Royal Caribbean International

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Royal Caribbean International
Subsidiary
Industry Hospitality, tourism
Founded 1968 (1968) in Norway
Headquarters 1050 Caribbean Way, Miami, Florida, USA
Key people
Michael Bayley (President and CEO)
Services Cruise line
Parent Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.
Website royalcaribbean.com
Footnotes / references
[1][2]

Royal Caribbean International is a cruise line brand founded in Norway and based in Miami, Florida, United States. It is owned by Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. As of May 2018, the line operates 25 ships and has five additional ships on order. RCI has 21.9% of the worldwide cruise market.[3] All ships under the Royal Caribbean International brand have names ending with "of the Seas" (e.g. Freedom of the Seas) a practice which began in 1991.

Company and brand history[edit]

Royal Caribbean International was founded as Royal Caribbean Cruise Line in 1968 by three Norwegian shipping companies: Anders Wilhelmsen & Company, I.M. Skaugen & Company, and Gotaas Larsen. The newly created line put its first ship, the Song of Norway, into service two years later. A year later, the line added the Nordic Prince to the fleet and in 1972 it added the Sun Viking. In 1978, Song of Norway became Royal Caribbean's first passenger ship to be lengthened. This was accomplished via the insertion of an 85-foot (26 m) section to the vessel's severed center. Following the success of this work, Nordic Prince was also stretched in 1980. During the stretching on both ships, their sterns were modified. However the Sun Viking was not stretched or modified and remained the same size and shape. Royal Caribbean received widespread global recognition when in 1982 it launched the Song of America, over twice the size of Sun Viking and at the time the third largest passenger vessel afloat (after the Norway and Queen Elizabeth 2).

In 1986, Royal Caribbean leased a coastal property in Haiti which it used as a private destination for its guests.[4] This destination is now called Labadee. After a corporate restructuring in 1988, the line launched Sovereign of the Seas, the largest passenger vessel afloat at the time.[5] Two years later, Nordic Empress and Viking Serenade were also entered into their service line. In the same year, Royal Caribbean purchased a second private destination, Little Stirrup Cay, an island in the Bahamas, which they rechristened "Coco Cay".

Monarch of the Seas, the second ship of the Sovereign class, entered service the next year. The third ship of the Sovereign class, Majesty of the Seas, was delivered one year later. Royal Caribbean went public on the New York Stock Exchange in 1993. Over the next two years, the company experienced rapid growth, and it built a new corporate headquarters in Miami, Florida, and replaced the Nordic Prince with a new vessel, the Legend of the Seas.[6]

Following these events, two new Vision-class vessels entered service, the Splendour of the Seas and Grandeur of the Seas. In 1996, the company contracted with Finland's Aker Finnyards for the construction of 130,000-ton vessels and, in 1997, the line's oldest ship, Song of Norway, was sold and two new Vision-class ships entered service, Rhapsody of the Seas and Enchantment of the Seas. The company also merged with the Greek cruise line Celebrity Cruises and changed its name from "Royal Caribbean Cruise Line" to "Royal Caribbean International". The next year marked a transition to a more "strictly modern line", when the last of the company's older vessels, Song of America and Sun Viking, were retired. In 1998, Vision of the Seas came into service, the last of the Vision-class ships.

In 1999, the Voyager of the Seas, the line's newest and world's largest cruise ship entered service with much attention from the news media. Two years later, the line took delivery of a second Voyager-class ship, Explorer of the Seas, and the first of a new Radiance class of more environmentally friendly[clarification needed] cruise liners, Radiance of the Seas.

In 2000, Royal Caribbean operated a series of land-and-sea-based "cruise tours" in Alaska, featuring glass-domed train cars to scenic destinations within the state and Canada. Over the next two years, they also introduced cruise tours to destinations throughout Europe.[7]

The Voyager-class Navigator of the Seas and the Radiance-class Brilliance of the Seas were put into service in 2002. Mariner of the Seas and Serenade of the Seas, another pair of Voyager and Radiance-class ships, were introduced the next year, and rock-climbing walls were made a feature of every Royal Caribbean ship that year. A fourth Radiance-class ship, Jewel of the Seas, followed in 2004, and the line's Nordic Empress was reconditioned and re-christened as Empress of the Seas, which was later sold to Pullmantur Cruises in 2008. In 2005, Enchantment of the Seas underwent a massive renovation including enlarging the ship with a 74-foot (23 m) midsection.

Construction commenced on Freedom of the Seas, the line's newest ship, at Aker Finnyards in 2005, and the vessel launched the next year as the largest passenger vessel in the world. Freedom of the Seas' sister ship, Liberty of the Seas, was launched in 2007, and Independence of the Seas was delivered in 2008.

An even larger class, the Oasis class, featuring Oasis of the Seas and Allure of the Seas, was launched in 2009 and 2010, guaranteeing Royal Caribbean the ship size lead for years to come. In December 2012, Royal Caribbean announced that they had ordered a third Oasis-class cruise ship from STX France, which would be larger than the previous ships in the class.[8] In March 2014 Royal Caribbean announced that they had ordered a fourth Oasis-Class ship from STX France.[9]

In February 2013, Royal Caribbean announced the first two ships of their newest Quantum class, Quantum of the Seas and Anthem of the Seas, which were being built at the Meyer Werft shipyard.[10][11][12] In May of that year, Royal Caribbean announced that they had signed a contract for a third Quantum-class ship for delivery in mid-2016.[13]

In September 2014, Royal Caribbean announced that the third Quantum-class ship would be named Ovation of the Seas,[14] and in February 2015 they announced that the third Oasis-class ship would be named Harmony of the Seas.[15]

In March 2015, Royal Caribbean announced that they had agreed to sell Splendour of the Seas to TUI Cruises in the second quarter of 2016.[16]

In June 2016, Royal Caribbean announced that they had agreed to sell Legend of the Seas to Thomson Cruises in the second quarter of 2017.[17]

The company lobbies in various jurisdictions in which it operates. In the United States of America, lobbying expenditure records are held by the Senate Office of Public Records.[18] In South Australia, the company is represented by lobbying company, Richardson Coutts Pty Ltd.[19]

In 2017, Royal Caribbean agreed to use Port Everglades as a preferred berth for its Oasis class ships.[20] The new agreement extended the past contract with Port Everglades until 2026, contingent upon a $100 million remodeling of Cruise Terminal 25, and approved by the Broward County Board of County Commissioners.[20]

Majesty of the Seas and Monarch of the Seas in Nassau, Bahamas
U.S. headquarters in Miami, Florida

On March 15, 2018, Royal Caribbean announced that they will conduct a huge renovation for their private island, Coco Cay, which is halfway done with parts opening in December 2018 and early to late 2019 with its first opening in May 2019 and its official opening with everything completed by November or December 2019.

Royal Caribbean cruise ships[edit]

Royal Caribbean's first ship, Song of Norway
Royal Caribbean's third ship, Sun Viking

Quantum class[edit]

The Quantum-class of ships debuted as the second largest class of cruise ships in the world. The Quantum-class ships were the first ships built for Royal Caribbean by Meyer Werft since the Radiance class and share many features with those ships, including indoor pools with retractable roofs, vast expanses of glass, outdoor seating in the "Windjammer" buffet, and self-leveling pool tables.[21][22] Other distinctive features of the Quantum-class include the "North Star" observation capsule mounted on the end of a 41-meter-long (135 ft) crane arm,[23] "RipCord by iFLY" a skydiving simulator,[24] the three-deck-high Two70° lounge and performance venue at the aft of the ship featuring panoramic windows that convert into projection screens,[25] and the multi-purpose SeaPlex facility which hosts activities such as basketball, roller skating, bumper cars, and a trapeze school.[26] The Quantum class was the first class designed specifically for Dynamic Dining, and feature several separate complementary dining facilities instead of a single main dining room.[27] Each venue will maintain the same menu and staff throughout the cruise.[28] Unlike the earlier Voyager, Freedom, and Oasis class, Quantum-class ships do not feature a Viking Crown Lounge or ice skating rink, and the Royal Promenade mall down the center of the ship is not featured in its traditional form.[29][30]

The first ship in the class, Quantum of the Seas debuted in 2014. A second ship Anthem of the Seas debuted in 2015, A third ship Ovation of the Seas, debuted in 2016. Spectrum of the Seas, the first ship in the Quantum-Ultra subclass, is planned for 2019,[31][32] and a fifth ship is planned for 2020[33].

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths
(double/max)
Areas of operation Homeport(s) Notes Ship image
Ovation of the Seas[34] 2016[35] 168,666[36] 4,180/4,905[13] Asia & Australia/New Zealand Tianjin, China,
Sydney, Australia & Singapore
Will begin sailing out of Seattle, Washington in Spring, 2019[37]
Ovation of the Seas - Nieuwe Maas - Port of Rotterdam (25843859904) (cropped).jpg
Anthem of the Seas[38] 2015 168,666[39] 4,180/4,905[39] Eastern/Southern Caribbean, Bahamas, Bermuda, New England/Canada Bayonne, New Jersey[40]
El Crucero Anthem of The Seas en el muelle de Santa Catalina de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. (18173969071).jpg
Quantum of the Seas[38] 2014 168,666[41] 4,180/4,905[41] Asia Shanghai, China[40][42]
Quantum of the Seas - Wedel 04 (cropped).jpg

Oasis class[edit]

The Oasis-class ships are the largest cruise ships ever built, having surpassed Freedom-class ships. They can accommodate up to 5,400 passengers at double occupancy and they have a maximum capacity of 6,296 passengers. Furthermore, the ships have a gross tonnage of at least 225,282 tons, and cost the line around US $1.4 billion each. The first two ships in the class, Oasis of the Seas and Allure of the Seas,[43][44] were delivered in 2009 and 2010 by STX Europe Turku Shipyard, Finland.[45] The third in the class, Harmony of the Seas, was delivered in 2016 by STX France at Chantiers de l'Atlantique shipyard in Saint-Nazaire, France, which also constructed the fourth ship, Symphony of the Seas.[46] Royal Caribbean International, in conjunction with USA Today, sponsored a contest to name the first two vessels.[43][47] [48]

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths
(double/max)
Areas of operation Homeport Notes Ship image
Symphony of the Seas 2018 228,081[49] 5,518/6,680[49] Europe, Eastern/Western Caribbean Miami, Florida, Barcelona, Spain Became the largest cruise ship in the world upon debut
SymphonyOfTheSeas1 (cropped).jpg
Harmony of the Seas[50] 2016 226,963[51] 5,497/6,410[52] Eastern/Western Caribbean Port Everglades, Florida Awarded "Best New Cruise Ship" in Travel Weekly's 2016 Readers Choice Awards[53]
Harmony of the Seas (ship, 2016) 001.jpg
Allure of the Seas 2010 225,282 5,492/6,410[54] Eastern/Western Caribbean Port Everglades, Florida, Miami, Florida
Allure of the Seas (ship, 2009) 001 (cropped).jpg
Oasis of the Seas 2009 225,282 5,400/6,360[55] Eastern/Western Caribbean Port Canaveral, Florida
Oasis of the Seas (cropped).jpg

Freedom class[edit]

The Freedom-class ships are lengthened versions of the second-generation Voyager-class ship, and contain a 400-foot (120 m) Royal Promenade mall running much of the length of the ship, an ice skating rink, basketball court, several pools, a mini-golf course, and a rock wall. New features on the Freedom class include the FlowRider surfing simulator, the H2O Zone kids water play area, a boxing ring, and hot tubs cantilevered over the side of the ship. At 154,407 gross tons, the Freedom-class ships were the largest ships in the world from 2006, until the debut of the Oasis class in 2009.[56]

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths
(double/max)
Areas of operation Homeport(s) Notes Ship image
Independence of the Seas 2008 154,407[56] 3,634/4,375[57] Europe, Eastern/Western Caribbean Southampton, England & Fort Lauderdale, Florida
MS Independence of the Seas in Southampton (cropped).JPG
Liberty of the Seas 2007 155,889[58] 3,798/4,960[59] Caribbean Galveston, TX
Liberty Of The Seas GC 12-22-16.jpg
Freedom of the Seas 2006 154,407[56] 3,782/4,515[60] Southern Caribbean San Juan, Puerto Rico
MS Freedom of the Seas in its maiden voyage (cropped).jpg

Radiance class[edit]

All Radiance-class ships have a gross tonnage of 90,090 and environmentally friendlier gas turbine engines. The Radiance-class ships have over 3 acres (12,000 m2) of glass, glass exterior viewing elevators, over 700 balcony staterooms, two-level glass windowed dining rooms, alternative restaurants, a retractable glass roof over a pool, an outdoor pool, as well as the first self-leveling billiard tables at sea. The Radiance class ships were constructed at Meyer Werft, Papenburg, Germany. Unlike the preceding Voyager class, these ships are built to the Panamax form factor, allowing them to pass through the Panama Canal.

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths
(double/max)
Areas of operation Homeport(s) Notes Ship image
Jewel of the Seas 2004 90,090[56] 2,112/2,502[61] Southern Caribbean, Europe San Juan, Puerto Rico &

Rome, Italy

Jewel of the Seas G628 (cropped).jpg
Serenade of the Seas 2003 90,090[56] 2,146/2,476[62] Caribbean, North Sea, Canada/New England Port Everglades, FL; Stockholm, Sweden; & Copenhagen, Denmark Serenade of the Seas at Grand Cayman1 (cropped).JPG
Brilliance of the Seas 2002 90,090[56] 2,142/2,543[63] Southern/Western Caribbean, Europe Tampa, Florida; Barcelona, Spain; & Amsterdam, Netherlands
Brilliance of the Seas in Tallinn 9 August 2012.JPG
Radiance of the Seas 2001 90,090[56] 2,143/2,466[64] Alaska, Australia/New Zealand/South Pacific Vancouver, BC; New Zealand; & Sydney, Australia
Radiance of the Seas - Juneau, AK (cropped).jpg

Voyager class[edit]

The sixth largest passenger ships at sea (Royal Caribbean's own Oasis, Quantum and Freedom classes, Norwegian Cruise Line's Norwegian Epic and Cunard's Queen Mary 2), the Voyager-class ships were the largest class of cruise ships in the world when constructed and were the first ships to have an ice rink at sea and the first to have Royal Caribbean's "Royal Promenade" mall concept, a main thoroughfare extending most of the length of the ship, flanked by bars, cafes, and shopping venues. They were built at Kvaerner Masa-Yards' (now STX Europe) facility in Turku, Finland. They have a gross tonnage of around 137,000 tonnes. These ships include a 350-foot (110 m) indoor mall known as the Royal Promenade, featuring indoor pubs, shops, cafes, and bars. Activity options on all five ships board include a basketball court, at least 3 pools, a mini-golf course, a rock wall, an ice skating rink and, originally, an inline skating track. Navigator of the Seas replaced the inline skating track with a Flowrider surf simulator in 2014, and similar upgrades are planned for Voyager and Explorer.[65]

Navigator of the Seas and Mariner of the Seas are second-generation Voyager-class vessels, and feature glass stateroom balconies that extend out from the superstructure of the ship and a larger Windjammer buffet area.

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths
(double/max)
Areas of operation Homeport(s) Notes Ship image
Mariner of the Seas 2003 138,279[56] 3,114/3,807[66] Caribbean Miami, Florida
Mariner of the Seas at hakata port (cropped).jpg
Navigator of the Seas 2002 139,570[67] 3,686/3,990[68] Mediterranean, Northern Europe, Caribbean Southampton, England & Miami, Florida;
Navigator of the Seas 2014 Galveston 1 (cropped).JPG
Adventure of the Seas 2001 137,276[56] 3,114/3,807[69] Southern Caribbean San Juan, Puerto Rico & Bayonne, New Jersey (Summer 2018)[70]
Adventure of the Seas Wade 2012 (cropped).JPG
Explorer of the Seas 2000 137,308[56] 3,114/3,840[71] Alaska, South Sea Seattle, WA & Sydney, Australia
Explorer of the Seas, Fremantle, 2015 (01) (cropped).JPG
Voyager of the Seas 1999 137,276[56] 3,114/3,840[72] Asia, Australia Singapore; Sydney, Australia & Shenzhen, China
Voyager of the Seas in Sydney.jpg

Vision class[edit]

Technically speaking, the Vision class consists of three pairs of sister ships and is not a "class" of ships like the Radiance, Freedom, Voyager, Quantum, and Oasis classes. Legend and Splendour, built at Chantiers de l'Atlantique, Saint-Nazaire, France have a gross tonnage of approximately 70,000 and are the only ones which have a golf course. Grandeur and Enchantment were built at Kvaerner Masa-Yards, Helsinki, Finland and had an original tonnage of approximately 73,000 GT. The final pair, Rhapsody and Vision were also built at Chantiers de l'Atlantique, and have a tonnage of 78,000 GT. In 2005, a 74-foot (23 m) midsection was added to Enchantment of the Seas, bringing its tonnage to over 80,000 GT. All ships of this class feature over 2 acres (8,100 m2) of glass. Royal Caribbean sold both Splendour of the Seas and Legend of the Seas to Thomson Cruises. Splendour of the Seas last sailed for Royal Caribbean on April 4, 2016, and the final Legend of the Seas sailing for Royal Caribbean left port on March 13, 2017.[73][74]

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths
(double/max)
Areas of operation Homeport(s) Notes Ship image
Vision of the Seas 1998 78,340[56] 2,050/2,514[75] Caribbean, Europe Galveston, Texas; New Orleans, Louisiana; Amsterdam, Netherlands; & Barcelona, Spain
Vision of the Seas departing Tallinn 19 August 2013 (cropped).JPG
Enchantment of the Seas 1997 82,910[56] 2,252/2,730[76] Bahamas, Caribbean Port Canaveral, Florida, Galveston, Texas
Enchantment of the Seas.jpg
Rhapsody of the Seas 1997 78,491[56] 1,998/2,416[77] Caribbean, Europe Tampa, Florida & Venice, Italy
Rhapsody of the Seas - Skagway, AK (cropped).jpg
Grandeur of the Seas 1996 73,817[56] 1,992/2,440[78] Southern/Eastern/Western Caribbean, Bermuda, Canada/New England Baltimore, MD Suffered an engine room fire.
Grandeur of the Seas (cropped).jpg

Sovereign class[edit]

At approximately 73,000 GT, these were described as the first "mega-ships" in the industry (with the exception of the SS Norway, an ocean liner converted into a cruise ship) built at the Chantiers de l'Atlantique shipyard in Saint-Nazaire, France. The first one, Sovereign of the Seas, was launched in 1988. The Sovereign-class ships were the first cruise ships to have an open atrium area.[79] Like larger Royal Caribbean ships, the Sovereign-class ships have pools, open bars and lounges inside, and grand theaters.

Both Sovereign of the Seas and Monarch of the Seas were transferred to the fleet of Pullmantur Cruises in October 2008 and April 2013, respectively.[80][81][82] Plans to transfer Majesty of the Seas to Pullmantur in 2016 were announced in November 2014, but Royal Caribbean reversed those plans in July 2015, instead stating that Majesty of the Seas would stay with Royal Caribbean International.[83]

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths
(double/max)
Areas of operation Homeport(s) Notes Ship image
Majesty of the Seas 1992 74,007[56] 2,350/2,767[84] Bahamas, Cuba Port Canaveral, Florida
MSMajestyOfTheSeasEdit1.JPG

Empress class[edit]

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths
(double/max)
Areas of operation Homeport(s) Notes Ship image
Empress of the Seas 1990 48,563 1,840 Bahamas, Caribbean, Cuba Miami, Florida Sailed for Pullmantur Cruises as Empress from 2008 to 2016. Empress of the Seas in Grand Cayman May 30, 2016 (cropped).jpg

Future fleet[edit]

Ship Class Estimated in-service date Current status Berths
(double/max)
Gross
tonnage
Planned home port(s) Notes Ship image
Spectrum of the Seas Quantum class 2019 Under construction (since 15 August 2017)[32] Keel laid on 8 November 2017 4,200 168,800 TBA 4th Quantum-class cruise ship
TBA Quantum class 2020 Agreement signed
3 November 2015
TBA TBA TBA 5th Quantum-class cruise ship[85]
TBA Oasis class 2021 Agreement signed
25 May 2016
TBA TBA TBA 5th Oasis-class cruise ship[86]
TBA Project Icon 2022 Agreement signed
10 October 2016
5,000 200,000 TBA 1st LNG powered Project Icon cruise ship[87]
TBA Project Icon 2024 Agreement signed
10 October 2016
5,000 200,000 TBA 2nd LNG powered Project Icon cruise ship[87]

Former fleet[edit]

Former RCI ships no longer in the fleet
Ship Class In Service for Royal Caribbean International Current Status
(as of 2018)
Current
Home Port(s)
Gross tonnage Notes Ship image
Song of Norway Song of Norway class 1970–1997 Scrapped in 2013 as the Formosa Queen.[88] 22,945
Song of Norway Vigo (cropped).jpg
Nordic Prince Song of Norway class 1971–1995 Scrapped in 2015 as the Pacific[89] 23,149
Carouselship (cropped).jpg
Sun Viking Song of Norway class 1972–1998 Operating as floating casino Oriental Dragon for Oceanic Group Intl. Hong Kong 16,607
Sun Viking in Vancouver, Canada 1990.jpg
Song of America Song of America class 1982–1999 Operating as the Celestyal Olympia for Celestyal Cruises Athens, Greece/
Kuşadası, Turkey
37,584
ThomsonDestiny (cropped).jpg
Viking Serenade 1990–2002 (built 1982) Scrapped in 2018 as the Ocean Gala.[90] 40,171 Transferred from Royal Caribbean's subsidiary Admiral Cruises in 1990.
Viking Serenade Mexico 3 (cropped).jpg
Sovereign of the Seas Sovereign class 1988–2008 Operating as the Sovereign for Pullmantur Cruises Barcelona, Spain/
Rome, Italy/
Genoa, Italy
73,192
Sovereign of the Seas Nassau Bahamas (244161813) (cropped).jpg
Monarch of the Seas Sovereign class 1991–2013 Operating as the Monarch for Pullmantur Cruises Caracas, Venezuela/
Colón, Panama/
Cartagena, Colombia/
Aruba
73,192
Monarch of the Seas (cropped).JPG
Splendour of the Seas Vision class 1996–2016 Operating as the Marella Discovery for Marella Cruises Palma, Majorca/
Bridgetown, Barbados[91]
69,130[56][92]
Splendour of the Seas 2011 (cropped).jpg
Legend of the Seas Vision class 1995–2017 Operating as the Marella Discovery 2 with Marella Cruises Málaga, Spain, Montego Bay, Jamaica 69,130[56]
Legend of the Seas (1) (cropped).jpg

Ship amenities[edit]

In August 2014, the line added amenities meant to be available on all ships in the Royal Caribbean fleet. These covered in-cabin improvements, entertainment and exercise facilities and redesigned restaurants. In addition there is a special activity programme, Ocean Adventure, for children. All ships have WiFi internet access available.[93][94] All ships except for Majesty of the Seas have a concierge lounge for guests staying in suites and Crown and Anchor Diamond-Plus-level members.

Other amenities that are not specific to one specific ship or class of ship are shown below as of 16 June 2018, amenities in italics are available to all guests.[95]

Class Ship Outdoor pools Indoor pools Hot tubs Flow- riders Adult-only Solarium Child water play area Full-size water slides Mini golf Ice rink Royal Promenade Suite Lounge / Concierge Lounge Diamond Club Nursery Dream Works Experience Night club Virtual balcony staterooms Solo staterooms[96]
Quantum Quantum of the Seas 2 2 4 1 Yes Yes No No No No Concierge Lounge Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Anthem of the Seas 2 2 6 1 Yes Yes No No No No Concierge Lounge Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Ovation of the Seas 2 2 6 1 Yes Yes No No No No Concierge Lounge Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Oasis Oasis of the Seas[97][98] 6 No 10 2 Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Suite Lounge Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Allure of the Seas[98] 6 No 10 2 Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Suite Lounge Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Harmony of the Seas[99] 6 No 10 2 Yes Yes 3 Yes Yes Yes Suite Lounge Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Symphony of the Seas 6 No 10 2 Yes Yes 3 Yes Yes Yes Suite Lounge Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Freedom Freedom of the Seas[100] 3 No 7 1 Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Concierge Lounge Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Liberty of the Seas 3 No 7 1 Yes Yes 3 Yes Yes Yes Suite Lounge Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Independence of the Seas 3 No 7 1 Yes Yes 2 Yes Yes Yes Suite Lounge Yes Yes No No No No
Radiance Radiance of the Seas 1 1 3 No Yes Yes No Yes No No Concierge Lounge Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Brilliance of the Seas 1 1 3 No Yes Yes No Yes No No Concierge Lounge Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Serenade of the Seas 1 1 3 No Yes Yes No Yes No No Concierge Lounge Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Jewel of the Seas[101] 1 1 3 No Yes Yes No Yes No No Concierge Lounge Yes No No Yes No Yes
Voyager Voyager of the Seas[95][102] 3 No 7 1 Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Concierge Lounge Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
Explorer of the Seas[65][95] 3 No 7 1 Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Concierge Lounge Yes No No No Yes No
Adventure of the Seas[103] 3 No 7 1 Yes Yes 2 Yes Yes Yes Suite Lounge Yes No No Yes No No
Navigator of the Seas 3 No 7 1 Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Concierge Lounge Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
Mariner of the Seas 3 No 7 1 Yes No 2 Yes Yes Yes Suite Lounge Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Vision Grandeur of the Seas 2 1 6 No Yes No No No No No Concierge Lounge Yes Yes No No No No
Rhapsody of the Seas 1 1 6 No Yes No No No No No Concierge Lounge Yes Yes No No No No
Enchantment of the Seas 2 1 6 No Yes No No No No No Concierge Lounge Yes Yes No No No No
Vision of the Seas 1 1 6 No Yes No No No No No Concierge Lounge Yes Yes No No No No
Sovereign Majesty of the Seas[104][105] 2 No 2 No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
Empress Empress of the Seas[106] 2 No 3 No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Class Ship Dynamic Dining Park Café Dog House Johnny Rockets Ben & Jerry's Cupcake Cupboard Italian restaurant Chops Grille Izumi Asian Cuisine Mexican restaurant Samba Grill Chef's Table Gastropub R Bar Coke Free- style Vintages Wine bar
Quantum Quantum of the Seas[107] Yes Café@Two70° Yes No No No Jamie's Italian Yes Yes No No Yes Harp & Horn No Yes Yes
Anthem of the Seas Yes Café@Two70° Yes Yes No No Jamie's Italian Yes Yes No No Yes Brass & Bock No Yes Yes
Ovation of the Seas Yes Café@Two70° Yes No No No Jamie's Italian Yes Yes No No Yes Amber & Oak No Yes Yes
Oasis Oasis of the Seas[97][98] No Yes Yes Yes Cups & Scoops Cups & Scoops Giovanni's Table Yes Yes Sabor No No No No Yes Yes
Allure of the Seas[98] No Yes Yes Yes Cups & Scoops Cups & Scoops Giovanni's Table Yes Yes Sabor Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
Harmony of the Seas[99] No Yes Yes Yes No No Jamie's Italian Yes Yes Sabor No Yes No No Yes Yes
Symphony of the Seas[99] No Yes Yes Yes No No Jamie's Italian Yes Yes El Loco Fresh No Yes No No Yes Yes
Freedom Freedom of the Seas[100] No No No Yes Yes Yes Giovanni's Table Yes No Sabor No No No Yes Yes Yes
Liberty of the Seas[108] No No No Yes Yes Yes Giovanni's Table Yes No Sabor No No No Yes No Yes
Independence of the Seas No No No Yes Yes Yes Giovanni's Table Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes
Radiance Radiance of the Seas No Yes Yes No No No Giovanni's Table Yes Yes Rita's Cantina Yes Yes No No No No
Brilliance of the Seas No Yes No No No No Giovanni's Table Yes Yes Rita's Cantina No Yes No Yes No Yes
Serenade of the Seas No Yes No No No No Giovanni's Table Yes Yes Rita's Cantina No Yes No Yes No Yes
Jewel of the Seas[101] No No No No No No Giovanni's Table Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes
Voyager Voyager of the Seas[95][102] No No No Yes Yes No Giovanni's Table Yes Yes No No No The Tavern Yes No No
Explorer of the Seas[65][95] No Yes No Yes Yes No Giovanni's Table Yes Yes No No No The Tavern Yes Yes No
Adventure of the Seas[103] No No No Yes Yes in Café Promenade Giovanni's Table Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No
Navigator of the Seas No No No Yes Yes in Café Promenade Giovanni's Table Yes Yes Sabor No No No Yes No Yes
Mariner of the Seas No No Yes Yes Yes No Jamie's Italian Yes No No No No No No Yes Yes
Vision Grandeur of the Seas No Yes No No Yes No Giovanni's Table Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes No
Rhapsody of the Seas No Yes No No Yes No Giovanni's Table Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes No No
Enchantment of the Seas No Yes No No Yes No No Yes No No No No No Yes Yes No
Vision of the Seas No Yes No No No No Giovanni's Table Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes No No
Sovereign Majesty of the Seas[104] No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No Yes No
Empress Empress of the Seas[106] No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No

Royal Promenade[edit]

The Voyager-class, Freedom-class, and Oasis-class ships feature the Royal Promenade, a centerline promenade in a long multi-deck atrium featuring a pedestrian mall with shops and restaurants. At night, the promenades are used as entertainment venues, hosting dance parties and parades.[109] The upper levels on the Royal Promenade are home to "Promenade Staterooms" that feature a window overlooking the promenade. The Royal Promenades on the Voyager-class and Freedom-class ships are 390 feet (118.9 m) and 400 feet (121.9 m) long, respectively, and are 4 decks high.[110][111] The Royal Promenades on the Oasis-class ships are only 3 decks high but are twice as wide and feature a mezzanine level.[109] The Quantum class does not feature a Royal Promenade, but instead features a 2-deck-high "Royal Esplanade" shopping area that does not have any overlooking cabins.[112]

Ship dining[edit]

In 2014 and 2015, Royal Caribbean introduced their new Dynamic Dining concept to replace the Main Dining Room on the Quantum-class ships.[97][98] Ships with Dynamic Dining do not feature a main dining room.[113] Instead, these ships feature several complimentary table service restaurants with their own theme and menu: "American Icon Grill", "The Grande", "Silk", and "Chic". Guests staying in suites also have access to the complimentary "Coastal Kitchen" restaurant. Similar to the Freestyle concept used on Norwegian Cruise Line, guests make reservations for their choice of restaurant for each night in advance,[27] and each venue will maintain the same menu and staff throughout the cruise.[28] On Anthem of the Seas, a "Dynamic Dining Classic" option allows guests rotate between restaurants but keep the same tablemates, waiter, and assistant waiter from night to night (similar to rotational dining on Disney Cruise Line).[114] On 27 November 2016 "Dynamic Dining Classic" was discontinued and replaced with "My Time Dining". The Grande and Chic restaurants serve Traditional Dining and the Silk and American Icon restaurants serve Flexibile Dining.[115]

Royal Caribbean had planned to extend dynamic dining to Oasis-class ships as well. During drydock refurbishment in 2014 and 2015, signage and décor was installed on the three levels of the main dining rooms of Oasis of the Seas and Allure of the Seas to prepare them to function as separate "American Icon Grill", "The Grande", and "Silk" restaurants, although the three levels continued to operate as a single dining room.[116] The "Coastal Kitchen" restaurant was also installed on both ships for suite guests. However, on 15 July 2015, Royal Caribbean announced that dynamic dining would not be rolled out on the Oasis-class ships or any other ship classes not specifically designed for it.[117] They also clarified that the upcoming Harmony of the Seas will debut with the traditional and "My Time Dining" options.[117]

Private resorts[edit]

Royal Caribbean operates two privately owned resorts that are used as stops on some Caribbean and Bahamas itineraries. They are Labadee, a resort on the northern coast of Haiti; and Coco Cay, a private island in the Berry Islands region of the Bahamas. Each resort features canopies for eating, lounge chairs, palm trees, white sand beaches, and a number of activities.

Later, the company intends to open the Perfect Day Islands in Labadee, Haiti and ports in Asia and Australia.[118]

Ports of call[edit]

Royal Caribbean operates internationally and has many ports of call.

Domestic Ports[edit]

Domestic ports for Royal Caribbean include Port Evergaldes in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Cape Liberty Cruise Port, Honolulu Harbor, PortMiami, the Port of Seattle, the Port of Galveston in Galveston, Texas, the Port of Los Angeles, the Port of New Orleans, the Port of San Diego, the Port of Seward in Seward, Alaska, the Port of Baltimore, Port Canaveral in Cape Canaveral, Florida, and Port Tampa Bay in Tampa, Florida.[119]

International ports[edit]

Among these are the Port of Amsterdam, the Port of Barcelona, the Port of Quebec, the Port of Shenzhen, the Port of Stockholm, the Port of Vancouver, the Port of Auckland, the Port of Beijing, the Port of Civitavecchia, the Port of Singapore, the Port of Sydney, the Port of Venice, the Port of Copenhagen, the Port of Hong Kong, the Port of Melbourne, the Port of San Juan, the Port of Shanghai, and the Port of Southampton.[119]

Economic impact[edit]

Cruise operators represent a large percentage of business and expenses at homeports and ports-of-call.[120] With large crew and passenger populations per trip, expenses at homeports can be difficult to track and are generally underestimated.[120] According to the Florida-Caribbean Cruise Association, during the 2005-2006 cruise years, passengers spent approximately $98.01 per person at the port-of-call, and crew members spent approximately $74.56 per person per port-of-call.[120] Each new ship represents a large economic impact and investment of US dollars. Adding approximately $66 billion per ship.[120]

Influence on the Caribbean[edit]

The Caribbean region is considered the most preferred cruise destination, bringing more than $7 billion to the State of Florida.[121] Industries that benefit most from Royal Caribbean's presence in Florida include Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport, Miami International Airport, and Palm Beach International Airport.[122] Rodeway Inn & Suites Port Everglades Airport Cruiseport hotel, as well as restaurants, agencies, and many other businesses.[122] Food processors, electrical and nonelectrical machinery manufacturers, and advertising agencies also benefit.[121]

Awards[edit]

Recent Travel awards include

Controversies[edit]

As of 2008, Royal Caribbean had 22% of the market share in cruise line operation. Cruise line operators are criticized for using this large economic impact to cut deals with home ports, ports of call, and agencies.[124]

Norovirus outbreaks[edit]

In January 2014, an outbreak of norovirus aboard the Explorer of the Seas sickened 689 of 4,237 passengers and crew (16.3%), causing the ship to return to port two days early.[125][126] The outbreak reportedly marked the greatest number of cases of illness aboard a cruise ship in two decades,[127] barely exceeding a 2006 outbreak aboard the Carnival Cruise Lines' Carnival Liberty that sickened 679 of 3,970 passengers and crew (17.1%).[128] Royal Caribbean offered all passengers aboard that cruise a 50% refund of their cruise fare, an additional 50% (plus 10% for each day sick passengers were quarantined) of their cruise fare as a credit towards another cruise, and reimbursed extra travel expenses for guests returning home early.[129]

Docking in Haiti[edit]

In the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Royal Caribbean continued docking cruise ships at the Labadee resort, located approximately 60 miles from the epicenter of the earthquake, during the ongoing humanitarian crisis. The ships provided a source of income to the devastated Haitian economy and delivered valuable relief supplies to the affected. Furthermore, the company promised to donate all proceeds from the visit to help the earthquake victims. Most passengers on board understood this, although some were "sickened" by the company's decision to dock in Haiti. Associate vice president John Weis defended the company's decision by stating that the company had "tremendous opportunities to use our ships as transport vessels for relief supplies and personnel to Haiti…. Simply put, we cannot abandon Haiti now that they need us most." The Labadee resort is leased to Royal Caribbean by the Government of Haiti.[130][131]

George Allen Smith case[edit]

On 5 July 2005, passengers on board the Brilliance of the Seas reported what appeared to be blood on a part of the ship below the passenger balconies. After a search, George Allen Smith was discovered to be missing and thought to have fallen overboard. A criminal investigation into possible foul play was conducted, and a brief press release on the company's investor relations website announced the settlement of the case,[132] later revealed to be more than $1 million.[133]

Environmental record[edit]

In 1998 and 1999, the company was fined US$9 million because one of its ships, the Sovereign of the Seas, had repeatedly dumped oily waste into the ocean and tried to hide this using false records, including fake piping diagrams given to the US Coast Guard. Because the company was and is incorporated in Liberia, Royal Caribbean argued that this case was not in the jurisdiction of US courts. Despite their argument, they were unsuccessful.[134]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cruise Careers at RCI". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  2. ^ "Royal Caribbean International". royalcaribbean.com. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  3. ^ "Cruise Market Watch". Cruise Market Watch. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 
  4. ^ Dave says: (26 November 2009). "Cruise Travel Guide | Labadee Haiti, an Oasis of the Seas port of call | Cruise Accommodations". Planeteyetraveler.com. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  5. ^ "Sovereign Of The Seas Cruise Ship Will Make Big Waves In Caribbean Travel Notebook". tribunedigital-mcall. Retrieved 2018-05-21. 
  6. ^ "Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd". www.referenceforbusiness.com. Retrieved 2018-05-21. 
  7. ^ "Royal Caribbean International And Celebrity Cruises Announce New Land-Tours In Europe". The Free library. Farlex, Inc. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  8. ^ Royal Caribbean Orders Third Oasis-Class Ship from STX France. Cruise Industry News, 27 December 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  9. ^ "Royal Caribbean orders fourth Oasis, world's biggest cruise ship". Reuters. 9 May 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  10. ^ Royal Caribbean announces names for new cruise ships, baltimoresun.com
  11. ^ "Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. : Investor Relations : Press Releases". Rclinvestor.com. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  12. ^ "Royal Caribbean orders second Sunshine-class cruise ship". Reuters. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  13. ^ a b Bailey, Ian. "Royal Caribbean Signs Contract For Third Quantum-Class Cruise Ship". Meyer Werft. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  14. ^ "THREE OF A KIND: OVATION OF THE SEAS TO JOIN QUANTUM CLASS AS THIRD SMARTSHIP". royalcaribbeanpresscenter.com. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  15. ^ "NEW GENERATION OASIS-CLASS SHIP HARMONY OF THE SEAS UNVEILS NEW THRILLS AND ADVENTURES". royalcaribbeanpresscenter.com. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  16. ^ "Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. to Sell Splendour of the Seas". royalcaribbeanpresscenter.com. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  17. ^ "Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. to Sell Legend of the Seas". royalcaribbeanpresscenter.com. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 
  18. ^ "Lobbying Spending Database – Royal Caribbean Cruises, 2016 | OpenSecrets". www.opensecrets.org. Retrieved 2016-12-04. 
  19. ^ "New registration form – South Australian register of lobbyists". 2016-05-17. 
  20. ^ a b Kalosh, Anne. "Port Everglades plans $100m terminal upgrade for Royal Caribbean". Retrieved 2018-05-16. 
  21. ^ "Start of Steel-Cutting for First Project Sunshine Ship". Meyer Wert. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
  22. ^ "Music Hall: The Hottest Live Entertainment Venue At Sea". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  23. ^ "A View From Above: North Star". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  24. ^ "Royal Caribbean International Introduces Skydiving Experiences At Sea". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  25. ^ "Two70° Revolutionizes Onboard Entertainment". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  26. ^ "Largest Sports And Entertainment Complex At Sea Introduced On Quantum Class". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  27. ^ a b "Dynamic Dining Hits the High Seas". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  28. ^ a b "The Quanum Class Culinary Q & A's" (PDF). Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  29. ^ "Deck Plans | Quantum of the Seas". Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  30. ^ Dunham-Potter, Anita. "Quantum Of The Seas' New Thrills At Sea". HuffPost Travel. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  31. ^ Reiser, Emon (7 May 2015). "Royal Caribbean orders fourth Quantum-class cruise ship". South Florida Business Journal. bizjournals.com. Retrieved 7 May 2015. 
  32. ^ a b "Royal Caribbean Marks First Major Construction Milestone of The New Quantum Ultra" (Press release). Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. 2017-08-15. 
  33. ^ "Royal Caribbean orders fourth Quantum-class cruise ship". Cruise Industry News. cruiseindustrynews.com. 3 November 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  34. ^ "Ovation of the Seas to be Third Quantum-Class Ship". Cruise Industry News. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  35. ^ "Ovation of the Seas Delivered". 8 April 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2016. 
  36. ^ "Ovation of the Seas (34050)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. 
  37. ^ "Giant Royal Caribbean ship, Ovation of the Seas, to move to Alaska". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2017-11-29. 
  38. ^ a b "Royal Caribbean Signs Letter of Intent to Build New Generation... – Miami and Papenburg, Germany, Feb. 11, 2011". Florida, Germany: Prnewswire.com. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  39. ^ a b "Anthem of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  40. ^ a b Fear, Danielle. "Quantum of the Seas to Homeport in China". CruiseMiss Cruise Blog. 
  41. ^ a b "Quantum of the Seas Fact Sheet". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  42. ^ "Royal Caribbean International Reveals Groundbreaking Quantum-class Ships". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  43. ^ a b "Press Release: Royal Caribbean selects Oasis of the Seas and Allure of the Seas as the names for its Project Genesis ships" (PDF). Royal Caribbean International. 23 May 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2008. [dead link]
  44. ^ "Royal Caribbean's next ships will be Oasis, Allure". USA Today. 23 May 2008. Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2008. 
  45. ^ Aker Yards press release, Royal Caribbean orders another giant cruise vessel from Aker Yards, 2 April 2007.
  46. ^ Matt Hochberg. "Keel laying for Royal Caribbean's Fourth Oasis class cruise ship". Royal Caribbean Blog. 
  47. ^ "Royal Caribbean's next ships will be Oasis, Allure". USA Today. 23 May 2008. Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2008. 
  48. ^ Name that ship contest, usatoday.com
  49. ^ a b "Ship Fact Sheets: Symphony of the Seas". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Retrieved 9 February 2018. 
  50. ^ "Introducing Harmony of the Seas". Royal Caribbean. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 
  51. ^ "Harmony of the Seas (33249)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 15 May 2015. 
  52. ^ "Harmony of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  53. ^ "Travel Weekly Readers Choice 2016". TravelWeekly.com. Travel Weekly. 
  54. ^ "Allure of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  55. ^ "Oasis of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "2016-2017 Royal Caribbean Fleet Guide" (PDF). Royal Caribbean International. 26 February 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  57. ^ "Freedom of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  58. ^ "Liberty of the Seas (26180)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 13 May 2007. 
  59. ^ "Liberty of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  60. ^ "Freedom of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  61. ^ "Jewel of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  62. ^ "Serenade of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  63. ^ "Brilliance of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  64. ^ "Radiance of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  65. ^ a b c "VOYAGER CLASS FLOWRIDER REFURBISHMENT". Mobimar.com. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014. 
  66. ^ "Mariner of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  67. ^ "Navigator of the Seas (22759)". DNV GL Vessel Register. Det Norske Veritas. Retrieved 17 July 2012. 
  68. ^ "Navigator of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  69. ^ "Adventure of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  70. ^ https://www.royalcaribbeanpresscenter.com/press-release/1310/royal-caribbean-announces-2018-2019-caribbean-alaska-and-northeast-itineraries/
  71. ^ "Explorer of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  72. ^ "Voyager of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  73. ^ "Splendour of the Seas Sold to TUI for Thomson Cruises". cruiseindustrynews.com. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  74. ^ "Royal Caribbean Sells Legend to Thomson, Cites Capacity Growth". cruiseindustrynews.com. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  75. ^ "Vision of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  76. ^ "Enchantment of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  77. ^ "Rhapsody of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  78. ^ "Grandeur of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  79. ^ "Royal Caribbean International's Vision of the Seas". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  80. ^ Cruise Business Review 12. 10. 2007: Say goodbye to Sovereign! The first ever modern megaship to join Pullmantur fleet, retrieved 13 October 2007 Archived 29 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  81. ^ "Presstur — Agência de notícias de viagens e turismo". presstur.com. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  82. ^ "Royal Caribbean Moving Monarch of the Seas to Pullmantur". cruiseindustrynews.com. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  83. ^ "Why Majesty of the Seas is Perfect for Pullmantur". Pullmantur Cruises. Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. 23 February 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2016. 
  84. ^ "Majesty of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  85. ^ "Royal Caribbean Orders Fifth Quantum-Class Vessel". cruiseindustrynews.com. 
  86. ^ "Royal Orders Oasis Five, Two More Ships for Celebrity". Cruise Industry News. 25 May 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  87. ^ a b http://www.cruiseindustrynews.com/cruise-news/15879-royal-caribbean-orders-pair-of-icon-class-lng-and-fuel-cell-powered-ships.html
  88. ^ Dake, Shawn (19 November 2013). "Former SONG OF NORWAY Sold For Scrap". Maritime Matters. Martin Cox. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  89. ^ "Updated– Scrapbound Ex NORDIC PRINCE Runs Aground". Maritime Matters. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  90. ^ https://www.cruiseind.com/2018/03/24/ocean-gala-i-ex-viking-serenade-island-escape-to-be-scrapped/
  91. ^ "Marella Discovery Cruise Ship Itineraries – Thomson Cruises". thomson.co.uk. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  92. ^ "Splendour of the Seas Fast Facts". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  93. ^ "Royal Caribbean high speed Voom internet: Everything you need to know". Royal Caribbean Blog. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  94. ^ "What ships have VOOM (High Speed Internet)?". royalcaribbean.com. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  95. ^ a b c d e "NOW OUR BEST SHIP IS EVERY SHIP" (PDF). Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  96. ^ "Guide to Royal Caribbean's Single and Studio staterooms". Royal Caribbean Blog. Retrieved 2018-03-26. 
  97. ^ a b c "Our Biggest Ship Gets Even Better" (PDF). Royal Caribean International. Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  98. ^ a b c d e "Oasis Class Revitalization Q&A's" (PDF). Royal Caribbean International. Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  99. ^ a b c "Harmony of the Seas". Royal Caribean International. Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  100. ^ a b "Royal Caribbean in 2015: New Ships, New Itineraries, New Food". Royal Caribbean Connect. 21 January 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  101. ^ a b "JEWEL OF THE SEAS RECEIVES A $30 MILLION MAKEOVER TO BE UNVEILED IN APRIL 2016". royalcaribbeanpresscenter.com. Retrieved 3 December 2015. 
  102. ^ a b "Voyager of the Seas". Archived from the original on 21 August 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  103. ^ a b "Adventure of the Seas". Cruise Critic. Retrieved 25 May 2018. 
  104. ^ a b "Majesty of the Seas". royalcaribbean.com. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  105. ^ "VOOM Frequently asked questions" (PDF). 7 July 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2016. 
  106. ^ a b "EMpress of the Seas Fact Sheet". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean International. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  107. ^ David Fiske. "Kung Fu Panda Kicks Johnny Rockets Off Quantum Of The Seas". World of Cruising. 
  108. ^ "Royal Caribbean's Liberty of the Seas Gets a Texas-Sized Makeover". royalcaribbeanpresscenter.com. Retrieved 3 December 2015. 
  109. ^ a b "Royal Promenade". Royal Caribbean Productions. Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  110. ^ "Voyager of the Seas – STX Finland". STX Finland. STXEurope.com. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  111. ^ Smith, Peter C (2011). Cruise Ships: The World's Most Luxurious Vessels. Casemate Publishers. p. 249. ISBN 9781848842182. Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  112. ^ "Royal Caribbean International". royalcaribbean.com. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  113. ^ "Royal Caribbean International Debuts New Era of Dining at Sea on Quantum-Class". Royal Caribbean Press Center. Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  114. ^ "Royal Caribbean will adopt new rotational dining program for Anthem of the Seas". royalcaribbeanblog.com. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  115. ^ "Royal Caribbean abandons Dynamic Dining on Anthem of the Seas". royalcaribbeanblog.com. Retrieved 12 September 2016. 
  116. ^ "Royal Caribbean Delays Roll-Out of Dynamic Dining to More Cruise Ships – Royal Caribbean International". Cruise Critic. Retrieved 23 July 2015. 
  117. ^ a b "Royal Caribbean Cancels Dynamic Dining Plans for Rest of Fleet". cruiseindustrynews.com. Retrieved 15 July 2015. 
  118. ^ https://plus.google.com/+travelandleisure/posts. "Royal Caribbean's New Private Island Cruise Will Have Hot Air Balloons and a 135-foot Water Slide". Travel + Leisure. Retrieved 2018-03-20. 
  119. ^ a b "Royal Caribbean International Departure Ports of Call- Royal Caribbean International Ports: Travel Weekly". www.travelweekly.com. Retrieved 2018-05-16. 
  120. ^ a b c d Brida, Juan Gabriel; Aguirre, Sandra (2009-01-25). "Cruise Tourism: Economic, Socio-Cultural and Environmental Impacts". International Journal of Leisure and Tourism Marketing. 1. doi:10.1504/IJLTM.2010.029585. 
  121. ^ a b "The Contribution of the International Cruise Industry to the U.S. Economy in 2016" (PDF). Business Research & Economic Advisors: 1–100. August 2017 – via Cruise Lines International Association. 
  122. ^ a b "Florida is the World's Port of Call" (PDF). Florida Tax Watch: 1–3. April 2015. 
  123. ^ "Travel Weekly Readers Choice 2016". Travel Weekly. 
  124. ^ Butt, Nickie (2007-09). "The impact of cruise ship generated waste on home ports and ports of call: A study of Southampton". Marine Policy. 31 (5): 591–598. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2007.03.002. ISSN 0308-597X.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  125. ^ "Royal Caribbean Cruise Illnesses Tied To New Scourge, CDC Says". NBC News. 
  126. ^ "CDC – Vessel Sanitation Program – Explorer of the Seas, 21 January 2014". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  127. ^ "Royal Caribbean cruise ship returns home – with a sickness record". CNN. 
  128. ^ "CDC – Vessel Sanitation Program – Carnival Liberty Outbreak Investigation, November 2006". Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  129. ^ Henry, Samantha (30 January 2014). "Illness that left 700 on Explorer of the Seas vomiting likely largest outbreak of norovirus on cruise ship in 20 years". National Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 6 October 2014. 
  130. ^ "Luxury Cruise Ship Docks On Private Haitian Beach, Just 60 Miles From Devastation". Huffington Post. 18 January 2010. 
  131. ^ Booth, Robert (17 January 2010). "Cruise ships still find a Haitian berth". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  132. ^ "Press Release: Royal Caribbean And Jennifer Hagel Smith Reach Settlement". Royal Caribbean International. 29 June 2006. Archived from the original on 25 July 2009. Retrieved 10 May 2008. 
  133. ^ "Judge uphold widow's settlement". AP/AOL. 2 May 2008. Retrieved 10 May 2008. [dead link]
  134. ^ "U.S. keeps wary eye on cruise ships for more pollution". USA Today. 8 November 2002. Retrieved 14 May 2008. 

External links[edit]