An anchor which is created by connecting a closed loop of cord or webbing between two points of protection, and then suspending the rope from a carabiner clipped to only one strand of said anchor. This creates a triangular shape in the webbing or cord, which places massively multiplied inward forces on the protection, making it a dangerous, ineffective anchor.
An arrangement of one or (usually) more pieces of gear set up to support the weight of a belay or top rope.
The path or route to the start of a technical climb. Although this is generally a walk or, at most, a scramble it is occasionally as hazardous as the climb itself.
A small ridge-like feature or a sharp outward facing corner on a steep rock face
Arête, a narrow ridge of rock formed by glacial erosion
A method of indoor climbing, in which one is able to use such a corner as a hold. See also dihedral.
Jamming an arm into a crack and locking it into place.
(from the French word meaning arched) Used to describe crimping. In this position typically the first set of knuckles are hyperextended and the second have a sharp angle of about 90 degrees. This combines muscular effort with soft tissue tensions in order to apply the load. When used often, this position has been known to over-stress the tendons in fingers and lead to injuries.
A piece of training equipment used to improve campusing and core strength.
A potentially hazardous mistake that can be made while lead climbing. The rope is clipped into a quickdraw such that the leader's end runs underneath the quickdraw as opposed to over top of it. If the leader falls, the rope may fold directly over the gate causing it to open and release the rope from the carabiner.
To retreat from a climb.
If a climber has only two points of contact using either the right or left side of their body, the other half may swing uncontrollably out from the wall like a door on a hinge.
To protect a roped climber from falling by passing the rope through, or around, any type of friction enhancing belay device. Before belay devices were invented, the rope was simply passed around the belayer's hips to create friction.
A mechanical device used to create friction when belaying by putting bends in the rope. Many types of belay devices exist, including ATC, grigri, Reverso, Sticht plate, eight and tuber. Some belay devices may also be used as descenders. A Munter hitch can sometimes be used instead of a belay device.
The strongest point on the harness. This is the loop you use your belay device on. You should not tie anything around the belay loop such as a daisy chain or sling. The belay loop will wear more quickly.
Called by belayer to confirm belay has been removed from climbing rope. Response to Off belay request.
Called by belayer to confirm belay has been (re)applied to climbing rope. Response to On belay request.
Someone that volunteers for, or is tricked into, repeated belaying duties without partaking in any of the actual climbing.
An unscheduled overnight bivouac often due to an epic.
The clean ascent of a climb on the first attempt, having previously obtained beta or while having beta shouted up from the ground en route. Also see on-sight.
A technique used to keep the feet on when climbing on overhangs. One foot is placed on a foothold and the other foot is placed behind the foothold in a toe hook position. The climber can now squeeze the hold between the feet.
(French "two fingers") A climbing hold, typically a pocket or hueco, that has enough room for two fingers. See also mono.
A climb on which most parties will spend more than one day. Big wall style generally refers to hauling the needed gear (food, water, sleeping bags) in a haulbag. Instead of carrying the gear on their person, the climbers put it in the haul bag and raise it in between pitches.
From the French "bivouac". A camp, or the act of camping, overnight while still on a climbing route off the ground. May involve nothing more than lying down or sitting on a rock ledge without any sleeping gear. When there is no rock ledge available, such as on a sheer vertical wall, a portaledge that hangs from anchors on the wall can be used.
A lightweight garment or sack offering full-body protection from wind and rain.
A large knob of rock or ice used as a belay anchor.
A point of protection permanently installed in a hole drilled into the rock, to which a metal hanger is attached, having a hole for a carabiner or ring.
The deliberate and destructive removal of one or more bolts.
A totally secure anchor. Also known as bomber. Bomber can also refer to a particularly solid handhold or foothold (a "Bomber Jug")
Gear left behind at a climbing area.
To reduce pains from heavy-duty climbing using a harness; such as long-time belaying or bolting a new route, climbers attach their harness with a special type of chair, which is usually light and has multiple high endurance straps and buckles. Similar types are also used in industrial climbing.
A slang word, referring to a difficult or uncomfortable hold, often one that tears the skin on the hand.
A climbing technique wherein a hand or foot is moved to one hold then quickly moved up immediately to a further hold. This is often done over short distances advancing from an inferior hold to a superior one.
A rock cleft with vertical sides mostly parallel, large enough to fit the climber's body into. To climb such a structure, the climber often uses his head, back and feet to apply opposite pressure on the vertical walls.
The process of using such a technique (chimneying).
Improving a hold by permanently altering the rock, which is considered unethical and unacceptable.
A mechanical device, or a wedge, used as anchors in cracks.
A hand grip which is squeezed, over the top or around the side, between the fingers and palm, forming a cup shape with the hand, or applying this type of hold on any protrusion or feature. More commonly known as guppy.
Where a climber's feet swing away from the rock on overhanging terrain, leaving the climber hanging only by their hands. Also known as "Cutting feet."
(Welsh) A hanging valley, or cirque—a steep-walled semicircular basin in a mountain—sometimes containing a lake; also known as a corrie.
A special purpose type of sling with multiple sewn or tied loops, used in aid and big wall climbing. It is designed to hold a climber's bodyweight, rather than arrest a fall, and while the sling as a whole will have a strength rating comparable to that of a standard sling, the individual loops will typically have much lower ratings.
Type of High Ball boulder, where one can possibly die when falling from above.
To hang limp, such that weight is held by ligament tension rather than muscles.
An object buried into snow to serve as an anchor for an attached rope. One common type of such an anchor is the snow fluke. Any object that is buried in order to make an anchor, or what you become if that anchor fails.
A dynamic climbing technique in which the hold is grabbed at the apex of upward motion. This technique places minimal strain on both the hold and the arms.
An inside corner of rock, with more than a 90-degree angle between the faces. See also corner and arête.
A type of tension climbing consisting of using one or more belay ropes to haul the leader up to the next point of protection.
climbers living cheaply and supporting themselves through odd jobs in order to maximize the amount of time climbing. Well known practitioners of this lifestyle include Jan and Herb Conn or Fred Beckey.
Double Rope Technique (DRT)
The term denotes the use of two separate ropes, which is true of alpine and rock climbers, but not as much for tree climbers, who usually see it as synonymous with Doubled Rope Technique.
Doubled Rope Technique (DdRT)
A method used primarily by tree climbers where the rope passes over a support/limb and continuously slides over the limb as the climber ascends or descends.
To descend by climbing downward, typically after completing a climb.
A method of rappelling, without mechanical tools, where the uphill rope is straddled by the climber then looped around a hip, across the chest, over the opposite (weak) shoulder, and held with the downhill (strong) hand to adjust the shoulder friction and thus the descending speed.
Technique of stopping a long fall using smooth braking to reduce stress on the protection points and avoid unnecessary trauma from an abrupt stop.
A slightly elastic rope that softens falls to some extent. Also tend to be damaged less severely by heavy loads. Compare with static rope.
Any move in which body momentum is used to progress. As opposed to static technique where three-point suspension and slow, controlled movement is the rule.
Tightly gripping handholds, simultaneously flagging out both legs then proceeding to violently kick downwards and inwards in a desperate attempt to produce upwards motion; making the climber resemble an explosive bottom feeder.
A dynamic move to grab a hold that would otherwise be out of reach. Generally both feet will leave the rock face and return again once the target hold is caught. Non-climbers would call it a jump or a leap.
Method for reducing muscle strain in arms when holding a side grip. One knee ends up in a lower position with the body twisted towards the other leg. It can give a longer reach as the body and shoulders twist towards a hold. Also known as a "drop knee."
The same position as bridging or chimneying, but with one leg in front and one behind the body.
Empty space below a climber, usually referring to a great distance a climber is above the ground or large ledge, or the psychological sense of this distance due to being unprotected, or because the rock angles away due to climbing an arête or overhang. Exposure can also refer to exposure to the elements, like wind, snow, or sun.
A route on a mountain where the safety is provided by steel ropes or chains, permanently fixated to the rock. The progression is often aided by artificial steps or ladders. Typically found in the Alps, also called Klettersteig.
Advanced climbing technique where the climber hooks a leg over the opposite arm, and then pushes down with this leg to achieve a greater vertical reach. Requires strength and a solid handhold.
Climbing technique where a leg is held in a position to maintain balance, rather than to support weight. Often useful to prevent barn-dooring. There are three types of flagging:
Normal flag: Where the flagging foot stays on the same side (e.g. flagging with the right foot out to the right side of the body)
Reverse inside flag: Where the flagging foot is crossed in front of the foot that is on a foothold
Reverse outside flag: Where the flagging foot is crossed behind the foot that is on a foothold
A thin slab of rock detached from the main face.
A method of untangling a rope in which the rope is run through the climber's hands and allowed to fall into a pile on the ground. Useful when preparing a rope for coiling, or before starting a lead climb, to ensure the rope is fed cleanly and without twists. Often called "flaking out" a rope.
An injury consisting of a piece of loose (flapping) skin. A climber will usually just repair these with sticky tape or super glue.
To successfully and cleanly complete a climbing route on the first attempt after having received beta of some form. Also refers to an ascent of this type. For ascents on the first attempt without receiving beta see on-sight.
Climbing without aid or protection. This typically means climbing without a rope.
Also known as French climbing, or French freeing, it is the use of aid climbing techniques to bypass a section due to climbing difficulty, rock conditions, etc.; typically for only a short section of the total climb.
An exercise used to develop lock-off strength consisting of pull-ups that stop with the elbows locked at angles between 20 and 160 degrees.
Delicate and easily broken rock, often dangerous.
Climbing technique relying on the friction between the sloped rock and the sole of the shoe to support the climber's weight, as opposed using holds or edges, cracks, etc.
A young female climber who shows moderate potential in scrambling.
A climbing grip using one hand with the thumb down and elbow out, often thought of as a reverse side pull. The grip maintains friction against a hold by pressing outward toward the elbow.
The action of the gate on a carabiner opening during a fall.
A pinnacle or isolated rock tower frequently encountered along a ridge.
A modified dulfersitz rappel using the hip and downhill arm for friction, rather than the chest and shoulder, offering less complexity, but less friction and less control. 'Geneva Style' is also a description used in Australia for what is commonly referred to elsewhere as 'Australian Rappelling'.
A belay device designed to be easy to use and safer for beginners because it is assisted-braking under load. Invented and manufactured by Petzl. Many experienced climbers advocate the use of an atc type device for beginners.
Scared. Also over gripping the rock.
Accidentally going off-route while leading and becoming lost on a rock face in an area much more difficult than the climb being attempted. The word arises from the climb "Gronk" in Avon Gorge which is notorious for this.
To climb with obviously poor style or technique.
A climbing route judged to be without redeeming virtue.
An inexperienced, unknowledgeable and oblivious climber; is a derogatory term. Gumbies are incapable of learning.
The act of pulling oneself up with both arms parallel in front of your chest. Resembles a Hamster during feeding. That sloper required some hamstering to get to the next move.
Making progress by inserting the hand (usually vertically with the thumb uppermost) into a crack and then pushing the thumb downwards towards the palm. This expands the hand and can make a highly secure placement. In the UK this move was credited with facilitating the advances in free climbing in the late 1940s and 50s made by climbers such as Joe Brown and Don Whillans although they did not invent it.'
Traversing without any definitive footholds, i.e. smearing or heelhooking.
A sewn nylon webbing device worn around the waist and thighs that is designed to allow a person to safely hang suspended in the air.
A large and often unwieldy bag into which supplies and climbing equipment may be thrown.
The practice of top-roping a hard trad route before leading it cleanly.
A region at the top of a cliff or rock face that steepens dramatically.
Using the back of the heel to apply pressure to a hold, for balance or leverage; this technique requires pulling with the heel of a foot by flexing the hamstring. This technique is notable since in most forms of climbing one uses the toes to push.
Also known as a brain bucket or skid lid. It can save your life, but only while worn.
A protective device. It is an eccentric hexagonal nut attached to a wire loop. The nut is inserted into a crack and it holds through counter-pressure. Often just called Hex.
A tall boulder problem. Falling becomes more dangerous due to the increase in height.
Climbing grown in the Himalayas. In a broader sense this Himalayan mountaineering climbing, similar as to the nature of climbing in the Himalayas, but also grown in other high mountains, where the height of the peaks above 7000 meters above sea level are the Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Pamir, Tien Shan, Daxue Shan.
A climbing technique involving hooking a heel or toe against a hold in order to balance or to provide additional support.
Large, pointed protrusion of rock that can be slung. Typically also makes a good handhold. Known in the UK as a "Spike". See bollard, chicken head.
(Spanish hueco "hole") A climbing hold consisting of a pocket in the rock, typically round and deep and featuring a positive lip. Huecos vary in size from accommodating a single finger (this is also called a "mono") to large enough to fit one's entire body. The term hueco entered the jargon of rock climbers from the Texas climbing area Hueco Tanks that is famous for this sort of hold.
A form of climbing in which the climber places anchors and attaches the belay rope as they climb (traditional) or clips the belay rope into preplaced equipment attached to bolts (sport).
A fall while lead climbing. A fall from above the climber's last piece of protection. The falling leader will fall at least twice the distance back to his or her last piece, plus slack and rope stretch.
Ice climbing with your axes not being attached to your wrist, if you drop them they're gone, but the trade off is greater mobility
A move used to surmount a ledge or feature in the rock in the absence of any useful holds directly above. It involves pushing down on a ledge or feature instead of pulling down. In ice climbing, a mantel is done by moving the hands from the shaft to the top of the ice tool and pushing down on the head of the tool.
The external covering of a climbing rope. Climbing ropes use kernmantle construction consisting of a kern (or core) for strength and an external sheath called the mantle.
To use one hold for two limbs, or to swap limbs on a particular hold.
To retrieve another climbers gear because he is unable to or because it would be more convenient.
A crevasse that forms where the glacier pulls away from a rock formation.
(French monodoigt "single finger") A climbing hold, typically a pocket or hueco, that only has enough room for one finger.
Method of climbing – used on easy Alpine ground – in which two or more climbers climb at the same time with running belays between them and fixed belays not being used. Similar to simulclimbing, a technique for steeper terrain.
Climbing on routes that are too long for a single belay rope.
In the strictest climbing definition, a pitch is considered one rope length 50–60 metres (160–200 ft). However, in guide books and route descriptions, a pitch is the portion of a climb between two belay points.
A flat or angled metal blade of steel which incorporates a clipping hole for a carabiner or a ring in its body. A piton is typically used in "aid-climbing" and an appropriate size and shape is hammered into a thin crack in the rock and preferably removed by the last team member.
Clip-on string fastened to piton when inserting or removing, so as to avoid loss.
An aggressive step pattern for descending on hard or steep angle snow.
An alternative to chalk made from pine resin. Popular in Fontainebleau but discouraged (or actively forbidden) everywhere else since it deposits a thick, shiny resin layer on the rock and friction can only be achieved by using more pof.
On popular routes, the sheer passage of traffic can polish the rock to such an extent as to make the climbing much more difficult. This is most noticeable at the crux, and more common on certain rock types.
A hold or part of a hold, having a surface facing upwards, or away from the direction it is pulled, facilitating use.
Forcefully exhaling to facilitate O2/CO2 exchange at altitude. Also called the "Whittaker wheeze".
Used in bouldering, the path that a climber takes in order to complete the climb. Same as route in roped climbing.
A potential new route or bouldering problem that is being attempted, but has not seen a first ascent yet.
A knot used for ascending a rope. It is named after Dr Karl Prusik, the Austrian mountaineer who developed this knot in 1931.
To use a Prusik knot for ascending a rope.
To climb a wall Toprope with having another rope connected to the climber, for practice of Lead climbingclipping. The other rope is normally not connected to any belayer below and is only there to practice the clipping. Usually practiced while learning how to Lead Climb. Also commonly referred to as "mock leading".
A piece of protection that everyone knows will not hold a fall, but makes the climber feel better about having gear beneath them anyhow.
To have such an accumulation of metabolic waste products in the forearm, that forming even a basic grip becomes impossible. A climber who is pumped will find it difficult to hold on, and may struggle to lift or clip a rope.
(Psychology) A feeling of anticipation and energy before a challenging climb.
An over-ambitious and under-prepared climber.
To have a solid grip on a hold or feature. "I had good purchase on that jug."
A screw-type oval-shape stainless steel carabiner which is smaller than normal oval-shape biner, particularly used for attaching to the chains of the master anchor. Also known as a Maillon or Maillon Rapide.
Also roped team or roped party. Team of mountaineers or climbers joined together by a safety rope.
The path of a particular climb, or a predefined set of moves.
A small nut, named after Roland Pauligk. Not certified for sale in Europe.
Made of nylon and nylon/blend materials, runners, also referred to as slings, are used by climbers for a multitude of purposes.
A lengthy distance between two points of protection which in some, but not all, cases might be perceived as frightening or dangerous. May also be used as an adjective to describe a route, or a section of a route.
A nylon webbing structure consisting of one large loop sewn in multiple places to make a shorter length. The stitch-points are intentionally sewn with less than maximum possible strength. The screamer is attached with carabiners between an anchor point, particularly one of dubious strength, and the climber. In the event of a fall the stitching of the sewn sections is designed to rip apart, absorbing some of the fall energy and decelerating the climber, thereby reducing the overall shock load on the dubious anchor. Screamer is a brand name of Yates Mountaineering.
The involuntary vibration of one or both legs resulting from fatigue or panic. Also known as "Scissor leg", "Elvis Presley Syndrome", or "Disco knee". Can often be remedied by bringing the heel of the offending leg down, changing the muscles used to support the weight of the climber
The end of the belay rope that is attached to the lead climber. "Being on the sharp end" refers to the act of lead climbing, which is considered more psychologically demanding than top-roping or following, since it may involve more route-finding, as well as the possibility of longer, more consequential falls.
A Sherpa is a person of the ethnic group of the same name that is located in the Himalayan Mountains. Also a generic term for mountaineering porters in Nepal (usually those working at or above base camp) regardless of their ethnic group
A traditionally-belayed lead climber reaches a new belay station, creates an anchor, tying the lead rope off to the anchor. The climber then switches over to self-belaying and continues to climb. Meanwhile, the second climber ascends the fixed rope using ascenders (aka Jugging) and cleans the pitch. When the second reaches the belay, he or she anchors in and starts to belay the leader in the traditional way again. When the leader reaches the next belay the process is repeated.
A hold that needs to be gripped with a sideways pull towards the body.
A technique where both climbers move simultaneously upward with the leader placing protection which the second removes as they advance. A device known as a Tibloc which allows the rope to only move in a single direction is sometimes used to prevent the second climber from accidentally pulling the lead climber off should the second slip.
Single Rope Technique (SRT)
The use of a single rope where one or both ends of the rope are attached to fixed anchor points.
Sit and spin
A method of starting a rappel from a cliff edge, accomplished by sitting with legs over the edge and then spinning around to face the cliff while planting feet on the face.
Starting a climb from a position in which the climber is sitting on the floor. This is common in climbing gyms in order to fit an extra move into the climb. Noted as SS or SDS in some topo guides.
Climbing without following any specific color in a gym with color-designated routes/problems. Also referred to as "climbing the rainbow," since any and all colors of holds are used.
A small hook which gives hold on small protrusions or watery and slippery grips. They are most often used for placements, often extremely marginal, in aid climbing, although they also feature in some extreme free routes. Additionally, the skyhook can be attached to the harness, thus allowing the climber to rest, or held in one or both hands to hold a grip.
A relatively low-angle (significantly less than vertical) section of rock, usually with few large features. Requires slab climbing techniques.
A particular type of rock climbing, and its associated techniques, involved in climbing rock that is less than vertical. The emphasis is on balance, footwork, and making use of very small features or rough spots on the rock for friction.
Portion of rope that is not taut, preferably minimized during belay.
A style of climbing where form, technical (or gymnastic) ability and strength are more emphasized over exploration, self-reliance and the exhilaration of the inherent dangers involved in the sport. Sport climbing routes tend to be well protected with pre-placed bolt-anchors and lends itself well to competitive climbing.
A method of protection commonly used during bouldering or before the leader has placed a piece of protection. The spotter stands beneath the climber, ready to absorb the energy of a fall and direct him away from any hazards.
A type of hand position where the fingers and thumb are opposed.
Giving unwanted — and unasked-for - beta to a fellow climber. Also, excessive, overly prominent, or boorish proclamation of one's own (often exaggerated) skills or exploits.
Of a style of climbing or specific move, not dynamic. In general this entails movement of a limb to a new hold without the simultaneous transfer of weight. Instead weight transfer occurs after the limb has moved.
A long stick on the end of which a climber can affix a quickdraw. It allows the climber to clip a quickdraw to the first bolt on a sport climb while still standing on the ground. This is especially useful if the first bolt is high up, and out of the comfort zone of the climber. A stick clip can be bought or easily made by attaching a quickdraw to a stick with a rubber band.
A kind of proto- climbing harness consisting of a long length of tubular webbing wrapped several times around the climbers body and secured with a water knot. Largely eschewed today in favor of commercial harnesses.
Refers to the last member or the tail of a climbing group. The sweeper's task is to spot and retrieve things that may have accidentally fallen from the preceding climbers; to make sure that no mess or gear is left behind; and to make sure that the rear is keeping up with the whole team. The term sweeper, a Filipino contribution to mountaineering vocabulary was introduced in 1998 and was inspired by The Cleaner character in the 1990 film Nikita, also known as La Femme Nikita by Luc Besson.
A dynamic form of the lieback described above, rotating off one foot while maintaining a grip with that hand, then grabbing a high handhold at the deadpoint of the swing. This move is frequently reversible, unlike more aerial dynos.
Called by a climber when requesting that the belayer remove all slack. See hang dogging.
An area of large rock fragments on a mountainside that may vary from house-size to as small as a small backpack. The area, if older and consolidated, may be stable, or the rocks may be precariously balanced. Talus is distinguished from scree in that it is larger and may feature solid interlocking of the rocks, while scree is by definition loose.
When, after a whipper, or long fall, a climber falls past their belayer, who is generally lifted up off the ground.
A term often used as synonymous with requiring precision and control, as in a very technical sequence of move. Difficulty ratings of climbs often is a combination of technicality of a climb and the endurance or strength necessary to complete it.
Specialized moves given names to help communicate what to do to another person.
From the French word meaning outstretched. In this grip the fingers are close to the position when the hand is open. The relative angle between the finger bones is gradual. The load applied is coming from tension in the forearm muscles.
A technique for maintaining balance using a taut rope through a point of protection.
A climb that is representative of the hardest, best climbs in an area.
Make progress by squeezing into a space and wriggling against opposing rock surfaces.
The leg straps and waist belt create two loops connecting the belay loop. The points which you tie in at. Also known as soft loops.
A toe hook is securing the upper side of the toes on a hold. It helps pull the body inwards—towards the wall. The toe hook is often used on overhanging rock where it helps to keep the body from swinging away from the wall.
To belay from a fixed anchor point above the climb. Top-roping requires easy access to the top of the climb, by means of a footpath or scrambling.
To complete a route by ascending over the top of the structure being climbed.
To use holds specified out for you in any route, usually used in gym climbing.
A style of climbing that emphasizes the adventure and exploratory nature of climbing. While sport climbers generally will use pre-placed protection ("bolts"), traditional (or "trad") climbers will place their own protection as they climb, generally carried with them on a rack.
Getting prepared to climb on difficult mountains.
A technique that is typically used while lowering and cleaning gear from an overhanging and/or traversing route. A quickdraw is clipped between the climber's harness and the rope that is threaded through the gear. As the climber is lowered by the belayer, the quickdraw holds the cleaner close to the wall and following the line of the route. Without the quickdraw, the climber would lower straight down, further and further from the remaining gear to be cleaned. Also known as trolleying.
To climb in a horizontal direction.
A section of a route that requires progress in a horizontal direction.
A Tyrolean traverse is crossing a chasm using a rope anchored at both ends.
A pendulum traverse involves swinging across a wall or chasm while suspended from a rope affixed above the climber.
A simple camming protection device that has no moving parts.
A belay device.
A limestone rib formation that protrudes from the wall which can sometimes fit within the pinching grasp of a climber's hand; alternatively: a plastic, bolted on bouldering hold designed to replicate such a formation on an indoor climbing wall.
A thin coating of ice that forms over rocks when rainfall or melting snow freezes on rock. Hard to climb on as there is insufficient depth for crampons to have reliable penetration. See also clear ice and glaze ice.
Hollow and flat nylon strip, mainly used to make slings.
A piece of webbing with eyes sewn into the ends which can be used in place of a cordelette.
As in, "weighting the rope." Any time the rope takes the weight of the climber. This can happen during a minor fall, a whipper (long fall), or simply by resting while hanging on the belay rope (see also hangdogging).
A home made climbing wall. Often specifically a hybrid between a climbing wall and a fingerboard. Specifically called such because of the wooden panels (usually left unpainted) used to attach the climbing holds to.
A rating from the Yosemite Decimal System given to climbs that have very poor or no protection. These climbs often present risk of serious injury or death if a fall were to occur, even if the climb is properly protected.
A hold appearing to be composed of a different type of rock than the surrounding face.
To pull on the rope to make upward progress, often with assistance from the belayer. This may be done to bypass a crux, or to quickly regain ground lost after a fall without re-climbing the section. AKA to "jug up" the rope.
A numerical system for rating the difficulty of walks, hikes, and climbs in the United States. The rock climbing (5.x) portion of the scale is the most common climb grading system used in the US. The scale starts with the easiest grades at 5.0 and is open-ended on the harder end. As of November 2013[update], the most difficult grade was 5.15c.
Clipping into an anchor with the segment of rope from beneath the previous piece of protection, resulting in a potentially dangerous tangled configuration of the belay rope.
A fall in which each piece of protection fails in turn. In some cases when the rope comes taut during a fall, the protection can fail from the bottom up, especially if the first piece was not placed to account for outward and/or upward force.
Also Z-system. A particular configuration of rope, anchors, and pulleys typically used to extricate a climber after falling into a crevasse.