Apple cider vinegar

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Vinegar, cider
Apple cider vinegar.jpg
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy88 kJ (21 kcal)
0.93 g
Sugars0.40 g
Dietary fiber0 g
0 g
0 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
0 μg
Thiamine (B1)
0%
0 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0%
0 mg
Niacin (B3)
0%
0 mg
Vitamin B6
0%
0 mg
Folate (B9)
0%
0 μg
Vitamin B12
0%
0 μg
Vitamin C
0%
0 mg
Vitamin E
0%
0 mg
Vitamin K
0%
0 μg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
1%
7 mg
Iron
2%
0.20 mg
Magnesium
1%
5 mg
Phosphorus
1%
8 mg
Potassium
2%
73 mg
Sodium
0%
5 mg
Zinc
0%
0.04 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water93.81 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Apple cider vinegar, or cider vinegar, is a vinegar made from fermented apple juice,[1] and used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys.[2] It is made by crushing apples, then squeezing out the juice. Bacteria and yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, which converts the sugars to alcohol. In a second fermentation step, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (Acetobacter species).[2] Acetic acid and malic acid combine to give vinegar its sour taste.[1] Apple cider vinegar has no medicinal or nutritional value. There is no high-quality clinical evidence that regular consumption of apple cider vinegar helps to maintain or lose body weight,[3] or is effective to manage blood glucose and lipid levels.[2]

Nutrition[edit]

Apple cider vinegar is 94% water, with 1% carbohydrates and no fat or protein. Its caloric and micronutrient contents are negligible (USDA nutrition table).

Processing[edit]

Homemade[edit]

All apple components may be used for homemade apple cider vinegar fermentation. Cutting the apples into small cubes increases their surface area, aiding the fermentation. The apple pieces are submerged in a water and sugar (or honey) mixture to supply sugars for fermentation. Once the pieces are submerged, a breathable covering is placed for approximately 2 weeks, then strained, and stored another 4 weeks until vinegar is achieved.[citation needed]

Commercial[edit]

Apples are brought onto a processing belt where they are crushed, pressed, and the juice separated.[2][4] The material is most often stored in a submerged tank where the first fermentation process begins through which oxygen is supplied. To achieve alcoholic fermentation via the bacterial strain acetobacter, then the ethanol produced yields acetic acid and vinegar.[1][2][4] The "mother" is an undefined microbial culture left in the vinegar prior to distilling and pasteurization.[5]

Folk medicine[edit]

Despite its history of use in traditional medicine,[2] there is no clinical evidence to support any health claims – such as for weight loss[3] or skin infections[1] – and its use is not recommended in medical guidelines of any major public health organization.[6]

Safety concerns[edit]

Although oral use of small quantities of apple cider vinegar is considered safe,[2] ingestion of apple cider vinegar in tablet form poses a risk of injury to soft tissues of the mouth, throat, stomach, and kidneys.[2][7] Irritation and redness are common when the eyes come into contact with vinegar, and corneal injury can occur.[6] Using vinegar as a topical medication, ear cleaning solution, or eye wash, is hazardous.[6] Due to its acidity, exposure of teeth from consuming undiluted apple cider vinegar may damage tooth enamel.[1] Although small amounts of apple cider vinegar may be used as a food flavoring,[6] it may be unsafe for use by pregnant and breastfeeding women and by children.[1] Different commercial brands of apple cider vinegar were found to have inconsistent acid levels, with some contaminated by molds and yeast.[2]

If used as a homemade cleaning agent, apple cider vinegar should not be mixed with chlorine bleach, the combination of which may release chlorine gas and irritate airways, eyes, nose and throat.[6]

Adverse reactions[edit]

People with allergies to apples may experience adverse reactions to apple cider vinegar.[2] Topical use of apple cider vinegar to treat skin diseases may cause burns.[2] The use of apple cider vinegar may cause interactions with prescription drugs, such as insulin or diuretics.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Ulbricht CE, ed. (2010). "Apple Cider Vinegar". Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Guide: An Evidence-Based Reference (1st ed.). Elsevier. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-323-07295-3.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Apple cider vinegar". Drugs.com. 29 May 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  3. ^ a b c Katherine Zeratsky (16 May 2018). "Apple cider vinegar". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  4. ^ a b Downing, DL (1989). Processed apple products. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  5. ^ Solieri L, Giudici, P (2009). Vinegars of the World. Milano: Springer-Verlag.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  6. ^ a b c d e Mary Elizabeth May (2017). "Vinegar: Not Just for Salad". National Capital Poison Center, Washington, DC. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  7. ^ Hill, LL; Woodruff, LH; Foote, JC; Barreto-Alcoba, M (2005). "Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar tablets and subsequent evaluation of products". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 105 (7): 1141–1144. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2005.04.003. PMID 15983536.