Politics of South Korea
This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2014)
Politics of the Republic of Korea
대한민국의 정치 (Korean)
|Polity type||Unitary presidential|
|Constitution||Constitution of the Republic of Korea|
|Meeting place||National Assembly Building|
|Presiding officer||Park Byeong-seug, Speaker of the National Assembly|
|Head of State and Government|
|Appointer||Direct popular vote|
|Deputy leader||Prime Minister|
|Name||Judiciary of South Korea|
|Chief judge||Kim Myeong-soo|
|Chief judge||Yoo Nam-Seok|
|South Korea portal|
The politics of the Republic of Korea take place in the framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of state, and of a multi-party system. The government exercises Executive power and Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature and comprises a Supreme Court, appellate courts and a Constitutional Court. Since 1948, the constitution has undergone five major revisions, each signifying a new republic. The current Sixth Republic began with the last major constitutional revision in 1987.
|President||Yoon Suk-yeol||People Power Party||10 May 2022|
|Prime Minister||Kim Boo-kyum||Democratic Party of Korea||14 May 2021|
The head of state is the president, who is elected by direct popular vote for a single five-year term. The president is Commander-in-Chief of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces and enjoys considerable executive powers.
The president appoints the prime minister with approval of the National Assembly, as well as appointing and presiding over the State Council of chief ministers as the head of government. On 12 March 2004, the executive power of then president Roh Moo-hyun was suspended when the Assembly voted to impeach him and Prime Minister Goh Kun became an Acting President. On 14 May 2004, the Constitutional Court overturned the impeachment decision made by the Assembly and Roh was reinstated.
The National Assembly (국회, 國會, gukhoe) has 300 members, elected for a four-year term, 253 members in single-seat constituencies and 47 members by proportional representation. The ruling Democratic Party of Korea is the largest party in the Assembly.
The South Korean judiciary is independent of the other two branches of government, and is composed of two different highest courts. Inferior ordinary courts are under the Supreme Court, whose justices are appointed by the president of South Korea with the consent of the National Assembly. In addition, the Constitutional Court oversees questions of constitutionality, as single and the only court whose justices are appointed by the president of South Korea by equal portion of nomination from the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Court Chief justice. South Korea has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction.
Political parties and elections
South Korea elects on national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature. The president is elected for a five-year term by the people. The National Assembly (Gukhoe) has 300 members, elected for a four-year term, 253 members in single-seat constituencies and 47 members by proportional representation.
The main two political parties in South Korea are the liberal Democratic Party of Korea (lit. "Together Democratic Party", DPK) and the conservative People Power Party (PPP), formerly the United Future Party (UFP). The liberal camp and the conservative camp are the dominant forces of South Korean politics at present.
|Group||Floor leader||Seats||% of seats|
|People Power||Kweon Seong-dong||108||37.11%|
South Korea's political history has always been prone to splits from and merges with other parties. One reason is that there is a greater emphasis around the 'politics of the individual' rather than the party; therefore, party loyalty is not strong when disagreements occur. The graph below illustrates the extent of the political volatility within the last 10 years alone. These splits were intensified after the 2016 South Korean political scandal.
|Yoon Suk-yeol||People Power Party||16,394,815||48.56|
|Lee Jae-myung||Democratic Party of Korea||16,147,738||47.83|
|Sim Sang-jung||Justice Party||803,358||2.38|
|Huh Kyung-young||National Revolutionary Party||281,481||0.83|
|Kim Jae-yeon||Progressive Party||37,366||0.11|
|Cho Won-jin||Our Republican Party||25,972||0.08|
|Oh Jun-ho||Basic Income Party||18,105||0.05|
|Kim Min-chan||Korean Wave Alliance||17,305||0.05|
|Lee Gyeong-hee||Korean Unification||11,708||0.03|
|Lee Baek-yun||Labor Party||9,176||0.03|
|Kim Gyeong-jae||New Liberal Democratic Union||8,317||0.02|
|Ok Un-ho||Saenuri Party||4,970||0.01|
|Source: Election results|
Political pressure groups and leaders
- Federation of Korean Industries
- Federation of Korean Trade Unions
- Korean Confederation of Trade Unions
- Korean National Council of Churches
- Korean Traders Association
- Korean Veterans' Association
- National Council of Labor Unions
- National Democratic Alliance of Korea
- National Federation of Farmers' Associations
- National Federation of Student Associations
One Special City (Teukbyeolsi, Capital City), six Metropolitan Cities (Gwangyeoksi, singular and plural), nine Provinces (Do, singular and plural) and one Special Autonomous City (Sejong City).
- Seoul Teukbyeolsi (서울특별시)
- Busan Gwangyeoksi (부산광역시)
- Daegu Gwangyeoksi (대구광역시)
- Incheon Gwangyeoksi (인천광역시)
- Daejeon Gwangyeoksi (대전광역시)
- Gwangju Gwangyeoksi (광주광역시)
- Ulsan Gwangyeoksi (울산광역시)
- Gyeonggi-do (경기도)
- Gangwon-do (강원도)
- Chungcheongbuk-do (충청북도)
- Chungcheongnam-do (충청남도)
- Jeollabuk-do (전라북도)
- Jeollanam-do (전라남도)
- Gyeongsangbuk-do (경상북도)
- Gyeongsangnam-do (경상남도)
- Jeju Teukbyeoljachi-do (제주특별자치도)
- Sejong Teukbyeol-jachisi (세종특별자치시)
South Korea is a member of the AfDB, APEC, AsDB, BIS, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA (observer), IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, Zangger Committee
- Conservatism in South Korea
- Liberalism in South Korea
- Progressivism in South Korea
- Political scandals in South Korea
- "Democracy Index 2021: the China challenge". Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 2022-02-16.
- "Japan, South Korea And Taiwan Upgraded To "Full Democracies" In The EIU's 2020 Democracy Index". Scoop News Group. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
"S. Korea Reclassified as "Full Democracy" on EIU's Global Democracy Index 2020". KBS World. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- "Korea, South". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to Politics of South Korea.|