Norwegian Cruise Line

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Norwegian Cruise Line
Founded1966; 57 years ago (1966)
In Norway
HeadquartersMiami, Florida, United States
Area served
Key people
Harry Sommer (CEO)
Revenue$6.06 billion (2018)[1]
ParentNorwegian Cruise Line Holdings

Norwegian Cruise Line (NCL), also known in short as Norwegian, is an American cruise line founded in 1966, incorporated in Bermuda and headquartered in Miami.[2] It is the fourth-largest cruise line in the world by passengers, controlling about 8.6% of the total worldwide share of the cruise market by passengers as of 2021.[3] It is wholly owned by parent company Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings.


Norwegian Caribbean Line's first ship Sunward

The cruise line was founded in 1966 by Norwegian Knut Kloster and Israeli Ted Arison, with the 8,666-ton, 140 m long cruise ship/car ferry, Sunward,[4] which in 1966 operated as a car ferry between Southampton UK and Gibraltar, for that one short season only. The Sunward was first managed under the Arison Shipping Company, and marketed as Ensign Cruises.[5] Arison soon left to form Carnival Cruise Lines, while Kloster acquired additional ships for Caribbean service, with the line renamed and marketed as Norwegian Caribbean Line.

Norwegian Caribbean Line[edit]

Norwegian pioneered many firsts in the cruise industry, such as the first exclusive private island, Great Stirrup Cay in the Bahamas,[further explanation needed] the first combined air-sea program (marketed as "Cloud 9 Cruises"), which combined low-cost air fares with the cruise, Freestyle Cruising, which is a form of relaxed and informal cruising, and first shipline to develop new ports in the Caribbean, such as Ocho Rios in Jamaica.

First new builds[edit]

Starward and sister Skyward were the first purpose-built ships for NCL

Norwegians's second and third ship, the Starward and Skyward, were the first newly built ships designed for the cruise line.[5] Like the original Sunward of 1966, they had the capability to carry automobiles through a well-concealed stern door. Later, this area was turned into cabins and a two-deck movie theater, later to be used as a casino. Norwegian was responsible for many of the cruise innovations that have now become standard throughout the industry.

Norwegian would order two additional ships, that would be their first true cruise ships without any car carrying capacity. This would be the Southward in 1971, and an intended identical sister the Seaward, that would never be delivered to the line, and would be completed for P&O Cruises instead.[5] The line would sell its original ship the Sunward in 1973, being too small and inadequate for the modern cruise market. They would purchase the former Cunard Adventurer in 1977, refitting her with the trademark NCL funnels, and renamed Sunward II.[6]

SS Norway[edit]

SS Norway arriving at Southampton

Norwegian made headlines with the acquisition of the liner SS France in 1979, rebuilding the liner as a cruise ship and renaming her Norway.[7] The conversion cost more than US$100million.[8] At 1,000 ft (305 m) long and displacing 52,000 tons, the Norway was at the time significantly larger than any existing cruise ship, and exploited the extra space available by adding a greater-than-usual variety of onboard entertainment. Her success paved the way for a new era of giant cruise ships.

Further newbuilds and acquisitions[edit]

Norwegian Dream (former Dreamward)

With an aging, small ship fleet by the late 1980s compared to the larger modern ships being built for competitors Carnival and Royal Caribbean, Norwegian attempted to catch up with an order of a new ship in 1987, the new Seaward, NCL's first new build since 1971.[9] Norwegian parent company Kloster would transfer two of the recently acquired Royal Viking Line ships to Norwegian, which became the Westward and Sunward (III).[10] Kloster would acquire Royal Cruise Line in 1989–90,[11] and would eventually transfer the Westward to their fleet. Norwegian would also continue with further orders of new ships in the early 1990s, not competing with large-sized cruise ship building trend of competitors, but with the smaller with the Dreamward and Windward to offer better flexibility with itineraries.[12]

The line would continue to acquire second hand ships in the mid-1990s, with the addition of the Leeward in 1995. In 1996 the Crown Odyssey, which was part of NCL's subsidary line Royal Cruise Line, was transferred and became the Norwegian Crown.[12] In 1997 Norwegian acquired Majesty Cruise Line, and added their two ships, which became the Norwegian Majesty and Norwegian Dynasty.[13] During this time Norwegian would rename all its ships with the "Norwegian" prefix (excluding SS Norway), and change its livery for the second time to a dark blue funnel with gold NCL logo.[13]

Norwegian has expanded to other parts of the world, including Alaska, Europe, Bermuda, and Hawaii. Between 1997 and 2001, the company also operated cruises out of Australia under the name Norwegian Capricorn Line and acquired Orient Lines in 1998.[14]

Acquisition by Star Cruises & Freestyle Cruising[edit]

Norwegian was sold by Kloster to Star Cruises in 2000, a subsidiary of Genting Hong Kong, part of the Malaysia-based Genting Group.[15] Under the new ownership a new concept was introduced with the newly completed ship, Norwegian Sky, freestyle cruising. This concept freed passengers from fixed formal dining times, instead there was relaxed attire, several distinct dining options, relaxed disembarkation and more lounges, bars, theatres and other entertainment and activity options, a change that would have a ripple effect across the cruise industry.[16]

Fleet Modernization[edit]

The Norwegian Star – first new build under Star Cruises ownership

With the financial backing of Star Cruises, the struggling Norwegian Cruise Line was able to begin to replace much of its older and second hand fleet with new ships.[12] In addition to the Norwegian Sun, Star Cruises had ships already on order for their own fleet at Meyer Werft, which would be transferred to Norwegian during construction, with the first two debuting as the Norwegian Star in 2001 and Norwegian Dawn in 2002.[16] These would be followed by an accelerated new build program, adding four more new ships over a five-year period.[17]

NCL America[edit]

In 2002, Norwegian purchased the half-complete hull of the first Project America ship, at the time under construction at Ingalls Shipbuilding in Pascagoula, Mississippi, US, which was towed to Germany to be completed at the Lloyd Werft shipyard.[16] Subsequently, Norwegian acquired the rights to move two ships built entirely outside the United States under the US flag, making it possible to start a US-flagged operation under the brand name NCL America.[18][19] In 2003, the company announced the purchase of the American-flagged liners United States and Independence. In their July 2007 fiscal report, Norwegian noted the sale of Independence, renamed SS Oceanic some time before. On July 1, 2010, the SS United States Conservancy struck a deal to buy SS United States for $3 million.[20] On February 1, 2011, the ownership was officially transferred to the SS United States Conservancy.[21]

Departure of SS Norway[edit]

A boiler explosion in May 2003 forced Norwegian to withdraw the Norway from service, later being laid up in Bremerhaven, Germany, until 2005, when she was towed to Port Klang Malaysia with the claimed intent to use her as an anchored casino or slow overnight casino cruises on her remaining boilers. Instead, she was sold for scrap and renamed the Blue Lady[22] and later beached at Alang, Gujarat, India, in August 2006 with claims that she had not been cleaned of toxic materials.[23] On September 11, 2007, the India Supreme Court issued an order permitting her to be broken up at Alang, despite the presence of large amounts of hazardous asbestos remaining on board.[24][25]

Apollo Management and reorganisation[edit]

In August 2007, Star Cruises sold 50% of Norwegian for $1 billion to US-based Apollo Management to strengthen Norwegian's financial position.[26] In 2007, Star Cruises sold Orient Line's Marco Polo to Transocean Tours,[27] and Orient Lines ceased operations in early 2008.[28]

Following an initial public offering and corporate reorganisation in 2013, Norwegian was made a wholly owned subsidiary of Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings (NCLH),[29][30] while Norwegian's previous owners Genting Hong Kong, Apollo Management and TPG Capital exchanged their stakes in Norwegian for shares in the newly listed NCLH.[31]

Further New Builds and fleet Changes[edit]

Norwegian reported in February 2008 that the Pride of Aloha, one of the two remaining NCL America ships, would be withdrawn from service in May of the same year. Initial reports suggested she would be transferred to the fleet of Star Cruises,[32] but it was later announced that she would return to the Norwegian international fleet as the Norwegian Sky,[33] while the Norwegian Majesty and Norwegian Dream would be sold to Louis Cruise Lines.[34]

Norwegian Epic[edit]

Two ships in this Epic class were ordered by NCL in November 2006, with an option for a third vessel that was not exercised. A dispute between NCL and STX initially resulted in the construction of both ships being placed on hold until a new agreement was reached.[16] The agreement called for completion of the first ship; the second ship was cancelled in 2008.[35] The sole remaining ship, Norwegian Epic, was delivered to NCL on 17 June 2010.

Breakaway Class[edit]

The First 2 Breakaway Class ships entered service in 2013 and 2014 as Norwegian Breakaway and Norwegian Getaway.On October 17, 2012, Meyer Werft and Norwegian reached a second agreement for the construction of two new vessels,[36] slated for delivery in October 2015 and 2017, respectively. The project was under the code name "Breakaway Plus Class", with the vessels expected to be 163,000 gross tons and hold 4,200 passengers. The Norwegian Escape entered service in November 2015 and Norwegian Joy in 2017.[37] Two more vessels were ordered on July 14, 2014, and they entered service in 2018 and 2019 as the Norwegian Bliss and Norwegian Encore, respectively .[38] Dream Cruises ordered two modified Breakaway Class ships in 2015, they were launched in 2016 and 2017 as Genting Dream and World Dream.

The sale of the Norwegian Dream was subsequently cancelled.[39] The Norwegian Dream became the Superstar Gemini for Star Cruises, from January 2013.[40]

On June 1, 2012, Norwegian announced the signing of a memorandum of agreement to exercise its option to purchase Norwegian Sky. The purchase price was roughly $260 million, financing being provided by the seller.[41]

In December 2016, Norwegian Cruise Line announced it had reached an agreement with the Cuban government.[42] In May 2017, the Norwegian Sky was the first Norwegian Cruise Line vessel to ever visit Cuba. The Norwegian Sky makes weekly trips from Miami to Havana, making Norwegian the only line sailing that route weekly.[43]

Norwegian Cruise Lines: Project Leonardo.[edit]

In February 2016, Norwegian ordered 4 new ships from Fincantieri under the codename Project Leonardo, to be delivered in 2022-2025. These ships would have around 140,000 gross tonnage. In July 2018, NCL confimed that they had ordered 2 more ships to be delivered in 2026-27. On December 9, 2019, the keel of the first ship was laid down and named Norwegian Prima. It was launched in August 2021 and commenced sailing oin the same month of 2022. The second ship was named Norwegian Viva in early 2022 and expected to be completed by 2023.

On May 2, 2017, Norwegian Cruise Line announced a new PortMiami Terminal.[44] The construction began on May 1, 2018, and was completed in fall 2019.[45][46] In December 2018, Norwegian revealed plans to build a new pier in Alaska's Icy Strait Point.[47]

COVID-19 pandemic[edit]

In March 2020, the Miami New Times reported that managers at Norwegian had prepared a set of responses intended to convince customers wary of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic to book cruises, including "blatantly false" claims that the coronavirus "can only survive in cold temperatures, so the Caribbean is a fantastic choice for your next cruise", that "scientists and medical professionals have confirmed that the warm weather of the spring will be the end of the coronavirus", and that the virus "cannot live in the amazingly warm and tropical temperatures that your cruise will be sailing to."[48][49][50][51][52]

On March 14, 2020, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a No Sail Order for cruise ships. Concurrently Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings implemented a suspension of all cruise voyages across its three brands (Norwegian Cruise Line, Oceania Cruises, and Regent Seven Seas Cruises), with all 28 ships in port or at anchor and all passengers disembarked by March 28, 2020. This suspension has subsequently been extended through June 30, 2020.[53]: S-1 

On May 5, 2020, in a filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission, Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings (NCLH) said there is “substantial doubt” about its ability to continue as a “going concern” as it faces a liquidity crisis over the next twelve months.[53]: S-6 

By the next day, NCLH was able to secure over $2.2 billion of additional liquidity in oversubscribed capital markets transactions, but at a price: (1) $400 million in common stock at $11 per share; (2) $675 million in senior secured notes due 2024 at a 12.25% interest rate; (3) $750 million in exchangeable notes due 2024 at 6% interest rate, and exchangeable at any time into common shares at $13.75; and (4) $400 million private investment from a global private equity firm.[54][55] On May 7, 2020, NCLH CEO declared that the company has secured enough liquidity to get through potentially 18 months of zero revenues and may resume cruising later in 2020.[56][57]

In anticipation of sailing again, Norwegian is implementing new health and safety measures, including installing H13 HEPA air filters.[58] The company is also working with the CDC and the new color-coding system to indicate each ship's COVID-19 status, and to repatriate Norwegian crews still stuck aboard their vessel.[59]

Even though the company lost $4 billion and furloughed 20 percent of its staff, it doubled the salary of its chief executive, Frank Del Rio, to $36.4 million.[60]


As of September 2022, Norwegian Cruise Line operates 18 cruise ships, with five on order. It has also previously owned or operated 19 other ships. All its ships are flagged to the Bahamas, except for the Pride of America, which operates cruises within the United States and is flagged and registered in the US, as well as being owned by a US-registered subsidiary, NCL America.

Current ships[edit]

Ship Built In service for NCL Last
(Double Occupancy)
Flag Notes Image
Sun class
Norwegian Sky 1999 1999-2004,


2019 77,104 1,928  Bahamas Originally constructed as Costa Olympia but sold to NCL during construction, sailed under NCL America as Pride of Aloha from 2004 to 2008
Norwegian Sky Great Stirrup Cay 75.jpg
Norwegian Sun 2001 2001–present 2018[61] 78,309 1,976  Bahamas
Norwegian Sun departing Port of Tallinn 25 May 2012 (cropped).JPG
Dawn class
Norwegian Star 2001 2001–present 2018 91,740 2,348  Bahamas Originally ordered as Superstar Libra
Norwegian Star arriving Tallinn 12 July 2013.JPG
Norwegian Dawn 2002 2002–present June 2016[62] 92,250 2,340  Bahamas Originally ordered as SuperStar Scorpio
Norwegian Dawn - Great Stirrup Cay.jpg
Leo class
Norwegian Spirit 1998 2004–present January 2020[61] 75,904 2,018  Bahamas Previously SuperStar Leo
Norwegian Cruise Line Norwegian Spirit 07 IMO 9141065 @chesi.JPG
Pride of America class
Pride of America 2005 2005–present March 2016 80,439 2,186  United States The only US flagged cruise ship
Pride of America seen from Aloha Tower (4677840953).jpg
Jewel class
Norwegian Jewel 2005 2005–present November 2018[63] 93,502 2,376  Bahamas
Norwegian Jewel Newport September 2010.jpg
Norwegian Jade 2006 2006–present March 2017[61] 93,558 2,402  Bahamas Formerly Pride Of Hawaii, renamed in 2008.
Norwegian jade in Venice.JPG
Norwegian Pearl 2006 2006–present February 2017[64] 93,530 2,394  Bahamas
Norwegian Pearl.jpg
Norwegian Gem 2007 2007–present November 2015 93,530 2,394  Bahamas
Norwegian gem in Sicily 2008.jpg
Epic class[65]
Norwegian Epic 2010 2010–present October 2015[62] 155,873 4,100  Bahamas The only ship in her class
Rotterdam cruiseschip Norwegian Epic.jpg
Breakaway class
Norwegian Breakaway 2013 2013–present April 2018 145,655[66] 3,963  Bahamas
Norwegian Breakaway 10.JPG
Norwegian Getaway 2014 2014–present June 2019 145,655[67] 3,963  Bahamas
Norwegian Getaway 18.JPG
Norwegian Escape 2015 2015–present None 164,600 4,266  Bahamas 'Breakaway Plus' subclass
Norwegian escape.jpg
Norwegian Joy 2017 2017–present February 2019 167,725 3,883  Bahamas 'Breakaway Plus' subclass
Norwegian Joy nach dem Ausdocken.jpg
Norwegian Bliss 2018 2018–present None 168,028 4,002  Bahamas 'Breakaway Plus' subclass
Norwegian Bliss.jpg
Norwegian Encore 2019 2019–present None 169,145[68] 3,998  Bahamas 'Breakaway Plus' subclass. Largest ship in NCL's fleet.
Norwegian Encore Feb 1 2020.jpg
Prima class
Norwegian Prima[69] 2022[70][71] 2022–present None 142,500[69] 3,099  Bahamas
Norwegian Prima Jan 19 2023.jpg

Future ships[edit]

Ship Inaugural Voyage Gross tonnage Passengers Flag Notes Image
Prima class
Norwegian Viva[72] 2023[69] 142,500[73] 3,215[74]
Unnamed 2025[69] TBD 3,550[74]
Unnamed 2026[69] TBD 3,550[74]
Unnamed 2027[69] TBD 3,550[74]
Unnamed 2028[69] TBD 3,550[74]

Previous Ships[edit]

Ship Built In service
for NCL
Status as of 2023 Image
Sunward 1966 1966–1973 10,558 Scrapped in 2004 at Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Sunward at Pier A (7562495404) (cropped).jpg
Starward 1968 1968–1995 15,781 Scrapped in 2018 at Alang, India.
MV Orient Queen in Beirut.jpg
Skyward 1969 1969–1991 15,653 Scrapped in 2021 at Alang, India.
"Skyward" - Miami, 1980.JPG
Southward 1971 1971–1994 16,710 Scrapped in 2013 at Aliaga, Turkey.
"Southward" - Miami, 1986.JPG
Sunward II 1971 1977–1991 14,194 Scrapped in 2014 at Alang, India.
"Sunward II" - Miami, 1980.JPG
Norway 1961 1979–2003 76,049 Scrapped in 2008 at Alang, India.
SS Norway.jpg
Seaward / Norwegian Sea 1988 1988–2005 42,285 Scrapped in 2022 in Aliağa, Turkey.[75]
NorwegianSea3-23-04 (cropped).jpg
Westward 1972 1991–1993 28,613 Sold for scrap in 2022 at Alang, India.
Black Watch cruise ship, Liverpool Cruise Terminal (geograph 4545674).jpg
Sunward 1973 1991–1992,


28,551 Scrapped in 2021 at Aliaga, Turkey.
Boudicca departing Tallinn 7th September 2013.JPG
Dreamward / Norwegian Dream 1992 1992–2008 50,764 Since 2012 SuperStar Gemini for Star Cruises.
Sold for scrap in 2022
Norwegian Dream1.jpg
Windward / Norwegian Wind 1993 1993–2007 51,309 Since 2007 SuperStar Aquarius for Star Cruises.
Sold for scrap in 2022
Leeward 1980 1995–1999 25,611 Since 2007 Cristal for Louis Cruise Lines.
MS Leeward NCL (4172632324) (cropped).jpg
Norwegian Crown 1988 1996–2000,


43,537 Since 2008 Balmoral for Fred. Olsen Cruise Lines.
Norwegian Crown (876515432) (cropped).jpg
Norwegian Star 1973 1997–1998 28,518 Scrapped in 2021 in Alang, India
MS Norwegian Star (4163364643) (cropped).jpg
Norwegian Dynasty 1993 1997–1999 24,344 Since 2001 Braemar for Fred. Olsen Cruise Lines.
Norweigiandynasty cordovaalaska (4305472551) (cropped).jpg
Norwegian Majesty 1992 1997–2009 41,662 Since 2018 Crown Iris for Mano Maritime.
Norwegian Majesty-5.jpg

Ships which never entered service for NCL[edit]

Ships which NCL had options on using but never took up for various reasons.

Ship Built Gross
Status as of 2023 Image
Independence 1951 26,658 Wrecked and scrapped in 2010 off Alang, India.
Oceanic Leaving SF (cropped).jpg
SS United States 1952 38,216 Laid up in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
SS United States Philly 2012-2.JPG
Seaward 1972 17,042 Sank in 2016 near the port of Laem Chabang, Thailand.
"Southern Cross" - Copenhagen, 1995.jpg

Private islands[edit]

Great Stirrup Cay

Norwegian owns two private islands in the Caribbean: Harvest Caye in Belize and Great Stirrup Cay in the Bahamas.[76]

Subsidiary Cruise Lines[edit]

Norwegian Cruise Line subsidiary lines over the years:


  1. ^ "Norwegian Cruise Line revenue". Craft. Archived from the original on October 23, 2019. Retrieved October 23, 2019.
  2. ^ "Major cruise lines could be left out of the coronavirus stimulus bailout". CNBC. March 26, 2020.
  3. ^ "2021 Worldwide Cruise Line Market Share". Cruise Market Watch. 2021. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  4. ^ "Norwegian Cruise Line Celebrates Fifty Years". The Maritime Executive. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  5. ^ a b c Peter, Bruce. (2012). Knud E. Hansen A/S : 75 years of ship design (1. ed.). Isle of man: Ferry Publications. ISBN 978-1-906608-66-8. OCLC 841016017.
  6. ^ Peter, Bruce (2012). Knud E. Hansen A/S : 75 years of ship design. Isle of man: Ferry Publications. ISBN 978-1-906608-66-8. OCLC 841016017.
  7. ^ Kidd, Vernon (October 14, 1979). "Cruise Liners: Resort Hotels That Travel the World". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  8. ^ Dawson, Philip S. (2000). Cruise ships : an evolution in design. London: Conway Maritime. ISBN 0-85177-660-4. OCLC 43419400.
  9. ^ Innovation and specialisation : the story of shipbuilding in Finland. Kalle Id, Bruce Peter, Pia Barnholdt Kristoffersen. Lyngby: Nautilus. 2017. ISBN 978-87-90924-68-3.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  10. ^ a b "The Former Norwegian Cruise Ships, Where Are They Now?". Cruise Hive. October 11, 2018. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  11. ^ a b Staff, C. I. N. (December 1, 1989). "Kloster Acquiring Royal Cruise Line". Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  12. ^ a b c Peter, Bruce (2017). Cruise ships. A design voyage. Narberth: Ferry Publications. ISBN 978-1-911268-08-6. OCLC 1003587263.
  13. ^ a b Staff, C. I. N. (August 1, 2020). "Fleet Retrospective: Norwegian Cruise Line's 2000 Vessel Lineup". Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  14. ^ Ward, Douglas (2006). Berlitz Complete Guide to Cruising & Cruise Ships 2006. Berlitz. p. 384. ISBN 981-246-739-4.
  15. ^ Asklander, Micke. "Kloster Cruise / Norwegian Cruise Line". Fakta om Fartyg (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  16. ^ a b c d Saunders, Aaron (2013). Giants of the seas : the ships that transformed modern cruising. Barnsley: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4738-5310-2. OCLC 904209672.
  17. ^ "25 years of cruise ship construction in Papenburg". MEYER WERFT. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  18. ^ "Star buys Project America". Bnet. November–December 2002. Archived from the original on May 19, 2005. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  19. ^ "Project America rides again". January 18, 2003. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  20. ^ "A Brief History of the SS United States' 20 Years in Philadelphia". Philadelphia Magazine. March 7, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  21. ^ "'Big U' gets a 20-month lifeline". The Washington Times. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  22. ^ SS Norway ex France Archived September 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on October 17, 2011.
  23. ^ "'Toxic ship' cleared for breaking". BBC. August 2, 2006.
  24. ^ Maritime Matters: France, Norway Archived July 25, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ "Indian court says 'Blue Lady' can be broken up". Khaleej Times Online. September 11, 2007. Archived from the original on September 1, 2009.
  26. ^ "Apollo invests $ 1 billion in NCL Corp to take 50% stake". Cruise Business Review. August 17, 2007. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved August 17, 2007.
  27. ^ "NCL Announces Farwell Season of Marco Polo". Orient Lines press release. Archived from the original on March 18, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2007.
  28. ^ Newman, Doug (March 31, 2008). "The End of Orient Lines". At Sea with Doug Newman. Retrieved April 1, 2008.
  29. ^ "Company History". Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  30. ^ "Norwegian Cruise Line IPO soars 31%". USA Today. January 17, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
  31. ^ FORM 10-K (Annual Report) (PDF) (Report). Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Ltd. February 20, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  32. ^ "NCL Corporation Announces Adjustments to Hawai'i Fleet". NCL press release. Norwegian Cruise Line. February 11, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  33. ^ "It's official: Pride of Aloha rejoins NCL international fleet as Norwegian Sky". Cruise Business Review. Cruise Media Oy Ltd. May 6, 2008. Retrieved May 7, 2008.[dead link]
  34. ^ Joshi, Rajesh; Lowry, Nigel (April 14, 2008). "NCL close to offloading cruiseship trio". Lloyd's List. Archived from the original on April 26, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  35. ^ "Cruise Business Review". July 27, 2009. Archived from the original on July 27, 2009. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  36. ^ "Norwegian Cruise Line to Build Two New Next Generation Freestyle Cruising Ships". Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Ltd. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  37. ^ "Norwegian Cruise Line to Build Third New Ship". October 17, 2012. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
  38. ^ "Norwegian Cruise Line Orders Two New Ships". July 14, 2014. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
  39. ^ "No Dream for Louis Cruises". Cruise Business Review. Cruise Media Oy Ltd. September 30, 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2008.[dead link]
  40. ^ "SuperStar Gemini to undergo massive US$50mil refurbishment". The Star Online. September 29, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  41. ^ "Norwegian Signs Memorandum of Agreement for Purchase of Norwegian Sky". Cruise Industry News. June 1, 2012. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
  42. ^ "Sailing soon from the U.S. to Cuba: ships from Norwegian and Royal Caribbean". Miami Herald. December 7, 2016.
  43. ^ "Norwegian Cruise Line kicks off voyages to Cuba". USA Today. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
  44. ^ Staff, CIN (May 4, 2017). "PortMiami Set to Develop New Terminal for Norwegian".
  45. ^ Staff, CIN (March 7, 2018). "Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Announces New Terminal at PortMiami". Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  46. ^ "Norwegian Cruise Line to Build More Leonardo-Class Cruise Ships - Norwegian Cruise Line". Retrieved July 12, 2018.
  47. ^ Staff, C. I. N. (December 6, 2018). "Norwegian to Build Pier at Icy Strait Point in Alaska". Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  48. ^ "Norwegian Cruise Line managers urged salespeople to spread falsehoods about coronavirus". The Washington Post. 2020.
  49. ^ Cardona, Alexi C. (March 11, 2020). "Leaked Emails: Norwegian Pressures Sales Team to Mislead Potential Customers About Coronavirus". Miami New Times. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
  50. ^ Gander, Kashmira (February 11, 2020). "Could Coronavirus Really Be Killed by Hot Weather? Scientists Weigh In". Newsweek. Retrieved March 12, 2020. Dr. Ravinder Kanda, senior lecturer in evolutionary genomics at Oxford Brookes University, U,.K., told Newsweek: "Little is known about the seasonal dynamics of this particular virus—we cannot take it for granted that the warmer weather will simply drive the virus out of existence."
  51. ^ Gunia, Amy (February 28, 2020). "Will Warmer Weather Stop the Spread of the Coronavirus? Don't Count on It, Say Experts". Time. Retrieved March 12, 2020. Dr. Nancy Messionnier of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, warned against assuming the number of cases will slow as the weather warms. "I think it's premature to assume that," she said during a call with reporters on Feb. 12. "We haven't been through even a single year with this pathogen."
  52. ^ Farber, Madeline (February 20, 2020). "Will the coronavirus die out as the weather warms?". Fox News. Retrieved March 12, 2020. "We hope that the gradual spring will help this virus recede, but our crystal ball is not very clear. The new coronavirus is a respiratory virus, and we know respiratory viruses are often seasonal, but not always. For example, influenza (flu) tends to be seasonal in the U.S., but in other parts of the world, it exists year-round. Scientists don't fully understand why even though we have been studying [the] flu for many years," Dr. William Schaffner, the medical director of the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, told Fox News in an email.
  53. ^ a b Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Ltd. "Preliminary prospectus supplement: $350,000,000 ordinary shares". SEC filings. p. see page S-6. Retrieved May 5, 2020. The factors described above, in particular the suspension of cruise voyages and decline in advanced bookings, as well as debt maturities and other obligations over the next year, have raised substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern, as the Company does not have sufficient liquidity to meet its obligations over the next twelve months, assuming no additional financing or other proactive measures.
  54. ^ "Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Ltd. successfully secures over $2 billion of additional liquidity in oversubscribed capital markets transactions". market watch. May 6, 2020. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  55. ^ Duberstein, Billy (May 6, 2020). "Norwegian Cruise Line bites the bullet and raises more money: Why that's good and bad". motley fool. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  56. ^ Helen Coster, Joshua Franklin (May 7, 2020). "Norwegian Cruise Line has enough cash for 18 months of no revenue - CEO". Retrieved May 7, 2020.
  57. ^ Clifford, Tyler (May 7, 2020). "Norwegian Cruise Line CEO: 'We expect to sail sometime in 2020'". Retrieved May 7, 2020.
  58. ^ Settembre, Jeanette (June 2, 2020). "Norwegian Cruise Line reopening with medical-grade air filtration used in airplanes". FOXBusiness. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  59. ^ Oliver, David. "CDC creates new color-coded system to designate ships with potential coronavirus exposure". USA TODAY. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  60. ^ Gelles, David (April 24, 2021). "C.E.O. Pay Remains Stratospheric, Even at Companies Battered by Pandemic". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  61. ^ a b c "THE NORWEGIAN EDGE®". Cruise Critic. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
  62. ^ a b "Norwegian Edge | Norwegian Cruise Line". Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  63. ^ Staff, C. I. N. (November 9, 2018). "Norwegian Jewel Set for Sydney Debut After Refit". Retrieved July 26, 2019.
  64. ^ "Norwegian Pearl Emerges From Dry Dock With Upgraded Cabins and Restaurants - Norwegian Cruise Line".
  65. ^ "Norwegian Cruise Ships | Cruise Ship Deck Plans | Norwegian Cruise Line". Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  66. ^ "Norwegian Breakaway". Retrieved May 11, 2016.
  67. ^ "Norwegian Getaway". Retrieved May 11, 2016.
  68. ^ "Keel laying ceremony for the Norwegian Encore". Meyer Werft. November 28, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  69. ^ a b c d e f g Kalosh, Anne (May 10, 2021). "Norwegian Prima is first of six NCL new builds, wide inaugural showcase planned". Seatrade Cruise News. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
  70. ^ "Norwegian Takes Delivery of New Prima from Fincantieri". July 29, 2022. Retrieved July 29, 2022.
  71. ^ ""NORWEGIAN PRIMA" DELIVERED IN MARGHERA". July 29, 2022. Retrieved July 29, 2022.
  72. ^ "Introducing Norwegian Viva - NCL's Newest Ship". Cruise Spotlight. January 11, 2022. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  73. ^ "FINCANTIERI: A NEW CLASS OF SHIPS FOR NORWEGIAN CRUISE LINE" (PDF). February 6, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
  74. ^ a b c d e "Norwegian Cruise Line Adding More Capacity to 4 Prima Class Ships". May 11, 2022.
  75. ^ McGillivray, Robert (June 2, 2022). "Former Norwegian Cruise Line Ship Is Beached for Scrapping in Turkey". CruiseHive. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  76. ^ "Norwegian Cruise Line unveils Harvest Caye to first visitors". The San Pedro Sun. November 23, 2016. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
  77. ^ Reuters (December 15, 1993). "COMPANY NEWS; KLOSTER TO SELL 2 CRUISE LINES FOR $565 MILLION". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 29, 2022. {{cite news}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  78. ^ Staff, C. I. N. (May 15, 1998). "NCL to Purchase Orient Lines". Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  79. ^ a b Sloan, Gene. "Norwegian Cruise Line to buy Oceania, Regent Seven Seas". USA TODAY. Retrieved May 29, 2022.

External links[edit]

  • Official website
  • Cruise Critic NCL review
  • Website for NCLH investor information
  • Business data for Norwegian Cruise Line: