Apple cider vinegar
Apple cider vinegar, otherwise known as cider vinegar or ACV, is a type of vinegar made from cider or apple must and has a pale to medium amber color. Unpasteurized or organic ACV contains mother of vinegar, which has a cobweb-like appearance and can make the vinegar look slightly congealed.
ACV is used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys, among other things. It is made by crushing apples and squeezing out the liquid. Bacteria and yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, and the sugars are turned into alcohol. In a second fermentation process, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (acetobacter). Acetic acid and malic acid give vinegar its sour taste.
Health uses and research
Although use of apple cider vinegar to promote health has a long history in folklore and traditional medicine, there remains insufficient evidence from modern high-quality clinical research to support any health claims. Preliminary research is being conducted to determine possible effects on blood glucose levels, satiety, anti-infective properties (either topically or orally), and hypertension or cancer, but no significant clinical studies have supported its use for these conditions as of 2017. Further, ingestion of the acetic acid in vinegar poses a risk of possible injury to soft tissues of the mouth, throat, and stomach. Uses for topical treatment, cleaning solutions, or eye accidents are included as warnings under poison advisories.
- Food additive
- Acetic acid
- Mother of vinegar
- United States v. Ninety-Five Barrels Alleged Apple Cider Vinegar
- D. C. Jarvis
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- "Vinegar: Not Just for Salad". National Capital Poison Center, Washington, DC. 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.