List of apple cultivars

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1909 illustrations by Alois Lunzer depicting apple cultivars Golden Sweet, Talmon Sweet, Bailey Sweet and Sweet Bough

Over 7,500 cultivars of the culinary or eating apple (Malus pumila) are known.[1] Some are extremely important economically as commercial products, though the vast majority are not suitable for mass production. In the following list, use for "eating" means that the fruit is consumed raw, rather than cooked. Cultivars used primarily for making cider are indicated. Those varieties marked agm have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[2]

This list does not include the species and varieties of apples collectively known as crab apples, which are grown primarily for ornamental purposes, though they may be used to make jelly. These are described under Malus.

Table of apples[edit]

Common name Image Origin First developed Comment Use

Adams Pearmain

Malus Adams Parmäne 4593.jpg England 1826 A dessert apple. Similar flavor to Russet, first introduced under the name "Norfolk Pippin". Eating
Admiral Admiral apple.jpg Czech Republic 2012 New very popular variety. Flesh firm, crisp, juicy with very good taste. Robust, healthy, scab resistant variety with excellent keeping qualities and taste. Eating
Aia Ilu Estonia 1946 Apple is large in size, weighing 250–300 g. It is yellow, juicy, and bittersweet with a weak aroma. Eating
Airlie Red Flesh (Newell-Kimzey red flesh, Aerlie's Red Flesh) Oregon, US c. 1961 A large, conic apple. Light yellow-green skin strewn with white dots, occasionally with a faint reddish orange blush. Light pink to deep red flesh is crisp, sweet and mildly tart. Eating
Akane Akane-Pomme-20141026.jpg Japan 1970 Jonathan × Worcester Pearmain. Tangy taste. Eating
Åkerö Åkerö.jpg Sweden 15th century Apple is egg-shaped, medium to large in size, sweet and aromatic. Best in November, keeps well till February. Oldest cultivar in Northern Europe, grown mostly in Sweden and Estonia. Eating
Alkmene agm[3] Malus - Alkmene.JPG Germany 1930 Cox's Orange Pippin × Doktor Oldenburg Eating
Allington Pippin Malus domestica Allington Pippin 03.JPG Lincolnshire, UK 1880s A versatile English dessert apple raised by horticulturalist Thomas Laxton some time before 1884. Exhibited as Brown's South Lincoln Beauty, the name was changed to Allington Pippin by Bunyard Nursery in 1896. A cross of Cox's Orange Pippin and King of the Pippins. A small apple, aromatic, with a pineapple-like flavour, keeps its shape when cooked. Eating, Cooking, Dessert
Ambrosia Malus 'Ambrosia'.jpg British Columbia, Canada 1980s Medium to large in size, mostly red coloration with yellow patches. Has cream-coloured flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Ambrosia trees are hardy and no major disadvantages have yet been identified. Eating
Anna Anna Apple.jpg Israel 1965 Colour is yellow with a red blush. This variety does not grow well in the cold and prefers heat and humidity. Eating
Annurca Annurca apple.JPG Campania, Italy 1876 (documented) Very old apple; possibly one of the oldest of all. Believed to be older than first mention in Pasquale's Manuale di Arboricultura, 1876. Eating
Antonovka Antonovka.jpg Kursk, Russia 17th century A very old Russian variety, often planted at dachas. Apples are large, yellow-green and bracingly tart to eat out of hand, but superb for cooking, as they keep their shape. Extremely tolerant of cold weather, and because it produces a single, deep taproot (unusual among apple trees), Antonovka is propagated for use as a rootstock. Antonovka rootstock provides a cold-hardy (to −45 °C), well-anchored, vigorous, standard-sized tree. Cooking, Cider
Apollo Cox's Orange Pippin × Geheimrat Dr. Oldenburg Eating
Ariane Pomme Ariane.jpg Angers, France 2002 Scab resistant. Developed at the National Institute of Agricultural Research in France. Eating
Arkansas Black Arkansas Black apples.jpg Arkansas, US c. 1870 Hard and crunchy; stores well. Very deep red, appearing black from a distance. Eating
Arthur Turner agm[4] England large golden cooker: prone to mildew but scab resistant Cooking
Ashmead's Kernel agm[5] Ashmead's Kernel.JPG England c. 1700 Small, very sweet and very tart. Eating
Aurora Golden Gala Aurora apples 3.jpg British Columbia, Canada 2003 Dessert apple; medium size, sweet, juicy, crisp, firm, very long storage life. Eating
Autumn Glory[6] Washington, US 2011 The Autumn Glory variety is a hybrid of the Fuji (apple) and the Golden Delicious apple, featuring a red over golden background. Very sweet, firm flesh with a subtle "cinnamon" flavor. Produced only by Domex Superfresh Growers in Washington's Yakima Valley. Eating
Bailey Pomological Watercolor POM00001069.jpg New York c. 1840 Red apple with considerable white flecks. Has some russeting. Eating
Baldwin Baldwin(apple).jpg Massachusetts, US c. 1740 Sweet to subacid flavor. Also known as "Woodpecker". Very old variety for North America. Makes much juice. Cooking, Eating
Ballyfatten Ballyfatten on tree, National Fruit Collection (acc. 1949-222).jpg County Tyrone, Northern Ireland c. 1740 A large, round apple with firm, dry, sweet, slightly tart white flesh. Excellent keeper. Scab and canker resistant. Cooking, Eating
Bardsey Island Apple Bardsey Island Image.jpg Bardsey Island, Wales 1998 A medium-sized eating apple with a unique lemon aroma. Sweet and juicy. Skin color red over gold. Very disease resistant. Single tree discovered on Bardsey island in 1998, age of original tree unknown. May have monastic origins. Eating
Beacon Minnesota, US 1936 Lively, juicy flavor; good for baking. Does not keep very well. Cooking, Eating
Beauty of Bath Beauty of Bath Apples.jpg England 1864 Deep red flush and streaks of red with a little russet. Early maturing but short season. Formerly grown commercially in England for local markets. Good flavor in its home climate if it is eaten soon after picking. Poor flavour if distributed long distances and stored for weeks, so now rare. Eating
Belle de Boskoop agm[7] Malus-Boskoop organic.jpg Boskoop, Netherlands 1856 Bright red, fairly large, early in season (end of August to early September). Cooking (applesauce)
Ben Davis Pomological Watercolor POM00000155.jpg Southeastern US c. 1800 Noted for keeping well prior to refrigerated storage, but flavour has been compared with cork. Eating
Beverly Hills California, US 1939[8] Slightly tart flavor. Likes warm weather. MacIntosh style summer apple that is self fertile and well adapted to low chill conditions.[9] Eating
Birgit Bonnier Birgit Bonnier äpplen i korg.jpeg Sweden A cross between Cortland (apple) and Lord Lambourne.
Bismarck Bismarckapfel (Panorama).jpg Victoria, Australia 1870 Medium-sized fruit with a green and red skin, sharp in flavor and not a common apple. Cooking
Blenheim Orange agm[10] Deutsche Pomologie - Aepfel - 036.jpg England c. 1740 Has greenish-yellow to orange skin streaked with red. Distinctive nutty flavor excellent for cooking. The vigorous tree is slow to come into crop but then produces heavily. Cooking, Eating
Bloody Ploughman Cross section of Bloody Ploughman, National Fruit Collection (acc. 1962-042).jpg Carse of Gowrie, Scotland c. 1800 A medium-sized, very dark red, heavily ribbed apple. Crisp, mildly sweet white flesh, sometimes pink-streaked. It is reputed to have got its name from a ploughman who was caught stealing apples near Megginch Castle and was shot by the gamekeeper. His wife got the bag of apples and threw them on the compost heap where a seedling then grew and - voila - Bloody Ploughman. Eating
Bottle Greening Green Mountains, US c. 1800 Produces large fruit. Has thick skin, but juicy. Eating, Cider
Braeburn Braeburn2008.jpg New Zealand 1952 Chance seedling. The fruit is widely sold commercially in the UK. Eating
Bramley (Bramley's Seedling) agm[11] 004bramley.jpg Nottinghamshire, UK 1809 The fruit is the most widely sold cooker in the UK. Large sized fruits with waxy skin, green with a red flush. A favorite ingredient in many traditional British puddings.[12] Cooking
Bravo de Esmolfe Esmolfe, Penacova, Portugal 18th century A small, juicy and sweet apple, considered one of the best Portuguese apples Eating
Breedon Pippin England 1801 Sweet flavor. Originally raised by a parson in Berkshire. Rare. Eating
Brina Italy 1998 Resistant to scab. Spreading habit with intermediate vigor; full flowering season is medium-late, production is heavy, fruit is medium or medium-large, with smooth skin; white lenticels, no russet, excellent taste characteristics. Ripens first week of October (Trentino). Eating
Byfleet Seedling England
Calville Blanc d'hiver Malus-Weißer-Winterkalvill.jpg France 1598 Noted for unusual looks (somewhat lumpy on the side) but excellent reward when tried. Noted for having unusually high vitamin C content. Apple of choice for tarte tatin in France. Cooking
Cameo Cameo apple.jpg Washington State, US 1980s Existence owed to freak accidental crossing of two most popular apples in world: Red and Golden Delicious. Retains prongs on bottom of latter parent but has flavor more resembling Golden. Eating
Campanino Cross section of Campanino, National Fruit Collection (acc. 1958-140).jpg Modena, Italy before 1751
Fruits have firm, crisp flesh with a rather acid flavor Cooking
Carolina Red June Tennessee, US c. 1810 Has unusual habit of blossoming twice, and producing two crops per year. Very popular Civil-War-era Southern apple. Does beautifully in humid weather. Good choice for backyard gardener in subtropical climate. Cooking, Eating
Carroll 1947 Ripens early. Eating
Carter's Blue Alabama, US 1840s Medium to large, roundish oblate; skin green or greenish yellow washed with dull red with darker red broken tripes, covered with a heavy bluish bloom. Crisp, juicy, sugary, aromatic, mild subacid. Foliage also has a blue hue. Ripens September and keeps until November. Once widely grown in the American South, then thought extinct. Reintroduced to America in 1994 after being discovered at the National Fruit Trust in Kent, England, where it had been added in 1947 from a collection in Rhone, France, after it had been acquired around 1860 from the Fruitland Nursery in Augusta, Georgia.[13] Eating, Cooking
Champion, Shampion or Sampion Sampion cultivar.jpg Czechoslovakia c. 1960 A cross between Golden Delicious and a Cox Orange Pippin. Attractive color. This tree bears attractive fruit, extra-large sized, deep red, juicy, and crisp. Keeps fresh for a long time. Starts bearing at a young age. Harvest time is October. Eating, Juice
Catshead Cross section of Catshead, National Fruit Collection (acc. 1927-027).jpg England 1600s Sharp flavor. Lumpy shape and electric green coloring. Known to have been a variety planted in early Virginia by settlers as well as native England. Extremely rare in native UK; occasionally still found growing in southern US. Cooking
Charles Ross Berkshire, UK 1890s Has been an AGM winner. Orange to red. Best cooked early in season. Good flavor, and sweet when eaten later in season. Multi-purpose
Chelmsford Wonder The gardener's assistant; a practical and scientific exposition of the art of gardening in all its branches (1910) (14598039478).jpg Essex, UK c. 1870 A large long keeping yellow-skinned apple with diffuse orange pink flush. [1]. Still grown in Essex orchards including Lathcoats Farm Shop. Multi-purpose
Chiver's Delight Histon, Cambridgeshire, UK 1920s Medium to large oblate apple. Red flush over greenish yellow skin. Crisp, juicy, sweet white flesh. Flavor can be variable but at its best is very well balanced. Grown by Chivers (now a brand of Premier Foods) for apple sauce. Multi-purpose
Claygate Pearmain agm[14] Claygate Pearmain.jpg UK Suitable for northerly, cold, wet climates: rich, nutty flavor Dessert
Clivia Clivia.jpg East Germany 1964 Geheimrat Dr. Oldenburg × Cox's Orange Pippin Eating
Cornish Gilliflower Cornish gillyflower.jpg Cornwall, UK 1813 Discovered as accidental seedling. Shy bearer. Eating
Cortland Cortland apples.jpg New York 1890s Pale crisp flesh. Ripens in October in state of origin. Classic red coloration, nice crunch. Eating
Cosmic Crisp Cosmic Crisp.jpg Washington, USA 1997 Became available commercially in 2019. A combination of Enterprise and Honeycrisp apples. Eating
Court Pendu Plat Deutsche Pomologie - Aepfel - 018.jpg France 1613 Extremely old variety, may date from as early as Roman times. Popular during the Victorian era. Yellow to light green, flushed with red. Eating
Cox's Orange Pippin Cox orange renette2.JPG England 1829 One of the most celebrated apples in the UK, valued for its aromatic "orange" color and flavor. The fruit is widely sold commercially. Mainly grown in UK, Belgium and the Netherlands but also grown for export in New Zealand. Eating
Cripps Pink ('Pink Lady') Pink lady and cross section.jpg Australia 1970s Crisp, very sweet and slightly tart. Light red, pink and light yellow-green striped skin. Cooking, Eating
Crispin Mutsu apple.jpg Japan 1930 See Mutsu Eating
Crimson Delight Crimson Delight Apple.png Washington, USA Crimson Delight is a multi-purpose apple intended for snacking, baking and fresh recipes. The fruit size is medium to large with a firm texture and is crisp and juicy. Eating, Baking etc.
Crimson Gold Crimson gold apples (23388670556).jpg California 1944 A golf ball sized applecrab hybrid developed by Albert Etter who named it Little Rosybloom for its cute size and attractive ruby red flush. He died before completing the patent papers. Fruit was later rediscovered and renamed. Very crispy and keeps texture in baking. Eating, Baking etc.
Criterion New York 1898 One of parents believed to be Ben Davis, but very tart unlike parent. Dark red skin underlaid with stripes. Cooking, Eating
D'Arcy Spice Tolleshunt D'Arcy, Essex, UK 1785 A medium-sized apple with yellow-green skin, a red blush where exposed to the sun and covered with an spotty ochre russet. White flesh is aromatic, firm and crisp with noticeable hints of anise and clove. Eating
Delblush Malus 'Delblush'.jpg France 1979 Tentation delblush
, Golden Delicious × Grifer
Delcorf agm[15] Delcor Apfelsorte.JPG France 1960 Delbarestivale delcorf,
Golden Delicious × Stark Jonagrimes
Delfloga France 2008 Delbardivine delfloga,
Royal Gala Tenroy × Florina, scab resistant
Delflopion Delbard, France Sampion × Florina, scab resistant Eating
Delrouval Malus Cybele.jpg France 1995 Cybèle delrouval,
Delcorf × Akane
Deltana France 2010 Delbard Celeste deltana,
(Golden Delicious × Grive Rouge) × Florina, scab resistant
Devonshire Quarreden England, France? 1685 (documented) Possible French parentage or ancestry. Crimson red peel. Juicy. Eating
Discovery agm[16] Early Discovery apples from Chegworth Valley.jpg Essex, UK 1949 Possibly from an open-pollinated Worcester Pearmain, or could well be a Worcester × Beauty of Bath. Sharp, sweet flavour. Fruits are sold commercially in the UK. Eating
Dorsett Golden Starr 080302-3166 Malus sp..jpg Bahamas 1964 Grown from chance seedling of Golden Delicious. One of the most southerly apples grown in North America. Eating
Dougherty/Red Dougherty Cross section of Red Dougherty, National Fruit Collection (acc. 1952-221).jpg Australia, New Zealand 1930 Red Dougherty is a recent mutation discovered in New Zealand from the old Australian Dougherty. Eating
Duchess of Oldenburg Page 4 apple - Duchess of Oldenburg, Yellow Transparent, Wealthy.tiff Russia 18th century Has red stripes with splashes of green. Excellent resistance to freezing temperatures. Cooking, Eating
Dudley Winter Castle Hill, Maine, US 19th century A medium-sized oblate apple with greenish-yellow skin covered with red stripes over a solid red blush. Flesh is firm but tender, juicy, aromatic and quite tart, becoming milder as it ages. Good for fresh eating and cooking; rated by many as one of the best for apple pies and sauces. Tree is a natural semi-dwarf, very hardy and bears heavily annually. Cooking, Eating
Dummellor's Seedling agm[17] also known as Dumelow's Seedling[18] Shackerstone, Leicestershire, UK 18th century Large, roundish-oblate apple with pale greenish-yellow skin strewn with large russet dots, occasionally covered with a delicate pinkish-orange blush. Yellow-tinted white flesh is aromatic, firm, crisp, tart, and very juicy. One of the most widely grown culinary apples of Victorian England, esteemed for its fine flavour and good keeping qualities. Cooking
Egle Lithuania Eating
Early Victoria Essex, UK 1899 (introduced) Possibly from Lord Grosvenor × Keswick Cod. Also called Emmeth Early. Ripens in late July. Pale yellow fruit. Eating
Edward VII agm[19] London MMB »0M5 King Edward Memorial Park.jpg Worcestershire, UK 1908 (introduced) A large oblate-round apple with yellow-green skin and pinkish-brown blush. Suitable for more northerly, cold, wet climates. White flesh is sharp and pleasant. Extraordinary keeper; apple ripens in autumn and will keep until Easter. Possibly Blenheim Orange × Golden Noble. Cooking
Egremont Russet agm[20] Egremont Russet Apple.jpg Sussex, UK 1872 Brown russeting, nutty flavor. Excellent keeper. Eating
Ein Shemer Israel 1963 Zabidani × Golden Delicious. This variety ripens in June. Tastes tart, does not do well in cold weather. (Not the same as Anna (apple)) Eating
Ellison's Orange agm[21] Ellison's Orange.jpg Lincolnshire, UK 1911 Cox's Orange Pippin × Calville Blanc. Rich aniseed flavor. Eating
Elstar agm[22] Malus-Elstar.jpg Netherlands 1950s Golden Delicious × Ingrid Marie. Medium-sized, mostly red with yellow showing. Often used in desserts due to its intense honey flavor. Cooking, Eating
Emneth Early agm[23] UK Suitable for northerly, cold, wet climates. A biennial crop that needs thinning. Cooking
Empire New York Empire Apples.jpg New York 1966 Lovely white subacid flesh. Tangy taste. Ruby red color. Eating
Enterprise Illinois, US 1993 Classic North American red apple. Stores well up to six months. Makes very good candy apple. Eating
Envy Envy Apple.jpg New Zealand 2009 Sweet and crispy, takes 4–8 hours after cutting to start browning. Royal Gala × Braeburn. Eating
Epicure UK 1909 Yellowish apple with reddish blush. Good clean taste. Eating
Esopus Spitzenburg Esopus-spitzenburg.jpg Esopus, New York c. 1750 Grown by Thomas Jefferson at Monticello. Named for creek near which first seedling found. Heirloom variety still available at farmstands in Northeast and portions of Virginia. Difficult to grow for inexperienced planters. Cooking, Eating
EverCrisp Indiana, US 2008 Described as Fuji x Honeycrisp Eating
Flamenco Cross section of Obelisk, National Fruit Collection (acc. 1999-027).jpg UK 1950–1999 A columnar ornamental tree with delicious fruit Eating
Falstaff agm[24] UK A good pollinator. Dessert
Fiesta agm[25] Fiesta Apfelsorte.JPG Kent, UK 1972 Sometimes called Red Pippin. Claims both UK and US heritage: parents are Cox's Orange and Idared. Has flavour similar to the former but storage, colouring, and cold tolerance of the latter. Eating
Fireside Minnesota, United States 1943 Very fragrant. Yellow with red striping. Sweet apple, very popular in upper Midwest. Eating
Florina Malus Florina 4485.jpg Angers, France (Querina), scab resistant Eating
Flower of Kent Kent, UK 18th century This is the variety that inspired Sir Isaac Newton to consider gravity. Eating
Fortune agm[26] (Laxton's Fortune) 1904 Cox's Orange Pippin × Wealthy Eating
Fuji[27] Rosaceae Malus pumila Malus pumila Var domestica Apples Fuji.jpg Aomori, Japan 1930s Red Delicious × Ralls Genet. Dark red, conic apple. Sweet, crisp, dense flesh is very mildly flavoured. Keeps very well. One of the most widely grown apple varieties in the world. Eating
Gala, Royal Gala agm[28] Malus-Gala.jpg New Zealand 1970s A small to medium-sized conic apple. Thin, tannic skin is yellow-green with a red blush overlaid with reddish-orange streaks. Flesh is yellowish-white, crisp and grainy with a mild flavour. Cross of three of the world's best known apples: Kidd's Orange Red (a cross of Red Delicious and Cox's Orange Pippin) × Golden Delicious. One of the most widely available commercial fruit. Eating
Garden Royal Houghton Agr 209.10 - Brookshaw, Pomona Britannica, apples.jpg Sudbury, Massachusetts, US 1800s A medium-sized roundish-oblate, sometimes slightly conical apple. Greenish-yellow skin is striped and splashed with bright red, dull or grayish toward the stem; dots few, light and gray; cavity deep, basin shallow, slightly uneven. Flesh yellow, very tender, juicy, rich, mildly subacid and aromatic. Poor keeper. Upright habit, productive bearer, some biennial tendency. Eating
Gascoyne's Scarlet Malus Gascoynes Scharlachroter 4554.jpg Kent, England 1871 large red fruit Eating
Geheimrat Dr. Oldenburg Geheimrat Oldenburg.jpg Germany 1897 Created at the Höheren Lehranstalt für Obstbau of Geisenheim in the Rheingau; Minister von Hammerstein × Baumanns Renette. Eating
George Cave Essex, UK 1923 Pale green-yellow fruit with red flush. Early harvest. Eating
George Neal agm[29] Kent, UK 1904 Pale green to yellow colour, will keep nicely until late autumn. Cooking
Glockenapfel Malus Glockenapfel 4455.jpg Switzerland 17th century A medium-sized green-yellow elongate bell-shaped apple, sometimes takes on a reddish blush. Tart and juicy, stores well, taste improves with age. Excellent culinary variety; renowned for its use in Strudel. Cooking, Eating
Gloster (aka Gloster 69) Malus Gloster 4558.jpg Germany 1969 Conical shape. Somewhat tart, ruby red color like parent Red Delicious. Good choice for backyard gardening. Eating
Ginger Gold Malus Ginger-Gold.jpg Virginia, US 1960s Tangy flavour, crunchy texture, pale green-yellow colour. Noted for being an extremely early bearer (Europe by September 1, California late July, Eastern US in August). Cooking, Eating
Golden Delicious agm[30] Golden delicious apple.jpg Clay County, West Virginia, US 1914 One of the most popular varieties in the world. Due to its regular size, even colour and storage qualities the fruit is widely sold commercially. Uniform light green-yellow coloration, very sweet. A good pollinator. Eating
Golden Noble agm[31] Malus Gelber Edelapfel 4464.jpg England 1820 Tree is short and stocky. Produces mint green fruit with blush of pink. Eating
Golden Orange Italy 1979
released 1996
PRI 1956-6 × Ed Gould Golden. Resistant to scab. Moderate vigour, spreading habit and medium-late blooming season; fruit is moderately large (207 g) and symmetric, skin is smooth, no russeting. Ripens some days after Golden Delicious; fruit is very attractive; large, good storage ability. Eating
Golden Russet Golden russet apple.jpg New York 1845 (documented) A medium-sized heavily russeted light green apple, occasionally with a reddish blush. Crisp, fine-grained flesh is rich, sugary and very sweet. Excellent dessert apple, keeps very well. Makes extraordinary cider, known as the "Champagne of cider apples." Cider, Eating
Golden Spire Lancashire, UK 1850 An old Northern English variety. Unusually tall and oblong with a tart flavour. Cider, Eating
Golden Supreme Idaho, US 1960 Eating
Goldrush[32] Indiana, US 1980 The fruit has a complex spicy flavor with high acidity and sweetness. Acidity moderates in cold storage, with exceptional quality after 2 to 3 months. Eating
Goldspur Jabuka goldspur.jpg US 1960 A sport of 'Golden Delicious'. Eating
Gordon Whittier, California, USA 1977 A low chill hour cultivar developed by Robert B. Gordon in Whittier, CA from unknown parentage. Blooms over long period in Southern CA - from April to Early June. Bears mature fruit from August to October. Fruit is green with red striped overcolor. Ripe at approximately 50% red coverage. Fruit is dual purpose, for eating and baking with sweet-tart flavor. Eating & Cooking
Gradirose Languedoc-Roussillon, France 2004 Created by Pépinières Grard. Early dessert apple with pink blush. Ripens in September and stores well. Very productive. Eating
Gragg (aka Red Gragg, Winter Queen) North Carolina, US 1860 Originated on the farm of James Gragg in Caldwell County, NC about 1860. Valued by North Carolina growers for its fine cooking qualities, crispness and long storage ability. The conical shaped fruit is red in colour with moderately conspicuous dots. Ripens in October and is a great keeper. Cooking, Eating
Granny Smith[27] Granny smith and cross section.jpg Australia 1868 This is the apple once used to represent Apple Records. A favourite variety, widely sold in the UK. Also noted as common pie apple. Lime green colouring. Extremely tart. Cooking, Eating
Gravenstein Gravensteiner.poupou.JPG Gråsten, Jutland, Denmark 17th century A medium-sized early yellow-green apple, often with red stripes. Crisp, sweet, tart flavour. Exceptional cooking apple, especially for applesauce and pies. Poor keeper; becomes soft quickly. German immigrants introduced this variety to California's San Joaquin Valley in the mid-19th century. Has many sports. Cooking, Eating
Green Cheese North Carolina or Georgia, US 18th century A very old southern apple thought to have originated in North Carolina or Georgia but its true origin is uncertain. The fruit is medium to large, oblate to oblique in shape. The skin is deep green in colour, turning pale yellow when fully ripe. The yellowish flesh is sweet, crisp, tender and juicy. Eating
Greensleeves agm[33] Kent, UK 1966 Golden Delicious × James Grieve; good garden apple, with a pleasant but unexceptional flavour. Likely named for famous Renaissance era song. Eating
Grenadier agm[34] Apple 'Grenadier' - Cooking Apple (9655591940).jpg England 1862 (documented) Possibly one of the strangest of all British apples: it is ribbed and lumpy with a tough coat, looking as though it has taken a beating. Grenadier cooks down to cream-coloured puree with a superb apple flavour. Makes an excellent apple jam. Poor keeper. Reliably heavy annual bearer. Cooking
Grimes Golden Grimes Golden crop from brown brothers catalog.jpg Brooke County, West Virginia, US 1804 A medium-sized roundish to slightly oblong apple. Greenish-yellow skin, ripening to a clear yellow, stem cavity sometimes russeted, covered with yellow or russet dots. The yellowish-white flesh is crisp and tender, with a rich, spicy, sugary-sweet flavour. A good all-purpose dessert and cooking apple, Grimes also makes a strong single-variety cider. Excellent keeper. Grimes Golden is the parent of the ubiquitous Golden Delicious. Relatively rare among apples, Grimes Golden is self-fertile. Original tree discovered near a known orchard of John Chapman (Johnny Appleseed). Cider, Cooking, Eating
Haralson Pomological Watercolor POM00002262.jpg Minnesota, US 1923 Red colour and large, moderately conspicuous dots. Crisp and juicy with a tart flavour. Excellent choice for pies. Cooking, Eating
Harrison Cider Pomological Watercolor POM00002268.jpg New Jersey, US 1770 Yellow skin, sometimes red-blush, black spots, small size, sweet, rich and dry. Cooking, Cider
Hawaii   1945 (introduced) Noted for pineapple-like taste. Eating
Herefordshire Russet Kent, England 2002 Cox's Orange Pippin x Idared. Rich, aromatic flavour. Pick early October, stores until January. Crops well. Eating.
Heyer 12 Very cold-tolerant. Eating
Honeycrisp Honeycrisp-Apple.jpg Minnesota, US 1960 Has excellent eating and keeping qualities. Mottled red and yellow colour. Very crisp white flesh is slightly tart with a strong honey-like sweetness. Quality varies from apple to apple. Developed by the University of Minnesota and best suited to cool climates. Eating
Honeygold Cross section of Honeygold (MM106), National Fruit Collection (acc. 1976-002).jpg Minnesota, US 1969 Sweet tasting fruit. Tree has very showy, light pink blossoms in spring. Eating
Howgate Wonder Isle of Wight, UK 1960 Usually a big apple. Makes a lot of juice. Cooking
Idared agm[35] Malus-Idared.jpg Moscow, Idaho, US 1942 A medium-sized deep red apple. Crisp white flesh is tart and juicy, and can be somewhat bland if eaten out of hand, however, Idared is an exceptional cooking apple. Flesh keeps is shape, and the flavour becomes much stronger with cooking. An excellent keeping apple, Idared remains hardy and durable in proper storage for as long as 8 months. Idared is a cross between Jonathan and Wagener developed at the University of Idaho. Cooking
Irish Peach Kilkenny, Ireland 19th century Excellent for baking. Early harvest. More difficult to find within land of origin due to primary use for export to UK. Hardy, tastes very good straight off tree. Cooking, Eating
James Grieve agm[36] James Grieve jm55270.jpg Edinburgh, Scotland 1893 Good taste, but poor keeper (bruises easily). Cooking, Eating
Jazz (Scifresh) Jazz apples.jpg New Zealand 2007 (launched) Bright red round apple with subtle yellow under-striping. Tart to sweet, dense and very crunchy with effervescent texture. From sweet Royal Gala × firm, tart Braeburn. Widely sold commercially in the UK. Eating
Jonagold agm[37] Malus-Jonagold.jpg New York 1968 Popular in Europe and land of origin. Several highly coloured strains are available. Widely sold commercially in the UK. Eating, Cooking
Jonathan Malus-Jonathan.jpg New York 1820s Tart taste. Mostly red apple with patches of lime green. Does well in cooler areas; some frost resistance. Cooking (Pie), Eating
Junaluska North Carolina, US c. 1815 Once thought to be extinct but rediscovered in 2001 in rural North Carolina. Native American origin. Named for Cherokee chief Junaluska, leader in Battle of Horseshoe Bend, believed to have planted original tree. Extremely russeted and ugly apple but very hardy tree with superior taste to commercial varieties. Cooking, Cider, Eating
Junami Junami.jpg Switzerland c. 2010 A cross between Ideared and Maigold with Elstar. Beautifully round, fresh and fruity taste with a crunchy bite. Cooking, Eating
Jupiter agm[38] Malus-Jupiter.jpg North Carolina, US c. 1815[citation needed] A large, round, slightly conic apple. Light yellow-green skin with a red-orange blush and stripes. Strong apple flavour is well-balanced between sweet and sharp. Cross of Cox's Orange Pippin and Starking Delicious (a sport of Red Delicious), apple retains Cox's flavour, but tree is easier to grow. Eating
Kalmar Glasäpple Kalmar glasäpple.jpg Sweden 18th century[39] The body is light yellow, and the taste is a mix of acidity and sweetness. Harvesting may begin in early October and it is typically fully ripe in early December. Cooking, Eating
Kanzi (Nicoter) Kanzi.png Belgium 1991 Gala × Braeburn. Crunchy, juicy, sweet, slightly tangier than Gala. Eating
Karmijn de Sonnaville Malus - Karmijn de Sonnaville.JPG Wageningen, Netherlands 1949 Yellow ground colour when ripe, with red flush, and russet depending on the season. Large apple, though shape can be irregular. Cooking (Apple Juice), Eating
Katy (apple) Sweden 1947 Medium-sized early eating apple with red skin and pale cream flesh. Well suited to Northern European climate. Eating
Kerry Pippin County Antrim, Ireland c. 1805 Pale to golden yellow flesh. Delightful spicy taste. Well suited to Ireland's moist, cool climate. Eating
Kidd's Orange Red agm[40] New Zealand 1924 Cox's Orange Pippin × Delicious. Yellow skin with orange red flush. Chewy rather than crunchy. Eating
King of the Pippins agm[41] Cross section of King of the Pippins, National Fruit Collection (acc. 1972-030).jpg France Suitable for more northerly (southerly in the Southern Hemisphere) areas with higher rainfall Eating, cooking
King Russet agm[42] UK Russetted form of 'King of the Pippins' Eating
Knobby Russet Knobby Russet (5207258663).jpg Sussex, England 1819 Green and yellow, with rough and black russet. Unusually irregular, warty and knobbly surface. Cider, Eating
Koru Nelson, South Island, New Zealand 1998 Red and yellow, with yellow spots. Usually regular, with smooth surface. This is a "found" cross between Fuji and Braeburn, from a garden where some rotten Fuji apples had been thrown. Said to have balanced tartness & sweetness, said to have flavors of orange, vanilla, honey, & spice (whatever "spice" means). Cider, Cooking Eating
Kosztela Poland 16th century Eating
Lady Alice Lady Alice apple from supermarket in Seattle.jpg Washington, US 1979 Medium-sized, roundish oblate with thin yellow-green skin with an orange blush and bright red stripes. Crisp yellowish-white flesh is sweet with hints of honey and almond. Don Emmons purchased a neglected orchard of Red Delicious near Gleed, Washington, in 1978. While cultivating between trees, a disc from the plow hit the base of a tree. The injury caused a new shoot to grow from the rootstock (likely a seedling grown from a pip). The shoot was allowed to grow and bear fruit which Mr. Emmons named for his mother, Alice.[43]
Lane's Prince Albert agm[44] Lane's Prince Albert.jpg England 1841 Green with orange blush. Makes a good apple crumble for Christmas: peak ripening happens in winter. Cooking
Laxton's Epicure agm[45] UK Aromatic sweet fruit, tendency to biennial habit, bruises easily.
Laxton's Fortune See 'Fortune'
Laxton's Superb England 1897 Wyken Pippin × Cox's Orange Pippin. Classic old Victorian, British apple. Green with dull red flush. Firm texture, but not very good juice producer. Eating
Liberty Яблоня сорта Либерти.jpg New York 1978 Very disease-resistant. Very similar appearance to McIntosh, relatively short storage life in air. Eating
Limelight Kent, England 2000 Greensleeves type; abundant cropping and a compact tree. A pale green apple with a smooth finish and occasional pink blush. Crisp flesh and disease resistant tree. Eating
Liveland Raspberry apple Pomological Watercolor POM00002745.jpg Livland Governorate before 1870
Lodi Pomological Watercolor POM00002720.jpg Ohio, US 1911 Fruit pale yellow flushed with deeper yellow. Resistant to scab. Tangy taste. Eating
Lord Derby Cheshire, England c. 1850 Yellowish green apple. Acid flavour, likes cooler weather. Cooking
Lord Lambourne agm[46] Lord lambourne apple.jpg England 1921 James Grieve apple × Worcester Pearmain. Round shape. Orange flush with hint of russet. Strong acid flavour. Good for domestic cultivation. Eating
Macoun Macoun Apple.jpg New York 1923 Cold-tolerant. Crunchy. Does very well in salads. Eating
Maiden's Blush Burlington, New Jersey, US 19th century A thin-skinned, flattened apple. Pale yellow-green skin has a telltale crimson blush on the side that faced the sun. White flesh is crisp with a sharp flavour that mellows with storage. Heavy annual bearer. Good cooker. Excellent variety for drying because the flesh remains white and bright. Cooking, Eating
Malinda Pomological Watercolor POM00000244.jpg Vermont, US 1860 Small, conical with sheep's nose; deep, rich yellow with red spots possible. Dry, dense, substantive flesh; mild, pear-like flavour. Tree good in climates with heavy snowfall. Cooking, Eating
Mantet Mantet Apple.jpg Manitoba, Canada 1929 (introduced) Amber fruit washed with red. Summer apple. Does not do well in warm climates. Eating
Manks Codlin Malus domestica Manks Codlin Locatie De Kruidhof.JPG Isle of Man 1815 (First fruited) Pale yellow medium-sized fruit with occasional flush of red. Hardy. Heavy producing. Cooking
Margil London 1750s Small, highly flavoured apple held in very high esteem by connoisseurs. Medium to small in size, slightly conical in shape, dull green skin with an orange-red blush, some russeting. The yellow flesh is firm, crisp, sugary, and as pomologist Robert Hogg said, "with a powerful and delicious aromatic flavour." The very small tree is weak and slender and bears light crops. Because it flowers early, it is susceptible to frost damage. It keeps well. Introduced to Brompton Park Nursery from Versailles by Henry Wise in the early 18th century. Eating
May Queen Queen (apple).jpg Worcester, England 1800s Large, oblate, often russetted yellow apple with bright red blush and stripes. Crisp, greenish-yellow flesh, rich, nutty flavour. Similar texture to Ribston Pippin, and in a good year, its equal in flavour. In bad years it can be rather dry and harsh. Excellent keeper. Heavy annual bearer. Eating
McIntosh[27] Apples on tree 2011 G1 cropped.jpg Ontario, Canada 1811 A popular, cold-tolerant eating apple in North America. Cooking (applesauce), Eating, Pies
Melba Pomological Watercolor POM00002873.jpg Ontario, Canada Eating
Melon Melon (apple).jpg Connecticut 1800 Eating
Melrose Melrose-Apfel.jpg Ohio, US 1944 Flavour improves in storage. Coarse flesh. Eating
Merton Charm agm UK Semi-weeping habit, heavy crops of small fruit unless thinned
Merton Worcester England 1956 Cox's Orange Pippin × Worcester Pearmain. Developed at John Innes Institute. Eating
Miller's Seedling Berkshire, England 1848 Sweet apple. Tree prefers chalky soils. Eating
Mollie's Delicious New Jersey, US 1966 Conical shape, pinkish red colour. Lasts long in refrigeration. Good aftertaste. Eating
Mother (American Mother) Massachusetts, US 1840 Medium-sized yellow apple with crimson stripes and darker red blush. White flesh is rich, sweet and juicy. The fruit has a balsamic aroma with a suggestion of vanilla. Cropping can be a bit irregular, if not completely biennial. A late flowering variety that avoids frost. Some resistance to scab. Eating
Muscadet de Dieppe Normandy, France c. 1750 Commonly used in making Calvados brandy. Cider
Mutsu Mutsu apple.jpg Aomori Prefecture, Japan 1930 Known as "Crispin" in the UK. Golden Delicious × Indo. Eating
My Jewel Watsonville, California c. 1940[47] Originated as a chance seedling, a cross between Winter Banana and Golden Delicious.[48] Yellow colour. October harvest. Still used in cider blends by Martinelli's)[49] Eating, Cooking, Cider
Newell-Kimzey ( Airlie Red Flesh) Airlie, Oregon 1961 A medium to medium -large, conic apple. Light yellow-green skin with white dots, occasionally with red-orange blush on one side.Light pink to deep red flesh is crisp, sweet and moderately tart. Eating, pies
Newtown Pippin (Albemarle Pippin) Newtown pippins (8167963860).jpg Queens County, New York 1759 Best known colonial apple in North America. Known favourite of Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. Medium to large, often irregularly shaped apple. Greenish-yellow, dotted, often russeted. Tough skin, flesh cream to greenish-white, very quickly browning. Texture is crisp, moderately fine-grained subacid to tart, sprightly. Biennial habit, slow to come into bearing. Good keeper, improves with storage. Prized for its clear juice in cider making. Two sports, Green Newtown Pippin and Yellow Newtown Pippin, differ only in skin colour. Cooking, Eating, Cider
Newton Wonder agm[50] Pomological Watercolor POM00000558.jpg Melbourne, Derbyshire, England 1870s Very good cooker. Prolific bearer, can be harvested in winter. Keeps well until March. Cooking
Nickajack North Carolina, United States c. 1810 Native American origin, believed to be originally grown by Cherokee along banks of Nickajack Creek. Only grown in Appalachians, favourite of later settlers for desserts. Rusty red colour with sweet, crisp taste. Cooking, Eating
Norfolk Royal England c. 1850 Crisp, sharply sweet and well-flavoured. Available as a russet or smooth. Eating
Northern Spy 012nrthnspy.jpg New York c. 1800 Tart, firm, stores very well. Noted for being excellent choice for making American-style apple pie. Sometimes used as a rootstock. Cider, Cooking, Eating
Czech Republic 1999 Firm, fine to medium grained, medium juicy, full flavoured, sweet, mild-subacid. Golden Delicious × Topaz.[51] Eating
Orin Cross section of Orin, National Fruit Collection (acc. 1981-117).jpg Fukushima, Japan 1952 Sweet and distinctive fragrance. Notes of pineapple. Medium hardness. Golden Delicious × Indo. Eating
Orleans Reinette Deutsche Pomologie - Aepfel - 040.jpg Orleans, France 1776 Reliable bearer. Extraordinary complex flavour, similar to Blenheim Orange, but not related. Eating
Ozark Gold Missouri, US 1970 Light green with pink blush. Has taste with notes of honey. Eating
Pacific Rose PacificRoseApples.jpg New Zealand 1995 Extremely crisp, sweet apple. Also grows well in California. Eating
Pam's Delight Bedfordshire, England 1958 A medium-sized apple with a red blush. Flesh is crisp, juicy and sweet-tasting.[52] Eating
Paula Red Paula red.jpg Kent County, Michigan, US 1960s Firm white flesh; McIntosh mutation. Eating
Peasgood's Nonsuch agm[53] Malus Goldrenette von Peasgood 4233.jpg England 1858 A very large yellowish-green apple, deepening to orange-yellow, flushed and striped red with some russet patches. Flesh is sweet and juicy. Good eating and superb for cooking. Large, hardy and heavy cropping tree. Apples can weigh up to half a kilogram, and are famously large enough to make a pie from a single apple. Cooking, Eating
Pink Pearl Pink Pearl (5207256521).jpg California, US 1944 Noted for having bright pink flesh. Sweet. Possibly has crab apple in its ancestry. Makes cider have a reddish tint if pressed. Eating
Pinova Pinova.jpg East Germany 1965 Bred in Germany over an 18-year period. Marketed as "Piñata" in the United States. Fragrant smell, thin skin and balanced sweet and tart flavour profile. From Clivia × Golden Delicious. Cooking, Eating
Pitmaston Pineapple Pitmaston Pineapple tree, Hanbury Hall - - 984429.jpg Moseley, Worcester, England 1785 Pitmaston Pineapple is a dessert apple known since 1785. Small oblong apples with a yellow-green russeted skin. Tender flesh is an intense nutty, honeyed flavour with, as the name suggests, tropical undertones and some balancing acidity. Trees are biennial but produce heavy crops in the 'on' year.
Pixie agm[54] England 1947 Resistant to scab and mildew. Very small apple. Eating
Pristine Malus 'Pristine' 3.jpg Indiana, USA 1994 Resistant to most diseases Eating
Prima Malus-Prima.jpg USA 1958 Resistant to scab and most diseases Eating
Porter's US Smallish, squat, deep golden yellow colour with red blush and firm, white, fine-grained aromatic sweet flesh. Eating, Cooking or Cider.
Pott's Seedling England Pale green to yellow colour and white flesh. Cooking
Pound Sweet Manchester, Connecticut, US 1834 Amber coloration. Used mostly for making apple butter. Russets. Does well in moderate cold. Suitable to areas with snowy winters. Cooking
Rajka Malus Rajka Apple.JPG Czechoslovakia Scab-resistant cross of Rezista × Rome Eating
Red Astrachan Red astrachan.jpg Russia c. 1800 Extremely resistant to frost. Cooking
Red Delicious[27] Red delicious apples.jpg Iowa, US c. 1870 Unmistakable for its acutely conic shape, dark red colour and telltale bumps on bottom. Flavour is sweet and mild. Poor choice for cooking or cider. Original seedling known as "Hawkeye." Rights bought by Stark Brothers in 1893. First marketed as "Delicious" or "Stark's Delicious," name changed to "Red Delicious" in 1914 when Stark bought the rights to Mullin's Yellow Seedling, changing that apple's name to "Yellow Delicious". Red Delicious has many sports and ranks as the world's most prolific apple. Eating
Red Prince Red Prince Aepfel.jpg Weert, Netherlands 1994 Medium-sized, conic, uniform deep red skin. White flesh is crisp, sweet and juicy, with hints of cherry and almond. Excellent keeper. Chance seedling (a natural cross of Jonathan and Golden Delicious) discovered in 1994. Marketed throughout Europe, in 2001, Global Fruit in Ontario became exclusive growers of the variety in North America.[55] Eating, Cooking
Rev. W. Wilks Slough, Buckinghamshire, England 1904 Peasgood's Nonsuch x Ribston Pippin. Pastel green with a light pink flush. Very disease-resistant. Cooks to a light, pale puree, hardly needing any sugar. Cooking
Rhode Island Greening Rhode Island Greening Apple outside.jpg Newport, Rhode Island, US 1650s Extremely old variety for United States, second only to Roxbury Russet in age. Tartness can make eyes water. Grass-green colour with some possible russeting near stem. Occasional reddish pink blush Cider, Cooking
Ribston Pippin agm[56] Ribston.jpg Knaresborough, North Yorkshire, England 1708 An irregularly-shaped and sometimes lopsided apple, usually round to conical and flattened at the base with distinct ribbing. Skin is yellow with an orange blush and red streaked with russet dots. Yellow flesh is firm, fine-grained, and sweet with a pear-like flavour. The original Ribston Pippin sprouted in 1708 from one of three apple pips sent from Normandy to Sir Henry Goodricke, 4th Baronet of Ribston Hall at Knaresborough. The original tree stood until 1835. It then sent up a new shoot and, on the original roots, lived until 1928. Ribston Pippin is thought to be a parent of Cox's Orange Pippin. Eating
Rome Beauty Rome Apples, Newark Delaware Farmer's Market.jpg Rome, Ohio, United States 19th century Rounded, deep red, and very glossy. Crisp, juicy white flesh is mild as a dessert apple, but develops an extraordinary depth and richness when cooked. Good keeper. Cooking
Rosemary Russet agm[57] UK Regular cropper. Fruit sweet and sharp, like 'Ashmead's Kernel'.
Roxbury Russet Roxbury Russet.jpg Massachusetts, United States c. 1640 First tree a chance seedling grown in Roxbury, Massachusetts, now a neighborhood of Boston. Oldest known variety of apple in America, planted by Pilgrim Fathers as foundation stock for Massachusetts Bay Colony. Knobbly, russetted coat gives green skin a bronze tinge and hides a cream coloured flesh. Excellent keeper; resistant to fireblight. Mild flavour. Multi-purpose apple that is a wonderful choice for pies, eating fresh, or cider. Still available in New England farmer's markets; commercial interest recently renewed in this cultivar because of its past use as a cider apple. Cooking (pies), Eating, Cider.
Royal Gala See Gala
Rozela Czech Republic 2008 Flesh is medium firm, juicy with great aromatic flavour and delicate smell. The skin is attractive bright red with prominent lenticels. Annual producer of heavy crops, the resistant equivalent of Idared with outstanding flavour. Eating
Rubens (Civni) Rubens apples on plate.jpg Italy 1985 Sweet and crunchy; Gala × Elstar. Eating
St. Edmund's Pippin agm[58] Suffolk, England 1870s Unusual in fact that it has scaly russet patches mixed with smooth. Has vanilla/pear taste. Usually a light yellow-green. Eating
Santana[59] Apfel Santana mit Schnittfläche.jpg Wageningen, Netherlands 1978 Scab resistant. Eating.
Saturn Kent, England 1980 Scab resistant. Eating.
Scrumptious Kent, England 2003 Sweet and crisp. Self-fertile, mid-season variety that ripens in early September and will store well for about a month. The blossom is frost hardy resulting in heavy crops and the tree can be grown in all areas of the UK. The flesh is crisp and aromatic and the thin skin turns deep red as it develops Eating
Shinano Sweet Nagano, Japan 1978 mid-season crops. Tsugaru x Fuji Eating
Shockley Shockley apple.jpg Jackson County, Georgia (USA) 1852 Small to large. Yellowish and green skin with reddish stripes. Rich sweet taste with vinous flavour. Eating, preserves
Sirius Czech Republic 2007 Flesh yellow, firm, crisp, fine

grained, very juicy, well balanced sugar and acid level, rich flavour

Smokehouse Mill Creek, Pennsylvania, US 1837 A medium to small apple. Greenish-yellow with flushed red-orange stripes. The yellowish-white flesh is crisp and tender with a spicy-sweet flavour that tastes like cider. Excellent all-purpose apple. Unusual in that it also makes excellent cider. Seedling discovered growing next to the smokehouse on William Gibbons' farm in Mill Creek, PA. Bears fruit from young age. Eating, Cooking, Cider.
Snow apple (Fameuse) Quebec, Canada 17th century Tender, aromatic, distinct flavour. A parent of McIntosh. Cider, cooking, eating
Sonya New Zealand 2000 Cross between a Red Delicious and Gala. Coppery coloration. Crisp. Eating
Ros Picant Romania 19th century Characterized by its distinct, faintly spicy flavor. Green and yellow, mostly used for making cider and Pálinka. Cider, cooking, Eating
Spartan Sparťan.jpg British Columbia, Canada 1926 Good all-purpose, medium-sized apple. Has a bright red blush and may have background patches of greens and yellows. Popular across border in United States as well. Cooking, Eating
Splendour/Splendor Cross section of Splendour, National Fruit Collection (acc. 1961-074).jpg New Zealand 1948 Descendant of Red Dougherty x Golden Delicious, ancestor of Pacific Rose and Aurora Golden Gala Eating
Star of Devon UK 1905 medium-sized red dessert apple Eating
Stark Earliest Malus domestica 'Stark's Earliest'. Locatie De Kruidhof 02.JPG US 1938 Does nicely in fruit salads. Red striping on light background. Ripens in summer. Eating
Stayman Mele stayman.jpg US 1866 Dullish red skin often covered with a light russet. Tart, wine-like flavour. Stores well. Particularly known for tangy cider. Cider, Cooking, Eating
Streifling Herbst Netherlands or Western Europe Sour sweet. Popular in Eastern Europe Eating, juice, jam, compote, dried
Sturmer Pippin Pomological Watercolor POM00003442.jpg Sturmer, Essex, England c. 1800 A medium-sized, bright greenish-yellow apple with a reddish-brown blush, often on one face only. White-fleshed and crisp. One of the best English keeping apples, with proper storage Sturmer Pippin lasts 4 to 5 months. Flavour is sprightly, more sharp than sweet when first picked, but improves dramatically in storage, becoming sweeter and richer, while maintaining its crisp texture. This keeping ability made it ideal for long journeys, as such, it was brought to Australia where it is still widely grown. Parent of Granny Smith. Eating
Summerfree Italy 1998 Resistant to scab. Spreading habit with moderate vigour, fruit is large, average weight of 175 g, skin is smooth, ripens 1–2 days before Gala, good storage ability. Eating
Sunset agm[60] Sunset apples - - 235221.jpg England 1918 Easy to grow. Has very similar flavour to Cox's Orange Pippin. Won't do well in heat. Eating
Suntan agm[61] Malus-Suntan.jpg Kent, UK 1956 Fruits ripen orange-red, flavour is sharp and intense
Sutton Beauty Sutton, Massachusetts c. 1757 Eating
Sweet Sixteen Minnesota, US 1973 Large fruit, some russeting near top. Moderately acidic taste. Eating
SweeTango SweeTango packaging close-up.jpg Minnesota, US 2009 Juicy and sweet, and viewed as a successor to the Honeycrisp by many growers. Eating
Teser USA 1944 Resistant to scab. Eating
Tolman Sweet Tolman Sweet apple image.png US 1822 Very sweet apple. Once used to make dried fruit for winter. Cider, Cooking
Tom Putt Pomological Watercolor POM00004235.jpg Trent, Dorset, England 18th century Small to medium, flat and irregularly shaped apple. Green, usually covered entirely with a bright red blush. Crisp, sharp flavour. An excellent cooker and ideal single-variety cider apple. Softens during storage. Tree is vigorous and precocious. Scab-resistant. Seedling found by a Rev. Tom Putt of Trent, Somerset, England in the late 1700s. Triploid. Cider, Cooking
Tompkins King (or King) 008king.jpg United States 1804? This apple is large, and of excellent quality both as a dessert fruit and for cooking. The fruit shape is uniform and the skin mostly red with some yellow stripes. The flesh is yellowish and crisp. The fruit does not keep as well as some other apple cultivars. Eating
Topaz ApfelTopaz159.JPG Czechoslovakia 1990 Rubin × Vanda, scab-resistant, sharp flavour. Cider, Cooking, Eating
Tsugaru Cross section of Tsugaru, National Fruit Collection (acc. 1981-115).jpg Aomori, Japan 1930 Golden Delicious × Jonathan Eating
Twenty Ounce Cross section of Twenty Ounce, National Fruit Collection (acc. 2000-095).jpg New York 1840 Huge: apple weighs over one pound, or nearly 500 g. Green overlaid with broad red striping. Excellent cooker. Nice juice qualities. Cider, Cooking, Eating
Tydeman's Early Worcester England 1929 Mclntosh × Worcester Pearmain. Crimson over yellow background colour. Eating
Tydeman's Late Orange England 1930 Good storage qualities, but loses fragrance with age. Eating
Wagener New York 1795 Antique American variety, known since Colonial times. Tree is scab-resistant. Green with red flush, crispy, subacid and sweet. Keeps very well. Very versatile in kitchen; not only does it cook well, but makes a good single-variety cider. Wagener is a parent of Idared, to which it imparts its keeping and cooking qualities. Cider, Cooking, Eating
Warner's King agm[62] Kent, England c. 1700 Oblong and light green. Very tart. Do not attempt to eat out of hand. Cooking
Washu 1984 agm[63] Japan c. 1920 Conical with light green skin and dark freckles, with a firm, white, bruise-resistant flesh and a sweet, low-acid flavor with tropical undertones. Eating
Westfield Seek-No-Further Westfield, Massachusetts, US 18th century A medium-sized conic to truncate-conic apple. Greenish-yellow, dull skin, flushed orange with carmine stripes, russet dots and patches. Shaded fruit are often irregularly russeted all over, with little colour showing. Flesh is light buttery-yellow, firm but tender, and moderately fine-grained. Flavour is nicely balanced, a honey-like sweetness balanced with a lemon-like citric acidity, rich, notes of pear and vanilla. Vigorous grower, some disease resistance. Eating
Wealthy Wealthy (apple).jpg Minnesota, US 1860 Cherry Red × Sops of Wine.

Pretty reddish pink coat. Believed at one time Minnesota was too cold to grow apples until "Wealthy" was cultivated. Now a parent to many apples for resistance to temperatures below freezing. Still available in upper Midwest.

White Transparent Papierówka owoce na gałęziach.jpg Latvia 1850 Very pale green skin with an almost white flesh, it is very sharp in taste. Fruit bruises easily and goes soft once harvested. Cooking
Wild Twist[64] Wild Twist apple cultivar.jpg US 2011 Honeycrisp x Cripps Pink. Commercially available in 2020.
Winesap Pomological Watercolor POM00004228.jpg United States 1817 Sweet with tangy finish. Reddish blush flecked with some green. Cider, Eating
Winston (Winter King) agm[65] Winter king apple.jpg England c. 1935 Cox Orange × Worcester Pearmain. Originally called Winter King because of its extraordinary keeping ability, renamed during World War II for Winston Churchill.
Wijcik McIntosh British Columbia, Canada Mid 1960s Mutation of McIntosh apple that first showed columnar ornamental properties Eating, Cooking, Ornamental
Wolf River Wolf River (5207256275).jpg Wisconsin, US 1881 Apple very large, some growing to size of large grapefruit. Red with yellow blush. Once very popular commercial apple in United States but presently relegated to upper Midwest if grown for profit. Occasionally can be found growing wild in backcountry thickets or abandoned land in Shenandoah Valley. Named for area where found. Feral trees can be brought back with care and pruning. Cooking, Eating
Worcester Pearmain agm[66] Worcester parmän.jpg Worcestershire, England 1873 Crisp and sweet strawberry flavour when ripe. Best if eaten early in season (September). Eating
Wyken Pippin England or Netherlands Old Small flattened golden apple with delicious flavor Eating
York Imperial agm[67] York Imperial.jpg York, Pennsylvania, US 1820 Tart yet sweet, preserves well, lop-sided shape Cider, Cooking, Eating
Zestar Apple Jacks Orchard - Zestar Apples (6123001930).jpg Minnesota, US 1999 Red and greenish-yellow, round, sweet and tangy, preserves well Cooking, Eating

Cider apples[edit]

Cider apples may be far too sour or bitter for fresh eating, but are used for making cider. Some apples (especially older ones from the U.S. and Canada) are used for both cider and eating purposes.

Gravenstein apples, used for cooking, dessert, and cider
Less common apple cultivars (among pear cultivars).
A range of modern apple cultivars
Common name Origin First developed
Baldwin Wilmington, Massachusetts, US c. 1740
Brown Snout Herefordshire, England c. 1850
Dabinett Somerset, England late 19th century
Dymock Red Gloucestershire, England
Ellis Bitter Newton St. Cyres, Devon, England c. 1850
Foxwhelp Gloucestershire, England c. 1600
Hagloe Crab Gloucestershire, England
Hangdown Somerset, England
Kingston Black Near Taunton, Somerset, England late 19th century
Newtown Pippin Queens County, New York, US c. 1750
Redstreak Herefordshire, England c. 1630
Roxbury Russet Massachusetts, US c. 1640s
Slack-ma-Girdle Devon, England 18th century
Stoke Red Rodney Stoke, Somerset, England early 20th century
Styre Forest of Dean, England before 1600
Tremlett's Bitter Exe Valley, England c. 1820
Vista Bella Rutgers University, US 1944
Winesap US c. 1817
Woodcock Gloucestershire, England c. 1600
Yeovil Sour Yeovil, Somerset, England c. 1824

Rootstock cultivars[edit]

Selection of rootstock cultivars can be difficult: vigorous roots tend to give trees that are healthy but grow too tall to be harvested easily without careful pruning, while dwarfing rootstocks result in small trees that are easy to harvest from, but are often shorter-lived and sometimes less healthy. Most modern commercial orchards use one of the "Malling series" (aka 'M' series), introduced or developed by the East Malling Research Station from the early 20th century onward. However, a great deal of work has been done recently introducing new rootstocks in Poland, the U.S. (Geneva), and other nations. The Polish rootstocks are often used where cold hardiness is needed. The Geneva series of rootstocks has been developed to resist important diseases such as fireblight and collar rot, as well as for high fruit productivity.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Elzebroek, A.T.G.; Wind, K. (2008). Guide to Cultivated Plants. Wallingford: CAB International. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-84593-356-2.
  2. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 63. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  3. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Alkmene'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  4. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Arthur Turner'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  5. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Ashmead's Kernel'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-02-19. Retrieved 2012-12-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Belle de Boskoop'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Blenhein Orange'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  11. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Bramley'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  12. ^ "Bramley apple recipes - BBC Food". Retrieved 20 August 2018.
  13. ^ Calhoun, Creighton Lee, Jr. "Old Southern Apples", Blacksburg, Virginia 1995, MacDonald and Woodward, (ISBN 978-0-939923-37-3), page 59
  14. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Claygate Pearmain'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  15. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Delcorf'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  16. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Discovery'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  17. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Dummellor's Seedling'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  18. ^ "Plant details > Search for AGM plants / RHS Gardening". Retrieved 20 August 2018.
  19. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Edward VII'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  20. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Egremont Russet'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  21. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Ellison's Orange'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  22. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Elstar'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  23. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Emneth Early'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  24. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Falstaff'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  25. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Fiesta'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  26. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Fortune'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  27. ^ a b c d Esther Deutsch (15 November 2017). "The Apple of My I". Ami. No. 342. p. 102.
  28. ^
  29. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'George Neal'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  30. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Golden Delicious'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  31. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Golden Noble'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  32. ^ "'GoldRush' Apple". Retrieved 12 Dec 2017.
  33. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Greensleeves'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  34. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Grenadier'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  35. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Idared'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  36. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'James Grieve'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  37. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Jonagold'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  38. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Jupiter'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  39. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Kidd's Orange Red'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  40. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'King of the Pippins'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  41. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'King Russet'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  42. ^ Story of Lady Alice Archived 2012-01-16 at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Lane's Prince Albert'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  44. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Laxton's Epicure'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  45. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus domestica 'Lord Lambourne'". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
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Khanizadeh, S. and J. Cousineau. 1998. "Our Apples/ Les Pommiers de Chez Nous", A Description of Over 250 Apple Cultivars Grown in Eastern and Central Canada Including 400 Coloured Photographs of the Fruits, Flowers and Leaves. Publisher Shahrokh Khanizadeh, 260 p. Ed: S. Khanizadeh. ISBN 0-660-60543-0.

Further reading[edit]

Two of the most comprehensive publications on apple cultivars are: Khanizadeh, S. and J. Cousineau. 1998. "Our Apples/ Les Pommiers de Chez Nous", A Description of Over 250 Apple Cultivars Grown in Eastern and Central Canada Including 400 Coloured Photographs of the Fruits, Flowers and Leaves. Publisher Shahrokh Khanizadeh, 260 p. Ed: S. Khanizadeh. ISBN 0-660-60543-0.