Arctic Apples

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Arctic Apples are a group of trademarked[1] apples that contain a nonbrowning trait (when the apples are subjected to mechanical damage, such as slicing or bruising, the apple flesh remains its original color)[2] introduced through biotechnology.[3][4] They were developed through a process of genetic engineering and precision breeding by Okanagan Specialty Fruits Inc. (OSF).[5] Specifically, gene silencing reduces the expression of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus preventing the fruit from browning.[6] It is the first approved food product to use that technique.[7] This is unlike many other genetically modified foods, which insert genes from other species for the purposes of pesticide tolerance or insect resistance.

Okanagan Specialty Fruits has petitioned for regulatory approval for two apple varieties in Canada from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and Health Canada[8] and in the US from the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), part of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).[9] In 2012, a field test application was approved to conduct a 20-acre study of the apple in the state of Washington.[10] The apples were approved by the USDA in February 2015[11] and by the FDA in March 2015,[12] becoming the first genetically modified apple approved for US sale.[13]

As of 2016, three varieties have been approved by the USDA (Arctic Golden, Arctic Granny, and Arctic Apple Fuji) and are expected for retail sale in early 2017,[14] with a each apple bearing a "snowflake" logo and QR code that can be scanned with a smartphone to help inform consumers about the safety and non-browning benefits via the company website.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status: Arctic™ Apple (Malus x domestica) Events GD743 and GS784. United States Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
  2. ^ "Questions and Answers: Okanagan Specialty Fruits' Non-Browning Apple (Events GD743 and GS784)" (PDF). APHIS. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  3. ^ Lehnert, R. "Firm seeks approval for transgenic apple" Archived July 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Good Fruit Grower. Jan. 15 2011.
  4. ^ Milkovich, M. "Non-browning apples cause controversy" Fruit Growers News. April 29, 2011.
  5. ^ Wilson, K. (2011, July) "Aussie Transplant Proves Fruitful: The Long Road to GMO Innovation" Archived September 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Orchard and Vine, 18-19.
  6. ^ James Vincent (19 January 2017). "The first GMO non-browning apples will go on sale in the US next month". The Verge. Retrieved 19 January 2017. 
  7. ^ "Apple-to-apple transformation" Archived September 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Okanagan Specialty Fruits. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-15. Retrieved 2012-08-21. . CFIA. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
  9. ^ Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status: Arctic™ Apple (Malus x domestica) Events GD743 and GS784. United States Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
  10. ^ "ISB Record 12-048-102rm". Information Systems for Biotechnology. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  11. ^ Pollack, A. "Gene-Altered Apples Get U.S. Approval" New York Times. Feb 13, 2015.
  12. ^ "FDA concludes Arctic Apples and Innate Potatoes are safe for consumption". United States Food and Drug Administration. 20 March 2015. 
  13. ^ Tennille, Tracy (Feb 13, 2015). "First Genetically Modified Apple Approved for Sale in U.S.". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved Jan 19, 2017. 
  14. ^ Josie Musico (7 October 2016). "Arctic Apples coming to supermarkets, despite anti-GMO opposition (Agriculture blog)". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved 19 January 2017. 
  15. ^ Gerlock, Grant (1 February 2017). "Why The Arctic Apple Means You May Be Seeing More GMOs At The Store". US National Public Radio (NPR). Retrieved 20 February 2017. 

External links[edit]

Arctic® Apples: Okanagan Specialty Fruits' Flagship Product – Nonbrowning Arctic® apples