United States Senate elections, 2002

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United States Senate elections, 2002

← 2000 November 5, 2002 2004 →

33 of the 100 seats in the U.S. Senate and 1 mid-term vacancy
51 seats needed for a majority

  Majority party Minority party
  Trent Lott official portrait.jpg Tom Daschle, official Senate photo.jpg
Leader Trent Lott Tom Daschle
Party Republican Democratic
Leader since June 12, 1996 January 3, 1995
Leader's seat Mississippi South Dakota
Seats before 49 49
Seats after 50 49
Seat change Increase 1 Steady
Popular vote 20,626,192 18,956,449
Percentage 49.5% 45.5%
Swing Increase 2.5% Decrease 1.5%
Seats up 19 13
Races won 21 11

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Independence Independent
Seats before 1 1
Seats after 0 1
Seat change Decrease 1 Steady
Popular vote 45,139 343,624
Percentage 0.01% 0.8%
Seats up 1 0
Races won 0 0

2002 Senate election map.svg
Results of November elections
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold

Majority Leader before election

Tom Daschle
Democratic

Elected Majority Leader

Bill Frist
Republican

The United States Senate elections, 2002 featured a series of fiercely contested elections that resulted in a victory for the Republican Party, which gained two seats and thus a narrow majority from the Democratic Party in the United States Senate. The Senate seats up for election, known as "class 2" Senate seats, were last up for regular election in 1996. The election was held on November 5, 2002, almost fourteen months after the September 11, 2001 attacks.

The Democrats had originally hoped to do well, as the party holding the presidency historically loses seats in midterm elections, and the Republicans had 20 seats up for election compared to 14 Democratic seats. In addition, four incumbent Republicans and no Democrats announced their retirement before the election. However, the Republicans were able to hold the four open seats, all of which were in the South. Ultimately, Republicans would pick up three seats and lose one, resulting in a net gain of two seats. Together with gains made in the House of Representatives, this election was one of the few mid-term elections in the last one hundred years in which the party in control of the White House gained Congressional seats (the others were 1902, 1934, and 1998). This was the first time since 1970 in which a first-term president's party made net gains in the Senate.

Trent Lott led the Senate Republicans through this election cycle and was due to become the new Senate Majority Leader upon the retaking of control of the Senate by the Republicans. However, Lott's controversial praise for Strom Thurmond's Dixiecrat presidential campaign at Thurmond's 100th birthday celebration led to Lott stepping down from Senate leadership and resulted in Bill Frist being selected as the new Senate Majority Leader.

This was the most recent Senate election cycle in which at least one incumbent senator from each party lost in the general election. This was also the second consecutive mid-term election held in a president's first term in which the Republican party both had a net gain of seats and regained control of the United States Senate from the Democratic Party. This was the only election cycle ever where the party of the incumbent President gained new control of a house of Congress in a midterm election.

Gains and losses[edit]

Defeated incumbents included Tim Hutchinson (R-AR), Max Cleland (D-GA), and Jean Carnahan (D-MO). The Republicans also gained the seat of deceased senator Paul Wellstone (D-MN).

Results summary[edit]

Summary of the 2002 United States Senate election results
Parties Breakdown Total Seats Popular Vote Total
candidates
(General)1
Up Elected Not Up 2002 +/- Vote %
Republican 20 22 29 51 Increase 2 20,626,192 49.476% 37
Democratic 14 12 36 48 Decrease 2 18,956,449 45.470% 32
Independent 1 1 Steady 343,625 0.824% 9
Libertarian 724,969 1.739% 20
Reform 175,107 0.420% 3
Green 94,702 0.227% 8
Constitution 53,706 0.129% 3
Independence 51,863 0.124% 2
Other parties 54,108 0.130% 10
Write-in 281,480 0.675%
Total 34 34 66 100 - 41,689,666 100.0% 125

Source: Election Statistics – Office of the Clerk

1 Includes candidates from Louisiana's General Election, not run-off. Totals do not include participating voters who declined to cast a vote for U.S. Senate.

48 1 51
Democratic Independent Republican

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

Before November 5, 2002.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
Ran
D39
Ran
D38
Ran
D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41
Ran
D42
Ran
D43
Ran
D44
Ran
D45
Ran
D46
Ran
D47
Ran
D48
Ran
D49
Retired
I1
↑ Plurality
R41
Ran
R42
Ran
R43
Ran
R44
Ran
R45
Ran
R46
Retired
R47
Retired
R48
Retired
R49
Retired
IM1
Retired
R40
Ran
R39
Ran
R38
Ran
R37
Ran
R36
Ran
R35
Ran
R34
Ran
R33
Ran
R32
Ran
R31
Ran
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
Ran
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the general elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
Re-elected
D39
Re-elected
D38
Re-elected
D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41
Re-elected
D42
Re-elected
D43
Re-elected
D44
Re-elected
D45
Re-elected
D46
Re-elected
D47
Re-elected
D48
Hold
D49
Gain
I1
Majority with Republican Vice President→ R50
Gain
R41
Re-elected
R42
Re-elected
R43
Re-elected
R44
Hold
R45
Hold
R46
Hold
R47
Hold
R48
Hold
R49
Gain
R40
Re-elected
R39
Re-elected
R38
Re-elected
R37
Re-elected
R36
Re-elected
R35
Re-elected
R34
Re-elected
R33
Re-elected
R32
Re-elected
R31
Re-elected
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
Re-elected
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the November 5, 2002 special election[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40 D39 D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31
D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48 I1 R51
Gain
Majority →
R41 R42 R43 R44 R45 R46 R47 R48 R49 R50
R40 R39 R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10
Key:
D# Democratic
I# Independent
IM# Independence (Minnesota)
R# Republican

Gains and losses[edit]

Democratic gains[edit]

Republican gains[edit]

  • Georgia: Sen. Max Cleland (D), a Vietnam War veteran and triple amputee, was defeated by Representative Saxby Chambliss in a tough campaign marked by attacks on Cleland's stance on a Department of Homeland Security. Even though Cleland was a combat veteran, Chambliss won the support of the VFW.
  • Missouri: Sen. Jean Carnahan (D) had been appointed to the Senate after her husband, Mel Carnahan, had narrowly won the 2000 election posthumously. How much Mel Carnahan's victory had been due to sympathy following his death and/or high disapproval of his opponent, John Ashcroft, was unclear, but his wife was unable to hold the seat, losing narrowly to former Congressman Jim Talent.
  • Minnesota: Sen. Paul Wellstone (D), in the middle of a tough fight against former St. Paul Mayor Norm Coleman, died in a plane crash less than two weeks before the election. Most observers expected that this would lead to a sympathy boost for his replacement, liberal stalwart and former Vice President Walter Mondale, but the Democrats received negative press after Wellstone's funeral was marked by political speeches, and Coleman won a close race.

Democratic holds[edit]

  • South Dakota: The Democratic Party also invested heavily in South Dakota to keep Sen. Tim Johnson (D) in office by 500 votes over Republican challenger John Thune, who accused Johnson and Senate Democratic leader Tom Daschle (D) of pushing liberal policies that were different from the promises they made to South Dakota voters. Thune's strategy would work successfully when he later defeated Daschle in 2004.
  • New Jersey: Democratic incumbent Robert Torricelli (D) was dogged by scandal, and eventually quit the race so that the party could replace him with a better candidate, retired Sen. Frank R. Lautenberg (D), who went on to win. Republicans challenged this late replacement of a weak candidate, but were not successful in the courts.
  • Louisiana: Republicans ran several candidates at once against incumbent Mary Landrieu (D), hoping to push her vote below 50% and force a runoff in December (according to Louisiana law). They did force a runoff, but Republican Suzanne Haik Terrell narrowly lost the runoff.

Republican holds[edit]

  • New Hampshire: Incumbent Senator Bob Smith (R) had previously quit and rejoined the Republican party in a dispute over his candidacy in the 2000 presidential election, and Republican leaders pushed the candidacy of Congressman John E. Sununu. He defeated Smith in the primary and went on to defeat Democrat Jeanne Shaheen, the retiring governor, in the general election. In this Senate race, local Republican officials violated election laws by trying to jam the phones of the Democrats' "Get Out The Vote" efforts; the officials went to prison in a case that reverberated into 2006 and may have been a factor when Sununu lost to Shaheen in their 2008 rematch.

Race summary[edit]

Special elections during the 107th Congress[edit]

State
(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Missouri
(Class 1)
Jean Carnahan Democratic 2001 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected November 5, 2002.
Republican gain.
Jim Talent (Republican) 49.8%
Jean Carnahan (Democratic) 48.7%
Tamara A. Millay (Libertarian) 1%
Daniel Romano (Green) 0.6%

Elections leading to the next Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 2003; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State
(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama Jeff Sessions Republican 1996 Incumbent re-elected. Jeff Sessions (Republican) 58.6%
Susan Parker (Democratic) 39.8%
Jeff Allen (Libertarian) 1.5%
Alaska Ted Stevens Republican 1968 (Appointed)
1970
1972
1978
1984
1990
1996
Incumbent re-elected. Ted Stevens (Republican) 78%
Frank J. Vondersaar (Democratic) 11%
Jim Sykes (Green) 8%
Jim Dore (AI) 3%
Leonard Karpinski (Libertarian) 1%
Arkansas Tim Hutchinson Republican 1996 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Mark Pryor (Democratic) 53.9%
Tim Hutchinson (Republican) 46.1%
Colorado Wayne Allard Republican 1996 Incumbent re-elected. Wayne Allard (Republican) 50.7%
Tom Strickland (Democratic) 45.8%
Douglas Campbell (Constitution) 1.5%
Rick Stanley (Libertarian) 1.5%
John Heckman (Concerns of People) 0.5%
Delaware Joe Biden Democratic 1972
1978
1984
1990
1996
Incumbent re-elected. Joe Biden (Democratic) 58.2%
Raymond J. Clatworthy (Republican) 40.8%
Maurice Barros (IPD) 0.4%
Raymond T. Buranello (Libertarian) 0.4%
Robert E. Mattson (Natural Law) 0.2%
Georgia Max Cleland Democratic 1996 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Saxby Chambliss (Republican) 52.7%
Max Cleland (Democratic) 45.9%
Claude Thomas (Libertarian) 1.4%
Idaho Larry Craig Republican 1990
1996
Incumbent re-elected. Larry Craig (Republican) 65%
Alan Blinken (Democratic) 33%
Donovan Bramwell (Libertarian) 2%
Illinois Dick Durbin Democratic 1996 Incumbent re-elected. Dick Durbin (Democratic) 60.3%
Jim Durkin (Republican) 38%
Steven Burgauer (Libertarian) 1.6%
Iowa Tom Harkin Democratic 1984
1990
1996
Incumbent re-elected. Tom Harkin (Democratic) 54.2%
Greg Ganske (Republican) 43.8%
Tim Harthan (Green) 1.1%
Richard J. Moore (Libertarian) 0.9%
Kansas Pat Roberts Republican 1996 Incumbent re-elected. Pat Roberts (Republican) 82.5%
Steven A. Rosile (Libertarian) 9.1%
George Cook (Reform) 8.4%
Kentucky Mitch McConnell Republican 1984
1990
1996
Incumbent re-elected. Mitch McConnell (Republican) 64.7%
Lois Combs Weinberg (Democratic) 35.3%
Louisiana Mary Landrieu Democratic 1996 Incumbent re-elected. Mary Landrieu (Democratic) 51.7%
Suzanne Haik Terrell (Republican) 48.3%
Maine Susan Collins Republican 1996 Incumbent re-elected. Susan Collins (Republican) 58.4%
Chellie Pingree (Democratic) 41.6%
Massachusetts John Kerry Democratic 1984
1990
1996
Incumbent re-elected. John Kerry (Democratic) 72.3%
Michael E. Cloud (Libertarian) 16.6%
Blank/Scattering 9.6%
Randall Forsberg, Write-in 1.1%
Other 0.3%
Michigan Carl Levin Democratic 1978
1984
1990
1996
Incumbent re-elected. Carl Levin (Democratic) 60.6%
Andrew Raczkowski (Republican) 37.9%
Eric Borregard (Green) 0.8%
John S. Mangopoulos (Reform) 0.4%
Doug Dern (Natural Law) 0.3%
Minnesota Dean Barkley Independence 2002 (Appointed) DFL senator was renominated but died October 25, 2002.
Dean Barkley was appointed November 4, 2002 to finish the term.
Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Norm Coleman (Republican) 49.5%
Walter Mondale (DFL) 47.3%
Jim Moore (Independence) 2%
Paul Wellstone (DFL) 0.5%
Ray Tricomo (Green) 0.4%
Miro Drago Kovatchevich (Constitution) 0.1%
Mississippi Thad Cochran Republican 1978
1984
1990
1996
Incumbent re-elected. Thad Cochran (Republican) 85.6%
Shawn O'Hara (Reform) 15.4%
Montana Max Baucus Democratic 1978
1984
1990
1996
Incumbent re-elected. Max Baucus (Democratic) 62.7%
Mike Taylor (Republican) 31.7%
Stan Jones (Libertarian) 3.2%
Bob Kelleher (Green) 2.3%
Nebraska Chuck Hagel Republican 1996 Incumbent re-elected. Chuck Hagel (Republican) 82.8%
Charlie A. Matulka (Democratic) 14.6%
John J. Graziano (Libertarian) 1.5%
Phil Chase (Independent) 1.1%
New Hampshire Bob Smith Republican 1990
1990 (Appointed)
1996
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
John E. Sununu (Republican) 50.8%
Jeanne Shaheen (Democratic) 46.4%
Ken Blevens (Libertarian) 2.2%
New Jersey Robert Torricelli Democratic 1996 Incumbent renominated but withdrew.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Frank Lautenberg (Democratic) 53.9%
Doug Forrester (Republican) 44%
Ted Glick (Green) 1.2%
Elizabeth Macron (Libertarian) 0.6%
Norman E. Wahner (NJ Conservative) 0.3%
Gregory Pason (Socialist) 0.1%
New Mexico Pete Domenici Republican 1972
1978
1984
1990
1996
Incumbent re-elected. Pete Domenici (Republican) 65%
Gloria Tristani (Democratic) 35%
North Carolina Jesse Helms Republican 1972
1978
1984
1990
1996
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Elizabeth Dole (Republican) 53.6%
Erskine Bowles (Democratic) 45%
Sean Haugh (Libertarian) 1.5%
Oklahoma Jim Inhofe Republican 1994 (Special)
1996
Incumbent re-elected. Jim Inhofe (Republican) 57.3%
David Walters (Democratic) 36.3%
James Germalic (Independent) 6.4%
Oregon Gordon Smith Republican 1996 Incumbent re-elected. Gordon Smith (Republican) 56.2%
Bill Bradbury (Democratic) 39.6%
Dan Fitzgerald (Libertarian) 2.4%
Lon Mabon (Constitution) 1.7%
Rhode Island Jack Reed Democratic 1996 Incumbent re-elected. Jack Reed (Democratic) 78.4%
Robert Tingle (Republican) 21.6%
South Carolina Strom Thurmond Republican 1954
1954 (Appointed)
1956 (Resigned)
1956 (Special)
1960
1966
1972
1978
1984
1990
1996
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Lindsey Graham (Republican) 54.4%
Alex Sanders (Democratic) 44.2%
Ted Adams (Constitution) 0.8%
Victor Kocher (Libertarian) 0.6%
South Dakota Tim Johnson Democratic 1996 Incumbent re-elected. Tim Johnson (Democratic) 49.6%
John Thune (Republican) 49.5%
Kurt Evans (Libertarian) 0.9%
Tennessee Fred Thompson Republican 1994 (Special)
1996
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Lamar Alexander (Republican) 54%
Bob Clement (Democratic) 44%
Texas Phil Gramm Republican 1984
1990
1996
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
John Cornyn (Republican) 55.3%
Ron Kirk (Democratic) 43.3%
Scott Jameson (Libertarian) 0.8%
Roy H. Williams (Green) 0.6%
Virginia John Warner Republican 1978
1984
1990
1996
Incumbent re-elected. John Warner (Republican) 82.6%
Nancy Spannaus (Independent) 9.7%
Jacob G. Hornberger (Independent) 7.1%
West Virginia Jay Rockefeller Democratic 1984
1990
1996
Incumbent re-elected. Jay Rockefeller (Democratic) 63.1%
Jay Wolfe (Republican) 36.9%
Wyoming Mike Enzi Republican 1996 Incumbent re-elected. Mike Enzi (Republican) 73%
Joyce Jansa Corcoran (Democratic) 27%

Alabama[edit]

United States Senate election in Alabama, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Jeff Sessions official portrait.jpg 3x4.svg
Nominee Jeff Sessions Susan Parker
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 792,561 538,878
Percentage 58.6% 39.8%

02ALSenateCounties.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Jeff Sessions
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Jeff Sessions
Republican

Incumbent Republican Jeff Sessions won re-election to a second term.[1]

In the 1968 presidential election, Alabama supported native son and American Independent Party candidate George Wallace over both Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey. Wallace was the official Democratic candidate in Alabama, while Humphrey was listed as the "National Democratic".[2] In 1976, Democratic candidate Jimmy Carter from Georgia carried the state, the region, and the nation, but Democratic control of the region slipped after that.

Since 1980, conservative Alabama voters have increasingly voted for Republican candidates at the federal level, especially in Presidential elections. By contrast, Democratic candidates have been elected to many state-level offices and comprised a longstanding majority in the Alabama Legislature.

Sessions was not challenged in the primary.[3]

Democratic primary results[4][5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Susan Parker 190,978 47.99%
Democratic Julian L. McPhillips 170,222 42.78%
Democratic Wayne Sowell 36,719 9.23%
Total votes 397,919 100.00%

McPhillips won many counties in the southern part of the state, but Parker won the most counties. Sowell endorsed Parker for the run off.

Democratic primary runoff: June 25, 2002[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Susan Parker 176,708 65.15%
Democratic Julian L. McPhillips 94,540 34.85%
Total votes 271,248 100.00%
2002 United States Senate election, Alabama[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Jeff Sessions (Incumbent) 792,561 58.58% +6.13%
Democratic Susan Parker 538,878 39.83% -5.63%
Libertarian Jeff Allen 20,234 1.50% +.06%
No party Write-In Votes 1,350 0.10% +.06%
Majority 253,683 18.75%
Turnout 1,353,023
Republican hold Swing

Arkansas[edit]

United States Senate election in Arkansas, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Mark Pryor, official photo, color headshot smiling.jpg Timothy Hutchinson, official Senate photo portrait (cropped).jpg
Nominee Mark Pryor Tim Hutchinson
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 433,306 370,653
Percentage 53.90% 46.10%

02ARSenateCounties.PNG
County Results

Senator before election

Tim Hutchinson
Republican

Elected Senator

Mark Pryor
Democratic

Incumbent Republican Tim Hutchinson ran for a second term, but lost re-election to Arkansas Attorney General Mark Pryor.

Republican State Representative Jim Bob Duggar challenged incumbent Tim Hutchinson in the primary.
Republican Primary results[8]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Tim Hutchinson 71,576 77.7%
Republican Jim Bob Duggar 20,546 22.3%
Total votes 92,116 100.0%
Arkansas U.S. Senate Election 2002[9]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Mark Pryor 435,347 53.9%
Republican Tim Hutchinson (Incumbent) 372,909 46.1%
Democratic gain from Republican

Colorado[edit]

United States Senate election in Colorado, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Wayne Allard, official photo portrait 2.jpg Thomas L. Strickland official portrait.jpg
Nominee Wayne Allard Tom Strickland
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 717,893 648,130
Percentage 50.7% 45.8%

Colorado 2002 senate.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Wayne Allard
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Wayne Allard
Republican

Incumbent Republican Wayne Allard won re-election to a second term.

Democratic primary results[10]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Tom Strickland 110,309 100.00%
Total votes 110,309 100.00%
Republican primary results[10]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Wayne Allard (Incumbent) 190,250 100.00%
Total votes 190,250 100.00%
General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Wayne Allard (Incumbent) 717,899 50.70% -0.71%
Democratic Tom Strickland 648,130 45.77% +0.03%
Constitution Douglas Campbell 21,547 1.52%
Libertarian Rick Stanley 20,776 1.47%
Independent John Heckman 7,140 0.50%
Write-ins 596 0.04%
Majority 69,763 4.93% -0.74%
Turnout 1,416,082
Republican hold Swing

Delaware[edit]

United States Senate election in Delaware, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Joe Biden, official photo.jpg 3x4.svg
Nominee Joe Biden Raymond Clatworthy
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 135,253 94,793
Percentage 58.2% 40.8%

U.S. Senator before election

Joe Biden
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Joe Biden
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Joe Biden won re-election to a sixth term.

General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Joe Biden (Incumbent) 135,253 58.22% -1.82%
Republican Raymond J. Clatworthy 94,793 40.80% +2.67%
Delaware Independent Maurice Barros 996 0.43%
Libertarian Raymond T. Buranello 922 0.40% -0.82%
Natural Law Robert E. Mattson 350 0.15% -0.47%
Majority 40,460 17.42% -4.49%
Turnout 232,314
Democratic hold Swing

Georgia[edit]

United States Senate election in Georgia, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Saxby Chambliss.jpg Cleland.jpg
Nominee Saxby Chambliss Max Cleland
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,071,153 931,857
Percentage 52.8% 45.9%

02GASenateCounties.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Max Cleland
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Saxby Chambliss
Republican

Incumbent Democrat Max Cleland ran for re-election to a second term, but lost to Republican Saxby Chambliss.

Chambliss's campaign used the refrain of national defense and security, but drew criticism for television ads that paired images of Cleland and Osama bin Laden and Saddam Hussein, and for questioning the commitment to homeland security of his opponent, a triple amputee and decorated Vietnam veteran.[11][12] Republican Senator John McCain of Arizona said of one ad, "It's worse than disgraceful, it's reprehensible."[13] McCain, along with Republican Senator Chuck Hagel of Nebraska, made significant complaints to the Republican National Committee until the ads were taken down.[14]

Results[edit]

General election results
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Saxby Chambliss 1,071,153 52.8%
Democratic Max Cleland 931,857 45.9%
Libertarian Claude Thomas 26,981 1.3%

Idaho[edit]

United States Senate election in Idaho, 2002

← 1996 November 4, 2002 2008 →

  Larry Craig official portrait.jpg 3x4.svg
Nominee Larry Craig Alan Blinken
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 266,215 132,975
Percentage 65.2% 32.6%

Idaho 2000 & 2004.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Larry Craig
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Larry Craig
Republican

Incumbent Republican Larry Craig won re-election to a third term.

Democratic primary results[15]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Alan Blinken 26,346 70.90%
Democratic Dave Sneddon 10,812 29.10%
Total votes 37,158 100.00%
Libertarian primary results[15]
Party Candidate Votes %
Libertarian Donovan Bramwell 1,179 100.00%
Total votes 1,179 100.00%
Republican primary results[15]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Larry Craig (Incumbent) 130,126 100.00%
Total votes 130,126 100.00%
General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Larry Craig (Incumbent) 266,215 65.16% +8.14%
Democratic Alan Blinken 132,975 32.55% -7.36%
Libertarian Donovan Bramwell 9,354 2.29%
Majority 133,240 32.61% +15.50%
Turnout 408,544
Republican hold Swing

Illinois[edit]

United States Senate election in Illinois, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Duroffpic.jpg 3x4.svg
Nominee Dick Durbin Jim Durkin
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 2,103,766 1,325,703
Percentage 60.33% 38.02%

2002 Illinois US Senate election results.png
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

Dick Durbin
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Dick Durbin
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Dick Durbin won re-election to a second term. Durbin faced off against State Representative Jim Durkin, whom he was able to easily beat, ensuring his return to the Senate.

Democratic primary results[16]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Dick Durbin (Incumbent) 918,467 100.00%
Total votes 918,467 100.00%
Republican primary results[16]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Jim Durkin 378,010 45.81%
Republican Jim Oberweis 259,515 31.45%
Republican John H. Cox 187,706 22.74%
Total votes 825,231 100.00%

Durbin won re-election to a second term easily, carrying a majority of the states 102 counties.

United States Senate election in Illinois, 2002[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Dick Durbin (Incumbent) 2,103,766 60.33% +4.25%
Republican Jim Durkin 1,325,703 38.02% -2.65%
Libertarian Steven Burgauer 57,382 1.65% +0.68%
Majority 778,063 22.31% +6.90%
Turnout 3,486,851
Democratic hold Swing

Iowa[edit]

United States Senate election in Iowa, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Tom Harkin official portrait.jpg Gregganske.jpg
Nominee Tom Harkin Greg Ganske
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 554,278 447,892
Percentage 54.18% 43.78%

02IASenateCounties.PNG
County Results

Senator before election

Tom Harkin
Democratic

Elected Senator

Tom Harkin
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Tom Harkin won re-election to a fourth term. Harkin was opposed in the general election by United States Congressman Greg Ganske, who fought off a surprisingly difficult challenger in the Republican primary. Though Harkin had narrowly defeated his opponent six years earlier, he was able to defeat Ganske by a fairly comfortable margin to win re-election.

Democratic primary results[17]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Tom Harkin (Incumbent) 83,505 99.34%
Democratic Write-ins 555 0.66%
Total votes 84,060 100.00%
Republican primary results[17]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Greg Ganske 116,229 58.97%
Republican Bill Salier 80,700 40.95%
Republican Write-ins 167 0.08%
Total votes 197,096 100.00%
United States Senate election in Iowa, 2002[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Tom Harkin (Incumbent) 554,278 54.18% +2.37%
Republican Greg Ganske 447,892 43.78% -2.94%
Green Timothy A. Harthan 11,340 1.11%
Libertarian Richard J. Moore 8,864 0.87%
Write-ins 701 0.06%
Majority 106,386 10.40% +5.30%
Turnout 1,023,075
Democratic hold Swing

Kansas[edit]

United States Senate election in Kansas, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Pat Roberts.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Pat Roberts Steven Rosile
Party Republican Libertarian
Popular vote 641,075 70,725
Percentage 82.5% 9.1%

 
Nominee George Cook
Party Reform
Popular vote 65,050
Percentage 8.4%

Kansas full Rep sweep.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Pat Roberts
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Pat Roberts
Republican

Incumbent Pat Roberts won re-election to a second term easily because no Democrat filed to run.

Republican primary results[18]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Pat Roberts (Incumbent) 233,642 83.70%
Republican Tom Oyler 45,491 16.30%
Total votes 279,133 100.00%
General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Pat Roberts (Incumbent) 641,075 82.52% +20.50%
Libertarian Steven Rosile 70,725 9.10% +7.86%
Reform George Cook 65,050 8.37% +6.08%
Majority 570,350 73.42% +45.83%
Turnout 776,850
Republican hold Swing

Kentucky[edit]

United States Senate election in Kentucky, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Mitch-McConnell-110th.jpg 3x4.svg
Nominee Mitch McConnell Lois Combs Weinberg
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 731,679 399,634
Percentage 64.7% 35.3%

KY-USA 2002 Senate Results by County 2-color.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Mitch McConnell
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Mitch McConnell
Republican

Incumbent Republican Mitch McConnell won re-election to a fourth term.

Democratic primary results[19]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Lois Combs Weinberg 231,013 50.10%
Democratic Tom Barlow 230,055 49.90%
Total votes 461,068 100.00%
General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Mitch McConnell (Incumbent) 731,679 64.68% +9.22%
Democratic Lois Combs Weinberg 399,634 35.32% -7.52%
Majority 332,045 29.35% +16.74%
Turnout 1,131,313
Republican hold Swing

Louisiana[edit]

United States Senate election in Louisiana, 2002

← 1996 November 5 and December 7, 2002 2008 →

  Mary Landrieu official portrait.jpg 3x4.svg
Nominee Mary Landrieu Suzanne Haik Terrell
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 638,654 596,642
Percentage 51.7% 48.3%

LASen02Counties.png
Parish Results

U.S. Senator before election

Mary Landrieu
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Mary Landrieu
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Mary Landrieu won re-election to a second term.

During the run-off, Landrieu was out-spent three-to-one by Republican contender Suzanne Haik Terrell, the Louisiana Elections Commissioner. Terrell also had prominent Republicans including President George W. Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney visit Louisiana to campaign on her behalf. Republicans, confident of victory having gained seats in the elections to the House of Representatives and to the Senate, solidifying control of the former and taking control of the latter, publicly called the election "Operation Icing on the Cake".[20][21] Some Democrats responded by calling their efforts "Operation Wipe that Smirk off of Bush's Face"[22] and dubbed Landrieu's subsequent run-off victory, "Operation Pie in the Face".[23]

Louisiana United States Senate jungle primary election, November 5, 2002
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Mary Landrieu (Incumbent) 573,347 46.00%
Republican Suzanne Haik Terrell 339,506 27.24%
Republican John Cooksey 171,752 13.78%
Republican Tony Perkins 119,776 9.61%
Democratic Raymond Brown 23,553 1.89%
Independent Patrick E. "Live Wire" Landry 10,442 0.84%
Independent James Lemann 3,866 0.31%
Libertarian Gary D. Robbins 2,423 0.19%
Republican Ernest Edward Skillman, Jr. 1,668 0.13%
Turnout 1,246,333 100.00%

Landrieu pulled off what many[by whom?] considered to be an upset victory. The Republicans believed they would most likely win the race. Before the election many Republicans called the race operation icing on the cake. After Landrieu won the runoff Democrats dubbed her victory operation pie in the face. The race was close. In terms of rural parishes the vote was split fairly evenly. Landrieu did well in Caddo Parish home of Shreveport, and in East Baton Rouge Parish home of East Baton Rouge. Ultimately though it was Landrieu's huge win in Orleans Parish home of New Orleans that pushed her over the finish line. Haik Terrell conceded defeat to Landrieu at 12:38 P.M. EST, congratulating Landrieu on her victory. Landrieu would go on to be reelected to a third term in 2008.

Louisiana United States Senate election runoff, December 7, 2002
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Mary Landrieu (Incumbent) 638,654 51.70% +1.53%
Republican Suzanne Haik Terrell 596,642 48.30% -1.53%
Majority 42,012 3.40% +3.06%
Turnout 1,235,296 100.00%
Democratic hold Swing

Maine[edit]

United States Senate election in Maine, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Sen Susan Collins official.jpg Chellie Pingree.jpg
Nominee Susan Collins Chellie Pingree
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 295,041 209,858
Percentage 58.4% 41.6%

06MaineSenateCounties.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Susan Collins
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Susan Collins
Republican

Incumbent Republican Susan Collins won re-election to a second term.

Chellie Pingree, State Senator and Senate Majority Leader attacked Collins for supporting the Bush tax cuts.[24] Both candidates opposed the Iraq War in the fall of 2002.[25] However, Collins then supported the congressional resolution to attack Iraq, while Pingree opposed it.[26]

Collins, a popular moderate, was supported by health care groups, environmentalists and gay rights advocates. She handily defeated State Senator Chellie Pingree of North Haven in one of the few U.S. Senate elections in which both major parties nominated women in U.S. history.[27]

General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Susan Collins (Incumbent) 295,041 58.44% +9.25%
Democratic Chellie Pingree 209,858 41.56% -2.31%
Majority 85,183 16.87% +11.57%
Turnout 504,899
Republican hold Swing

Massachusetts[edit]

United States Senate election in Massachusetts, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  John Kerry headshot with US flag.jpg 3x4.svg
Nominee John Kerry Michael Cloud
Party Democratic Libertarian
Popular vote 1,605,976 369,807
Percentage 80.0% 18.4%

Massachusetts Election Results by County, all Democratic.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

John Kerry
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

John Kerry
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat John Kerry won re-election to a fourth term against Libertarian Michael Cloud. The lack of a Republican party candidate caused Cloud to receive the largest percentage of votes for a U.S. Senate candidate in the Libertarian Party's history, though this record has since been eclipsed by Joe Miller in Alaska in 2016.

General election results
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic John Kerry (Incumbent) 1,605,976 80.03%
Libertarian Michael Cloud 369,807 18.43%
Independent Randall Forsberg (write-in) 24,898 1.24%
All others 6,077 0.30
Total votes 2,220,301 100%

Michigan[edit]

United States Senate election in Michigan, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Carl Levin official portrait.jpg CJTF-HOA Photo (cropped) 2.jpg
Nominee Carl Levin Andrew Raczkowski
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,896,614 1,185,545
Percentage 60.6% 37.9%

U.S. Senator before election

Carl Levin
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Carl Levin
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Carl Levin won re-election to a fifth term.

Michigan U.S. Senate Election, 2002[28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Carl Levin (Incumbent) 1,896,614 60.61% +2.25%
Republican Andrew Raczkowski 1,185,545 37.89% -1.98%
Green Eric Borregard 23,931 0.76% +0.76%
Reform John Mangopoulos 12,831 0.41% +0.41%
Natural Law Doug Dern 10,366 0.33% +0.03%
Majority 711,069 22.72% +4.23%
Turnout 3,129,287
Democratic hold Swing

Minnesota[edit]

United States Senate election in Minnesota, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Norm Coleman congress cropped.jpg Waltermondaleasdiplomat.jpg
Nominee Norm Coleman Walter Mondale
Party Republican DFL
Popular vote 1,116,697 1,067,246
Percentage 49.5% 47.3%

Minnesota Senate 2002.png
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Dean Barkley
Independence

Elected U.S. Senator

Norm Coleman
Republican

Incumbent Democrat Paul Wellstone was running for re-election to a third term, but died in a plane crash eleven days before the election. The Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) chose former Vice President and 1984 Presidential candidate Walter Mondale to replace Wellstone on the ballot. Mondale lost to Republican Mayor of Saint Paul Norm Coleman. The day before the election, Independence Governor Jesse Ventura had appointed Dean Barkley (IP) to serve the rest of Wellstone's term.[29] As of 2018, this is the last Senate election in Minnesota won by a Republican.

In the primaries, Paul Wellstone defeated Dick Franson 93% to 5% and Norm Coleman defeated Jack Shepard 95% to 5%.

At the time of his death, Wellstone was slightly ahead in the polls. After Walter Mondale was chosen as the DFL candidate, in a poll taken a few days before the election Mondale was leading 51% to 45%. Early on Election Day, Mondale was leading in votes. By nightfall, however, Norm Coleman pulled ahead, winning by 49.5 percent to 47.3 percent.

Paul Wellstone still appeared on the ballot despite his death, despite a court order replacing Wellstone's name with Mondale's.

General election results
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Norm Coleman 1,116,697 49.53% +8.25%
DFL Walter Mondale 1,067,246 47.34% -2.98%
Independence Jim Moore 45,139 2.00% -4.98%
DFL Paul Wellstone (Incumbent) (Deceased) 11,381 0.50% n/a
Green Ray Tricomo 10,119 0.48% n/a
Constitution Miro Drago Kovatchevich 2,254 0.10% n/a
Write-ins 1,803 0.80% n/a
Majority 49,451 2.19% Republican pickup from Independence
Turnout 2,254,639 80.26%
Republican gain from Independence Swing

Mississippi[edit]

United States Senate election in Mississippi, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Thad Cochran official photo.jpg 3x4.svg
Nominee Thad Cochran Shawn O'Hara
Party Republican Reform
Popular vote 533,269 97,226
Percentage 84.6% 15.4%

U.S. Senator before election

Thad Cochran
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Thad Cochran
Republican

Incumbent Republican Thad Cochran overwhelmingly won re-election to a fifth term. The Democratic Party did not field a candidate, resulting in Reform Party candidate Shawn O'Hara winning 15.42%. O'Hara's percentage of the vote was more than double Ross Perot's statewide total of 5.84% in the 1996 presidential election.

General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Thad Cochran 533,269 84.58%
Reform Shawn O'Hara 97,226 15.42%
Majority 436,043 69.16%
Turnout 630,495
Republican hold Swing

Missouri (Special)[edit]

Missouri special election

← 2000 November 5, 2002 2006 →

  Jim Talent official photo.jpg Jean Carnahan.jpg
Nominee Jim Talent Jean Carnahan
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 935,032 913,778
Percentage 49.8% 48.7%

02MOSenateCounties.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Jean Carnahan
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Jim Talent
Republican

The election would decide who would serve the rest of Senator-elect Mel Carnahan's term, after he died. The winner would serve four more years until the next election in 2006. Governor Roger Wilson had appointed Carnahan's widow Jean Carnahan to serve temporarily. She then ran for the remainder of the term. Republican Jim Talent defeated her narrowly. While the race should have flipped control of the Senate from Democrats to Republicans, the Senate was adjourned, so Talent could not take office and no change in leadership occurred until the 108th Congress began in January 2003.

In the 2000 election, Mel Carnahan, who had died in a plane crash three weeks before, remained on the ballot for election to the Senate. Carnahan beat his Republican opponent, John Ashcroft, who did not legally contest being defeated by a dead candidate. Carnahan's successor as governor, Roger B. Wilson, fulfilled his pre-election promise to appoint Carnahan's widow in her husband's place and a special election was scheduled for 2002.[30][31]

The Seventeenth Amendment requires that appointments to the Senate last only until a special election is held.

Democratic primary results[32]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Jean Carnahan (Incumbent) 368,149 83.22
Democratic Darrel D. Day 74,237 16.78
Total votes 442,386 100.00
Republican primary results[32]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Jim Talent 395,994 89.58
Republican Joseph A. May 18,525 4.19
Republican Doris Bass Landfather 14,074 3.18
Republican Scott Craig Babbitt 7,705 1.74
Republican Martin Lindstedt 5,773 1.31
Total votes 442,071 100.00
Libertarian primary results[32]
Party Candidate Votes %
Libertarian Tamara A. Millay 1,942 59.35
Libertarian Edward Joseph Manley 1,330 40.65
Total votes 3,272 100.00

National security and Carnahan's vote against fellow Missourian John Ashcroft as attorney general were major issues in the campaign. Republicans argued Carnahan owed her vote to Ashcroft, who had lost his bid for re-election to the Senate to Carnahan's husband.[33] Talent, citing Carnahan's votes against homeland-security legislation and missile defense, accused her of being soft on national security, which she objected to, saying he was "doubt[ing] her patriotism."[34]

Jack Abramoff contributed $2,000 to Talent's 2002 senatorial campaign[35] and Preston Gates & Ellis, a former Abramoff employer, had also contributed $1,000 to Talent's campaign.[36] Talent later returned both contributions.[37] Talent's win returned Republican control of the Senate which had been under slight Democratic dominance resulting from Vermont junior senator Jim Jeffords's decision to renounce the Republican Party, turning independent and making the choice to caucus with the Democrats.

Talent's victory was certified November 21, 2002, one day before Congress adjourned, which prevented Republicans from claiming a senate majority. He automatically became a Senator the following day because, under federal law, he formally took office the day after both chambers of Congress adjourned. Because Republicans would hold the majority in the following congress, they saw no need to hold a special session in the 107th to take advantage of their brief majority.[38][39]

General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Jim Talent 935,032 49.80% +1.41%
Democratic Jean Carnahan (Incumbent) 913,778 48.67% -1.80%
Libertarian Tamara A. Millay 18,345 0.98% +0.55%
Green Daniel Romano 10,465 0.56% +0.11%
Majority 21,254 1.13% -0.94%
Turnout 1,877,620
Republican gain from Democratic Swing

Montana[edit]

United States Senate election in Montana, 2002

← 1996 November 4, 2002 2008 →

  Max S Baucus.jpg 3x4.svg
Nominee Max Baucus Mike Taylor
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 204,853 103,611
Percentage 62.7% 31.7%

U.S. Senator before election

Max Baucus
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Max Baucus
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Max Baucus won re-election to a fifth term.[40]

Democratic Party primary results[41]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Max Baucus (Incumbent) 66,713 100.00%
Total votes 66,713 100.00%
Republican Party primary results[41]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Mike Taylor 48,169 60.16%
Republican Brad Johnson 14,252 17.80%
Republican John McDonald 10,116 12.63%
Republican Melvin Hanson 7,536 9.41%
Total votes 80,073 100.00%

The Montana election got national attention when Baucus's opponent, state senator Mike Taylor, accused Baucus of having implied that Taylor was gay in a campaign ad. The ad was paid for by the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, though designed by the Baucus campaign. The ad, which alleged that Taylor had embezzled funds from the cosmetology school he once owned, showed footage from the early 1980s of Taylor massaging another man's face while wearing a tight suit with an open shirt. Taylor dropped out of the race and Baucus won with 63 percent of the vote.[42]

General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Max Baucus 204,853 62.74% +13.18%
Republican Mike Taylor 103,611 31.73% -12.96%
Libertarian Stan Jones 10,420 3.19%
Green Bob Kelleher 7,653 2.34%
Majority 101,242 31.00% +26.14%
Turnout 326,537
Democratic hold Swing

Nebraska[edit]

United States Senate election in Nebraska, 2002

← 1996 November 7, 2002 2008 →

  Chuck Hagel official photo.jpg 3x4.svg
Nominee Chuck Hagel Charlie Matulka
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 397,438 70,290
Percentage 82.8% 14.6%

U.S. Senator before election

Chuck Hagel
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Chuck Hagel
Republican

Incumbent Republican Chuck Hagel won re-election to a second term.

Democratic primary results[43]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Charlie A. Matulka 33,922 59.31%
Democratic Al Hamburg 23,272 40.69%
Total votes 57,194 100.00%
Libertarian Party primary results[43]
Party Candidate Votes %
Libertarian John J. Graziano 228 100.00%
Total votes 228 100.00%
Republican Party primary results[43]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Chuck Hagel (Incumbent) 144,160 100.00%
Total votes 144,160 100.00%
General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Chuck Hagel (Incumbent) 397,438 82.76% +25.36%
Democratic Charlie A. Matulka 70,290 14.64% -27.96%
Libertarian John J. Graziano 7,423 1.55%
Independent Phil Chase 5,066 1.05%
Majority 327,148 68.13% +53.31%
Turnout 480,217
Republican hold Swing

New Hampshire[edit]

United States Senate election in New Hampshire, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  John E. Sununu.jpg Jeanne Shaheen, official Senate portrait cropped.jpg
Nominee John E. Sununu Jeanne Shaheen
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 227,229 207,478
Percentage 50.8% 46.4%

NH senate 2002.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Bob Smith
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

John E. Sununu
Republican

Incumbent Republican/Independent U.S. Senator Bob Smith was defeated in the Republican primary and denied renomination.[44] Republican John E. Sununu won the open seat. As of 2017 This is the last time a Republican won the Class 2 Senate seat in New Hampshire.

Senator Bob Smith, the incumbent Republican Senator, briefly left the party in 1999 to run for president as an independent, claiming that the Republican platform was "not worth the paper it's written on".[45] He rejoined the GOP a few months later, saying he made a mistake.[45] Nonetheless, the party never fully forgave him, and some of his fellow Republican Senators went so far as to endorse his primary opponent, Rep. John Sununu,[46] who would go on to win by 8 points.

Republican primary results[47]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican John Sununu 81,920 53.35%
Republican Bob Smith (Incumbent) 68,608 44.68%
Total votes 150,528 100.00%

During the campaign, there was a major scandal that involved the use of a telemarketing firm hired by that state's Republican Party (NHGOP) for election tampering. The GOP Marketplace, based in Northern Virginia, jammed another phone bank being used by the state Democratic Party and the firefighters' union for efforts to turn out voters on behalf of New Hampshire Governor Jeanne Shaheen on Election Day. The tampering involved using a call center to jam the phone lines of a Get Out the Vote (GOTV) operation. In the end, 900 calls were made for 45 minutes of disruption to the Democratic-leaning call centers. In addition to criminal prosecutions, disclosures in the case have come from a civil suit filed by the state's Democratic Party against the state's Republican Party (now settled). Four of those involved were convicted of, or pleaded guilty to, federal crimes and sentenced to prison for their involvement as of 2018. One conviction has been reversed by an appeals court, a decision prosecutors are appealing. James Tobin, freed on appeal, was later indicted on charges of lying to the FBI during the original investigation.

General election results[48]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican John Sununu 227,229 50.8%
Democratic Jeanne Shaheen 207,478 46.4%
Libertarian Ken Blevens 9,835 2.2%
Republican hold Swing [citation needed]

New Jersey[edit]

United States Senate election in New Jersey, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Frank Lautenberg, official portrait, 112th portrait crop.jpg 3x4.svg
Nominee Frank Lautenberg Doug Forrester
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,138,193 928,439
Percentage 53.88% 43.95%

New Jersey Guber 2005.PNG
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

Robert Torricelli
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Frank Lautenberg
Democratic

The race was to originally feature Democrat Robert Torricelli, who was running for a second term in the seat he had won when former Senator Bill Bradley elected not to run for a fourth term in 1996 and who had been the state's senior Senator following Frank Lautenberg's retirement at the end of the 106th United States Congress, against former West Windsor Township mayor Douglas Forrester, who had won the Republican nomination.

Torricelli, however, had been the target of an ethics probe and eventually dropped out of the race in late September 2002. After legal proceedings aimed as forcing Torricelli's name to remain on the ballot were filed by Forrester's campaign, the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that Lautenberg, with whom the Democrats sought to replace him, could remain on the ballot.

In the general election, Lautenberg defeated Forrester and became the state's junior Senator for the second time when he was sworn in on January 3, 2003 (Bradley, elected in 1978, was the senior Senator during Lautenberg's first fourteen years in office and Jon Corzine, who was elected to Lautenberg's old Senate seat, became the senior Senator in 2003 as Lautenberg's previous eighteen years in the Senate w

As noted above, Torricelli dropped out of the race on September 30 due to ethical problems and poor poll numbers against Forrester, a relatively unknown opponent.[49] The New Jersey Democratic Party convinced the retired Lautenberg to join the race after Torricelli dropped out. In the case of The New Jersey Democratic Party v. Samson, 175 N.J. 178 (2002), Forrester sued to stop Democratic Party efforts to have Lautenberg replace Torricelli. The New Jersey Supreme Court ruled unanimously on October 2 that the party could switch Lautenberg's name in for Sen. Torricelli's on the ballot.[50] Forrester received the endorsement of President George W. Bush.[51]

New Jersey United States Senate Election, 2002
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Frank Lautenberg 1,138,193 53.88%
Republican Doug Forrester 928,439 43.95%
Green Ted Glick 24,308 1.15%
Libertarian Elizabeth Macron 12,558 0.59%
Conservative Norman E. Wahner 6,404 0.30%
Socialist Greg Pason 2,702 0.13%
Majority 209,754 9.93%
Turnout
Democratic hold Swing {{{swing}}}

New Mexico[edit]

United States Senate election in New Mexico, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Pete Domenici official portrait 2.jpg Gloria Tristani.jpg
Nominee Pete Domenici Gloria Tristani
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 314,193 168,886
Percentage 65.0% 35.0%

02NMSenateCounties.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Pete Domenici
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Pete Domenici
Republican

Incumbent Republican Pete Domenici won re-election to a sixth term. As of 2018, this is the last Senate election in New Mexico won by a Republican.

Democratic primary results[52]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Gloria Tristani 109,084 77.71%
Democratic Francesa Lobato 31,228 22.24%
Democratic Don E. Durham (write-in) 73 0.05%
Total votes 140,385 100.00%
Republican primary results[52]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Pete Domenici (Incumbent) 91,898 99.93%
Republican Orlin G. Cole (write-in) 62 0.07%
Total votes 91,960 100.00%
General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Pete Domenici (Incumbent) 314,193 65.04% +0.32%
Democratic Gloria Tristani 168,863 34.96% +5.17%
Majority 145,324 30.09% -4.86%
Turnout 483,056
Republican hold Swing

North Carolina[edit]

United States Senate election in North Carolina, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Elizabeth Dole official photo.jpg Erskine Bowles in 2011 cropped.jpg
Nominee Elizabeth Dole Erskine Bowles
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,248,664 1,047,983
Percentage 53.56% 44.96%

NC senate 2002.PNG
County Results

Senator before election

Jesse Helms
Republican

Elected Senator

Elizabeth Dole
Republican

Incumbent Republican Jesse Helms decided to retire due to health issues. Republican Elizabeth Dole won the open seat over Democrat Erskine Bowles, former White House Chief of Staff.

North Carolina U.S. Senate Democratic primary, 2002[53]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Erskine Bowles 277,329 43.4%
Democratic Dan Blue 184,216 28.8%
Democratic Elaine Marshall 97,392 15.2%
Democratic Cynthia D. Brown 27,799 4.4%
Democratic Others 52,289 8.2%
North Carolina U.S. Senate Republican primary, 2002[54]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Elizabeth Dole 342,631 80.4%
Republican James Snyder Jr. 60,477 14.2%
Republican Jim Parker 8,752 2.1%
Republican Ada Fisher 6,045 1.4%
Republican Others 8,201 1.9%
North Carolina U.S. Senate general election, 2002[55]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Elizabeth Dole 1,248,664 53.56% +0.92%
Democratic Erskine Bowles 1,047,983 44.96% −0.96%
Libertarian Sean Haugh 33,807 1.45% +0.46%
Write-in Paul DeLaney 727 0.03% +0.02%
Majority 200,681 8.60% +1.88%
Turnout 2,331,181
Republican hold Swing

Oklahoma[edit]

United States Senate election in Oklahoma, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Jim Inhofe, 2007 official photo (cropped).jpg David Walters.jpg
Nominee Jim Inhofe David Walters
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 583,579 369,789
Percentage 57.30% 36.31%

 
Nominee James Germalic
Party Independent
Popular vote 65,056
Percentage 6.39%

02OKSenateCounties.PNG
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

James Inhofe
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

James Inhofe
Republican

Incumbent Republican Jim Inhofe won re-election to a second term over Democrat David Walters, the former Governor.

General election results[56]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican James Inhofe 583,579 57.30%
Democratic David Walters 369,789 36.31%
Independent (United States) James Germalic 65,056 6.39%
Majority 213,790 20.99%
Turnout 1,018,424
Republican hold Swing

Oregon[edit]

United States Senate election in Oregon, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Gordon Smith official portrait.jpg Bill Bradbury.jpg
Nominee Gordon Smith Bill Bradbury
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 712,287 501,898
Percentage 56.2% 39.6%

Oregon 2002 US Senator.svg
County Results

Senator before election

Gordon Smith
Republican

Elected Senator

Gordon Smith
Republican

Incumbent Republican Gordon Smith ran for re-election to a second term. Oregon Secretary of State Bill Bradbury emerged as the Democratic nominee, and though a competitive gubernatorial election occurred at the same time, Bradbury's campaign was never able to gain traction and Smith overwhelmingly won re-election. As of 2017, this is the last Senate election in Oregon won by a Republican.

Democratic primary results[57]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Bill Bradbury 279,792 85.89%
Democratic Craig Hanson 27,472 8.43%
Democratic Greg Haven 13,995 4.30%
Democratic Write-ins 4,480 1.38%
Total votes 325,739 100.00%
Republican primary results[57]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Gordon Smith (Incumbent) 306,504 98.89%
Republican Write-ins 3,439 1.11%
Total votes 309,943 100.00%

Smith, who had only served one term in the U.S. Senate, had slightly lower than a 50% approval rating before the summer of 2002 began.[58] By July 2002, Smith had raised over $5 million, while Bradbury raised only about $1 million.[59]

United States Senate election in Oregon, 2002[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Gordon Smith (Incumbent) 712,287 56.21% +6.41%
Democratic Bill Bradbury 501,898 39.61% -6.30%
Libertarian Dan Fitzgerald 29,979 2.37% +1.43%
Constitution Lon Mabon 21,703 1.71%
Write-ins 1,354 0.11%
Majority 210,389 16.60% +12.71%
Turnout 1,267,221
Republican hold Swing

Rhode Island[edit]

United States Senate election in Rhode Island, 2002

← 1996 November 4, 2002 2008 →

  Jack Reed, official photo portrait, 2008.jpg 3x4.svg
Nominee Jack Reed Robert Tingle
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 253,922 69,881
Percentage 78.4% 21.6%

Rhode Island Election Results by County, all Democratic.svg
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Jack Reed
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Jack Reed
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Jack Reed won re-election to a second term. Reed's best performance was in Providence County, where he won with over 80% of the vote over Republican Robert Tingle, casino pit boss and nominee for RI-02 in 2000[60]

Democratic primary results[61]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Jack Reed (Incumbent) 85,315 100.00%
Total votes 85,315 100.00%
Republican Party primary results[61]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Robert Tingle 16,041 100.00%
Total votes 16,041 100.00%

Reed was an extremely popular senator who got token opposition in the general election. A May Brown University poll showed the incumbent with a 73% approval rating, higher than any other elected lawmaker in the state.[62] In June 2002, Tingle announced his candidacy.[63] Tingle described himself as a working man with a family, while Reed is single and a veteran politician.[64] In an October poll, Reed was up 61% to 14%.[65]

General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Jack Reed (Incumbent) 253,922 78.43% +15.12%
Republican Robert Tingle 69,881 21.57% -13.38%
Majority 183,966 56.85% +28.50%
Turnout 323,582
Democratic hold Swing

South Carolina[edit]

United States Senate election in South Carolina, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Lindsey Graham official photo.jpg No image.svg
Nominee Lindsey Graham Alex Sanders
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 600,010 487,359
Percentage 54.4% 44.2%

U.S. Senator before election

Strom Thurmond
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Lindsey Graham
Republican

Long-time Incumbent Strom Thurmond decided to retire at the age of 100, becoming the first Centenarian to ever serve in Congress, and at that time was the longest serving Senator in U.S. history (a record later surpassed by West Virginia's Robert Byrd). Republican Lindsey Graham won the open seat.

Alex Sanders, the former president of the College of Charleston, entered the race and faced no opposition from South Carolina Democrats, thereby avoiding a primary election.

Representative Lindsey Graham had no challenge for the Republican nomination and thus avoided a primary election. This was due in large part because the South Carolina Republicans were preoccupied with the gubernatorial race[citation needed] and also because potential rivals were deterred by the huge financial war chest Graham had amassed early in the campaign[citation needed].

The election campaign between Graham and Sanders pitted ideology against personality. Graham spread his message to the voters that he had a consistent conservative voting record and that his votes in Congress closely matched that of outgoing Senator Strom Thurmond. Sanders claimed that he was best to represent South Carolina in the Senate because he held membership in both the NAACP, the Sons of Confederate Veterans, the NRA, and because he said that his positions more closely matched the citizens of the state. He said that he was against the death penalty for religious reasons, supported abortion rights, and was for greater government involvement in education. Graham attacked Sanders for these positions consistently throughout the campaign, but Sanders hit back at Graham for wanting to privatize social security.

Graham scored an impressive victory in the general election and the margin of victory proved that Democrats had little chance of winning an election in the state for a federal position. He achieved his victory because he rolled up strong margins the Upstate and was able to also achieve a majority in the Lowcountry, an area which Sanders had been expected to do well since he hailed from Charleston. However, strong support in the Lowcountry for Republican gubernatorial candidate Mark Sanford doomed Sanders chances of running up a margin in the coastal counties.

South Carolina U.S. Senate Election, 2002
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Lindsey Graham 600,010 54.4% +1.0%
Democratic Alex Sanders 487,359 44.2% +0.2%
Constitution Ted Adams 8,228 0.7% +0.7%
Libertarian Victor Kocher 6,684 0.6% -0.5%
No party Write-Ins 667 0.1% +0.1%
Majority 112,651 10.2% +0.8%
Turnout 1,102,948 53.9% -10.1%
Republican hold Swing

South Dakota[edit]

United States Senate election in South Dakota, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Tim Johnson official portrait, 2009.jpg John Thune official photo.jpg
Nominee Tim Johnson John Thune
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 167,481 166,957
Percentage 49.6% 49.5%

02SDsenatecounties.PNG
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Tim Johnson
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Tim Johnson
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Tim Johnson won re-election to a second term by a margin of 524 votes.

Democratic primary results[66]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Tim Johnson (Incumbent) 65,438 94.84%
Democratic Herman Eilers 3,558 5.16%
Total votes 68,996 100.00%

Thune, who was considered a rising star in his party, ran against Tim Johnson, who narrowly won his first senate election in 1996. Thune launched a television advertising campaign mentioning al Qaeda and Saddam Hussein, contending that both are seeking nuclear weapons and that this country needs a missile defense system, something Johnson voted against 29 times and that Thune supports. The incumbent attacked Thune for politicizing national security.[67] President George W. Bush campaigned for Thune in late October.[68] More than $20 million was spent in the election. Both candidates had raised over $5 million each.[69]

Johnson narrowly prevailed over Thune by a mere 524 votes. Despite the extreme closeness of the election, Thune did not contest the results and conceded defeat on the late afternoon of November 9. Johnson's narrow victory may be attributed to Minnehaha County home of Sioux Falls. Thune also underperformed in typically Republican areas. Johnson was sworn in for a second term on January 3, 2003. Johnson would go on to easily win a third term in 2008.

General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Tim Johnson (Incumbent) 167,481 49.62% -1.70%
Republican John Thune 166,949 49.47% +0.79%
Libertarian Kurt Evans 3,070 0.91%
Plurality 532 0.15% -2.49%
Turnout 334,438
Democratic hold Swing

Tennessee[edit]

United States Senate election in Tennessee, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Lamar Alexander black and white photo.jpg BobClement.jpg
Nominee Lamar Alexander Bob Clement
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 891,420 728,295
Percentage 54.27% 44.34%

2002 Tennessee Senate results by county.png
County Results

Senator before election

Fred Thompson
Republican

Elected Senator

Lamar Alexander
Republican

Incumbent Republican Fred Thompson decided to retire. Republican Lamar Alexander, former U.S. Secretary of Education, former Governor of Tennessee, won the open seat over Democrat Bob Clement, U.S. Representative.

Republican Primary results[70]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Lamar Alexander 295,052 53.79%
Republican Ed Bryant 233,678 42.60%
Republican Mary Taylor-Shelby 5,589 1.02%
Republican June Griffin 4,930 0.90%
Republican Michael Brent Todd 4,002 0.73%
Republican James E. DuBose 3,572 0.65%
Republican Christopher G. Fenner 1,552 0.28%
Republican Write-ins 107 0.03%
Total votes 548,482 100.00%
Democratic primary results[71]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Bob Clement 418,172 82.18%
Democratic Gary G. Davis 50,563 9.94%
Democratic Cher A. Hopkey 14,481 2.85%
Democratic Michael L. Hampstead 12,940 2.54%
Democratic Alvin M. Strauss 12,241 2.41%
Democratic Write-ins 478 0.08%
Total votes 508,875 100.00%

Alexander raised $2 million through June 2002.[72] Clement attacked the Governor for his corporate connections and business dealings. By October, Clement had nearly raised $900,000, while Alexander raised almost $3 million.[73] Bush, who had a 60% approval rating in the state, helped campaign and raise money for Alexander.[74] Alexander was also endorsed by the NRA.[75]

United States Senate election in Tennessee, 2002[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Lamar Alexander 891,498 54.28% -7.09%
Democratic Bob Clement 728,232 44.34% +7.52%
Independent John Jay Hooker 6,401 0.39%
Independent Wesley M. Baker 6,106 0.37%
Independent Connie Gammon 5,349 0.33%
Independent Karl Stanley Davidson 2,217 0.13%
Independent Basil Marceaux 1,170 0.07%
Write-ins 356 0.02%
Majority 163,266 9.94% -14.61%
Turnout 1,642,432
Republican hold Swing

Texas[edit]

United States Senate election in Texas, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  John Cornyn official portrait.jpg Ron Kirk.jpg
Nominee John Cornyn Ron Kirk
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 2,496,243 1,955,758
Percentage 55.3% 43.3%

Img.TX sen 2002.png
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Phil Gramm
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

John Cornyn
Republican

Incumbent Republican Phil Gramm decided to retire, instead of seeking a fourth term. Republican John Cornyn won the open seat over the Democratic Mayor of Dallas, Ron Kirk.

Despite the fact that Texas is a red state, Kirk ran on a socially progressive platform: supporting abortion rights and opposing Bush judicial nominee Priscilla Owen, although Kirk was a former George W. Bush supporter.[76] He also supported increases in defense spending, such as Bush's proposed $48 billion increase in military spending, except for the money Bush wanted to use for missile defense.[77] Kirk had the support of former Governor Ann Richards and former U.S. Senator Lloyd Bentsen.

Cornyn was criticized for taking campaign money from Enron and other controversial companies. And although other Democrats have seized on the issue, Kirk is well-entrenched in the Dallas business community, and his wife resigned from two private-sector jobs that created potential conflicts of interest for Kirk while he was mayor.

The race was close, as an October Dallas Morning News poll had Cornyn leading 47% to 37%.[78] A record $18 million was spent in the election.

General election results[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican John Cornyn 2,496,243 55.3%
Democratic Ron Kirk 1,955,758 43.3%
Libertarian Scott Jameson 35,538 0.8%
Green Roy Williams 25,051 0.6%
Write-In James W. Wright 1,422 0.0%
Majority 540,485 11.97%
Turnout 4,514,012

Virginia[edit]

United States Senate election in Virginia, 2002

← 1996 November 4, 2002 2008 →
Turnout 29.0% (voting eligible)[79]

  Warner(R-VA).jpg No image.svg
Nominee John Warner Nancy Spannaus
Party Republican Independent
Popular vote 1,229,894 145,102
Percentage 82.6% 9.7%

 
Nominee Jacob Hornberger
Party Independent
Popular vote 106,055
Percentage 7.1%

2002 virginia senate election map.png
U.S. Senate election results map. Red denotes counties/districts won by Warner.

U.S. Senator before election

John Warner
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

John Warner
Republican

Incumbent Republican John Warner won re-election to a fifth term, making him one of only three Virginia U.S. Senators to serve five or more terms.[80] The Democrats did not field a candidate against Warner, and he won every single county and city in the state with at least 60% of the vote. As of 2016, this is the last Senate election in Virginia won by a Republican.

United States Senate election in Virginia, 2002[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican John Warner (Incumbent) 1,229,894 82.58% +30.10%
Independent Nancy B. Spannaus 145,102 9.74%
Independent Jacob G. Hornberger, Jr. 106,055 7.12%
Write-ins 8,371 0.56% +0.43%
Majority 1,084,792 72.83% +67.75%
Turnout 1,489,422
Republican hold Swing

West Virginia[edit]

United States Senate election in West Virginia, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Jay Rockefeller official photo (cropped).jpg Jay Wolfe cropped.jpg
Nominee Jay Rockefeller Jay Wolfe
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 275,281 160,902
Percentage 63.11% 36.89%

02WVSenateCounties.PNG
County Results

U.S. Senator before election

Jay Rockefeller
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Jay Rockefeller
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Jay Rockefeller won re-election to a fourth term over Republican State Senator Jay Wolfe.

Wolfe ran a Grassroots campaign. Rockefeller was the heavy favorite.[81] One poll showed him leading 72% to 17%.[82] Rockefeller had $2.9 million cash on hand to Wolfe at $100,536 (In mid-October). Wolfe was endorsed by President George W. Bush and the National Rifle Association, but it wasn't enough to make the election competitive.[83]

West Virginia U.S. Senate Election, 2002[84]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Jay Rockefeller (Incumbent) 275,281 63.11% -13.54%
Republican Jay Wolfe 160,902 36.89% +13.54%
Majority 114,379 26.22% -27.08%
Turnout 436,183
Democratic hold Swing

Wyoming[edit]

United States Senate election in Wyoming, 2002

← 1996 November 5, 2002 2008 →

  Mike Enzi official portrait new.jpg 3x4.svg
Nominee Mike Enzi Joyce Corcoran
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 133,710 49,570
Percentage 73.0% 27.0%

Wyoming election results by county, all Republican.png
County results

U.S. Senator before election

Mike Enzi
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Mike Enzi
Republican

Incumbent Republican Mike Enzi won re-election to a second term.

Democratic primary results[85]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Joyce Corcoran 30,548 100.00%
Total votes 30,548 100.00%
Republican primary results[86]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Mike Enzi (Incumbent) 78,612 85.87%
Republican Crosby Allen 12,931 14.13%
Total votes 91,543 100.00%

Enzi stated that his top priorities were education, jobs, national security and retirement security.[87] He had $485,000 cash on hand in June 2002, when Joyce Corcoran (D), Mayor of Lander first filed.[88]

General election results[89]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Mike Enzi (Incumbent) 133,710 72.95% +18.90%
Democratic Joyce Corcoran 49,570 27.05% -15.17%
Majority 84,140 45.91% +34.06%
Turnout 183,280
Republican hold Swing

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

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  87. ^ "ENZI SAYS IF RE-ELECTED HE WILL PROMOTE 'WYOMING WORK ETHIC'". 
  88. ^ "Wyoming ; Corcoran Files Bid Against Sen. Enzi". 
  89. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2011. Retrieved February 26, 2010. 

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