1967). Shinobi no buki. Tokyo: Jinbutsu Ōraisha. OCLC 22358689.
  • Okuse, Heishichirō. (1967). Ninjutsu: sono rekishi to ninja. Tokyo: Jinbutsu Ōraisha. OCLC 22727254.
  • Okuse, Heishichirō. (1964). Ninpō: sono hiden to jitsurei. Tokyo: Jinbutsu Ōraisha. OCLC 51008989.
  • Watatani, Kiyoshi. (1972). Bugei ryūha hyakusen. Tokyo: Akita Shoten. OCLC 66598671.
  • Yamaguchi, Masayuki. (1968). Ninja no seikatsu. Tokyo: Yūzankaku. OCLC 20045825.

External links[edit]