Apple cider vinegar
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||88 kJ (21 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||0 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.|
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|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Apple cider vinegar, a vinegar made from fermented apple juice, is used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys. It is made by first crushing apples and squeezing out the liquid. Bacteria and yeast are then added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, and the sugars are turned into alcohol. In a second fermentation step, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (Acetobacter species). Acetic acid and malic acid are what give vinegar its sour taste. Apple cider vinegar has no nutritional value, aside from some calories, with all nutrients at negligible levels.
Apple cider vinegar has been used as a folk remedy over centuries. Since the 1970s, it has been promoted with a number of health claims, including that it can aid weight loss and prevent infection. No claims of benefit are supported by good evidence, and medicinal consumption of apple cider vinegar may be hazardous, particularly if taken during pregnancy or consumed chronically.
Ingestion of the acetic acid in tablet form poses a risk of possible injury to soft tissues of the mouth, throat, stomach, and kidneys. Using vinegar or acetic acid solutions for topical treatment, ear cleaning solutions, or eye washes are contraindicated.
- Ulbricht CE, ed. (2010). "Apple Cider Vinegar". Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Guide: An Evidence-Based Reference (1st ed.). Elsevier. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-323-07295-3.
- Hill, LL; Woodruff, LH; Foote, JC; Barreto-Alcoba, M (2005). "Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar tablets and subsequent evaluation of products". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 105 (7): 1141–1144. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2005.04.003. PMID 15983536.
- "Vinegar: Not Just for Salad". National Capital Poison Center, Washington, DC. 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.