Pan-Arab colors

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Arab Liberation Flag (1952 Egyptian Revolution)[1]

The Pan-Arab colours are black, white, green, and red. Individually, each of the four Pan-Arab colours were intended to represent a certain historical Arab dynasty, or era.[3] The black represents the Black Standard used by the Rashidun and Abbasid caliphates, white was the Umayyad dynastic colour, green was the Fatimid dynastic colour[4] as well as a colour strongly associated with Islam generally – and therefore also a color representative of the Rashidun Caliphate[5][6] – and red was the Hashemite dynastic colour. The four colours also derived their potency from a verse by 14th century Iraqi poet Safi al-Din al-Hilli: "White are our acts, black our battles, green our fields, and red our swords".[7]

Pan-Arab colours, used individually in the past, were first combined in 1916 in the flag of the Arab Revolt or Flag of Hejaz,[8] designed by the British diplomat Sir Mark Sykes.[9] Many current flags are based on Arab Revolt colours, such as the flags of Jordan, Kuwait, Palestine, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, and the United Arab Emirates,[10] and formerly in the flag of the brief (six month) union of the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan.

In the 1950s, a sub-set of the Pan-Arab colours, the Arab Liberation colours, came to prominence. These consist of a tricolour of red, white and black bands, with green given less prominence or not included. The Arab Liberation tricolour was inspired by the use of the Arab Liberation Flag in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952[11] which became the basis for the current flags of Egypt, Iraq, Sudan, Syria and Yemen (and formerly in the flags of the rival states of North Yemen and South Yemen), and in the short-lived Arab unions of the United Arab Republic and the Federation of Arab Republics.[10]

Current flags with Pan-Arab colors[edit]

UN member and observer states[edit]

Unrecognized and partially recognized states[edit]

Former national flags with the Pan-Arab colors[edit]

Flags of Arab political and paramilitary movements using Pan-Arab colors[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Pan-Arab Colors,
  2. ^ Mahdi Abdul-Hadi. "The Great Arab Revolt". (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 2014-05-05.
  3. ^ Abū Khaldūn Sati' al-Husri, The days of Maysalūn: A Page from the Modern History of the Arabs, Sidney Glauser Trans. (Washington D.C.: Middle East Institute, 1966), 46.
  4. ^ Edmund Midura, "Flags of the Arab World", in Saudi Aramco World, March/April 1978, pages 4–9
  5. ^ Teitelbaum, Joshua (2001). The rise and fall of the Hashimite kingdom of Arabia. New York: New York University Press. p. 205. ISBN 1-85065-460-3. OCLC 45247314.
  6. ^ Marshall, Tim (2017). A flag worth dying for : the power and politics of national symbols. New York, NY: Scribner, an imprint of Simon & Schuster, Inc. pp. 110–111. ISBN 1-5011-6833-9. OCLC 962006347.
  7. ^ Muhsin Al-Musawi, Reading Iraq: Culture and Power in Conflict (I. B. Tauris 2006), p. 63
  8. ^ I. Friedman, British Pan-Arab Policy, 1915–1922, Transaction Publ., 2011, p. 135
  9. ^ William Easterly, The White Man's Burden (2006), p. 295
  10. ^ a b Znamierowski, Alfred (2003). Illustrated Book of Flags. Southwater. p. 123. ISBN 1-84215-881-3. Retrieved 22 November 2014. The designs of these flags were later modified, but the four pan-Arab colors were retained and were adopted by Transjordan (1921), Palestine (1922), Kuwait (1961), the United Arab Emirates (1971), Western Sahara (1976) and Somaliland (1996).
  11. ^ M. Naguib, Egypt's Destiny, 1955
  12. ^ "Palestinian Law No. 5 for the year 2006 amending some provisions of Law No. 22 for the year 2005 on the Sanctity of the Palestinian Flag". Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  13. ^ Also used as the flag of Fujairah since 1975
  14. ^ a b Kingdom of Hejaz 1915–1925,
  15. ^ a b c d Historical Flags Overview (Syria),
  16. ^ a b Historical Flags (Palestine) ,
  17. ^ a b Historical Flags (Jordan),
  18. ^ Kingdom of Iraq (1924–1958),
  19. ^ Arab Federation of Jordan and Iraq,
  20. ^ a b c Evolution of the Iraqi Flag, 1963–2008,
  21. ^ Mahdi Abdul-Hadi, Al-Muntadha al-Adhabi Archived 2014-05-05 at the Wayback Machine,
  22. ^ Mahdi Abdul-Hadi, Jam'yiat al-'Arabiya al-Fatat Archived 2014-05-05 at the Wayback Machine,
  23. ^ a b Al-Ahwaz (Khuzestan) Political Organizations (Iran) on
  24. ^ S. T. Al-Seyed Naama, Brief History of Ahwaz Archived 2014-07-15 at the Wayback Machine, on
  25. ^ The contrast of white vs. black as the Fatimid/Umayyad vs. Abbasid dynastic colour over time developed in white as the colour of Shia Islam and black as the colour of Sunni Islam: "The proselytes of the ʿAbbasid revolution took full advantage of the eschatological expectations raised by black banners in their campaign to undermine the Umayyad dynasty from within. Even after the ʿAbbasids had triumphed over the Umayyads in 750, they continued to deploy black as their dynastic colour; not only the banners but the headdresses and garments of the ʿAbbasid caliphs were black [...] The ubiquitous black created a striking contrast with the banners and dynastic color of the Umayyads, which had been white [...] The Ismaili Shiʿite counter-caliphate founded by the Fatimids took white as its dynastic color, creating a visual contrast to the ʿAbbasid enemy [...] white became the Shiʿite color, in deliberate opposition to the black of the ʿAbbasid 'establishment'." Jane Hathaway, A Tale of Two Factions: Myth, Memory, and Identity in Ottoman Egypt and Yemen, 2012, p. 97f.
  26. ^ The Abbasid Revolution against the Umayyad Caliphate adopted black for its rāyaʾ for which their partisans were called the musawwids. Tabari (1995), Jane McAuliffe (ed.), Abbāsid Authority Affirmed, 28, SUNY, p. 124
  27. ^ "Green is frequently found in Arab flags because this colour was taken by the Fatimite dynasty, which ruled most of north Africa." American Educator, New York, 1973, 7th vol., p. 131.

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