Apple cider vinegar

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Vinegar, cider
Apple Cider Vinegar (4108653248).jpg
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy90 kJ (22 kcal)
0.93 g
Sugars0.40 g
Dietary fiber0 g
0 g
0 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
0 μg
Thiamine (B1)
0%
0 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0%
0 mg
Niacin (B3)
0%
0 mg
Vitamin B6
0%
0 mg
Folate (B9)
0%
0 μg
Vitamin B12
0%
0 μg
Vitamin C
0%
0 mg
Vitamin E
0%
0 mg
Vitamin K
0%
0 μg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
1%
7 mg
Iron
2%
0.20 mg
Magnesium
1%
5 mg
Phosphorus
1%
8 mg
Potassium
2%
73 mg
Sodium
0%
5 mg
Zinc
0%
0.04 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water93.81 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central

Apple cider vinegar, or cider vinegar, is a vinegar made from fermented apple juice,[1] and used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys.[2] It is made by crushing apples, then squeezing out the juice. Bacteria and yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, which converts the sugars to alcohol. In a second fermentation step, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (Acetobacter species).[2] Acetic acid and malic acid combine to give vinegar its sour taste.[1]

There is no high-quality clinical evidence that regular consumption of apple cider vinegar helps to maintain or lose body weight,[3] or is effective to manage blood glucose and lipid levels.[2]

Nutrition[edit]

Apple cider vinegar is 94% water, with 1% carbohydrates and no fat or protein (table). In a 100 gram (ml) reference amount, it provides 22 calories, with negligible content of micronutrients.[4]

Processing[edit]

Apples are loaded onto a processing belt where they are crushed, pressed, and the juice separated.[2][5] The material is stored in a submerged tank where the first fermentation process begins through which oxygen is supplied. Alcoholic fermentation is completed using the bacterial strain, acetobacter, with the ethanol produced yielding acetic acid and vinegar.[1][2][5] The "mother" is an undefined microbial culture left in the vinegar prior to distilling and pasteurization.[6]

Health effects[edit]

Despite its history of use in traditional medicine,[2] there is no good evidence to support any health claims – such as for weight loss, glycemic control[7] or skin infections[1] – in humans, and its use is not recommended for any indication in medical guidelines of major public health organizations or regulatory agencies.[8]

Safety concerns[edit]

Although low-level consumption of apple cider vinegar is of low risk, particularly if it is diluted, reported adverse effects include esophageal damage, tooth enamel erosion, and excessive burping, flatulence, and bowel movements.[7] Irritation and redness are common when the eyes come into contact with vinegar, and corneal injury can occur.[8] Using vinegar as a topical medication, ear cleaning solution, or eye wash is hazardous.[8] Although small amounts of apple cider vinegar may be used as a food flavoring,[8] it may be unsafe for use by pregnant and breastfeeding women and by children.[1] Different commercial brands of apple cider vinegar were found to have inconsistent acid levels, with some contaminated by molds and yeast.[2]

If used as a homemade cleaning agent, apple cider vinegar, like any kind of vinegar, should not be mixed with chlorine bleach, the combination of which may release chlorine gas and irritate airways, eyes, nose and throat.[8]

People with allergies to apples may experience allergic reactions to apple cider vinegar.[2] Topical use of apple cider vinegar to treat skin diseases may cause burns.[2] The use of apple cider vinegar may cause untoward interactions with prescription drugs, such as insulin or diuretics.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Ulbricht CE, ed. (2010). "Apple Cider Vinegar". Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Guide: An Evidence-Based Reference (1st ed.). Elsevier. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-323-07295-3.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Apple cider vinegar". Drugs.com. 29 May 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  3. ^ a b Katherine Zeratsky (16 May 2018). "Apple cider vinegar". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  4. ^ "Vinegar, cider (FDC ID 173469): nutrient contents per 100 ml". FoodData Central, US Department of Agriculture. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  5. ^ a b Downing, DL (1989). Processed apple products. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  6. ^ Solieri L, Giudici, P (2009). Vinegars of the World. Milano: Springer-Verlag. Bibcode:2009viwo.book.....S.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  7. ^ a b Launholt TL, Kristiansen CB, Hjorth P (September 2020). "Safety and side effects of apple vinegar intake and its effect on metabolic parameters and body weight: a systematic review". European Journal of Nutrition (Systematic review). 59 (6): 2273–2289. doi:10.1007/s00394-020-02214-3. PMID 32170375. S2CID 212681609.
  8. ^ a b c d e Mary Elizabeth May (2017). "Vinegar: Not Just for Salad". National Capital Poison Center, Washington, DC. Retrieved 1 March 2017.

External links[edit]