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Usog or balis[1] is a Filipino superstition whereby an affliction or psychological disorder is attributed to a stranger's greeting or evil eye hex. It is usually attributed to afflictions of infants and toddlers.[2]

In some limited areas, it is said that the condition is also caused by the stranger having an evil eye or masamang mata in Tagalog, lurking around. This may have been influenced by the advent of the Spaniards who long believed in the mal de ojo superstition.

Once affected, the child begins to develop fever, and sometimes convulsions. Supposedly, the child can be cured by placing its clothing in hot water and boiling it. In most other places, to counter the effects of the "usog" the stranger or newcomer is asked to put some of their saliva on the baby's abdomen, shoulder or forehead before leaving the house. The newcomer then leaves while saying: "Pwera usog... pwera usog..." ("Out, usog")[3] The saliva is placed on the finger first, before the finger is rubbed on the baby's abdomen or forehead. The stranger is never to lick the child.[4] The practice is that the stranger or visitor is asked to touch their finger with saliva to the child's body, arm or foot ("lawayan") to prevent the child from getting overpowered ("upang hindi mausog"). Protective charms may also be added to an infant's clothing to ward off usog.[5]

Possible scientific explanation[edit]

One theory (Kristina Palacio)[6][7] explains usog in terms of child distress that leads to greater susceptibility to illness and diseases. There are observations that a stranger (or a newcomer or even a visiting relative) especially someone with a strong personality (physically big, boisterous, has strong smell, domineering, etc.) may easily distress a child. Thus, the child is said to be "overpowered" or nauusog and thus may feel afraid, develop fever, get sick, etc.[8]

In usog, the child's distress is the consequence of the child's failure to adapt to change. It is, in medical terms, the consequence of the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli brought about by the stranger.[9] Technically, the condition results from the child-environment interaction that leads the child to perceive a painful discrepancy, real or imagined, between the demands of a situation on the one hand and their social, biological, or psychological resources on the other. The stressful stimuli to the child may be mental (stranger is perceived as a threat, malevolent or demanding), physiological (loud and/or high-pitched voice of the stranger that is hurting to the child's eardrum; strong smell of the stranger that irritates the child's nasal nerves), or physical (stranger has heavy hands or is taking up too much space).[citation needed]

The stranger's act of gently placing his finger with his saliva to the child's arm, foot, or any particular part of the child's body, could make him more familiar to the child, and thus, reduce if not remove the stress. As the stranger keeps gently saying, "Pwera usog... pwera usog...," the child is made to feel and assured that he means no harm. The usog is said to be counteracted because the child is prevented from succumbing to an illness since the child is no longer in distress. Children or even adults who are shy or have weak personalities are more susceptible to usog in accordance with observations and theory. Some have observed that at times even praising a shy child by a visiting relative caused an usog.[7][10]

The saliva from the stranger, granted that they are healthy and consistent with their oral hygiene, is relatively clean[11] and contains enough antimicrobial compounds such as lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, and secretory immunoglobulin A which can help clear pathogens from the child and benefit the child against infection.[12] Furthermore, human saliva has opiorphin, a newly researched pain-killing substance. Initial research with mice shows the compound has a painkilling effect of up to six times that of morphine. It works by stopping the normal breakdown of natural pain-killing opioids in the spine, called enkephalins. Opiorphin in human saliva is a relatively simple molecule, and the child's immune system may trigger a biochemical cascade (complement system) to produce other stress-reducing compounds.[13][14][15][16]

Usog can also, though less commonly, affect adults, and it may induce vomiting and stomach ache rather than fever. Supposedly, it can be prevented by stopping a stranger or visitor from greeting the person.

Unlike "lihi", however, usog is not yet medically accepted. More than the superstitious folks, researchers dealing with Filipino Psychology say they have observed this phenomenon with regularity and suggest that this be added to the Psychiatric Disorders Handbook DSM-V.[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Jocano, F. Landa (1998). Filipino Social Organization: Traditional Kinship and Family Organization. Punlad Research House. p. 78. ISBN 978-971-622-003-2. Retrieved June 12, 2021.
  2. ^ PWE-USOG / PWE-BUYAG: Miscellaneous Therapies in Philippine Alternative Medicine
  3. ^ Stoodley, Bartlett H. (1965). Society and Self: A Reader in Social Psychology. Free Press. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-02-931640-5. Retrieved June 12, 2021.
  4. ^ "Postpartum and Philippine Culture - Secondthoughts - Viloria.com". www.viloria.com. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  5. ^ Jocano, F. Landa (1998). Filipino Social Organization: Traditional Kinship and Family Organization. Punlad Research House. pp. 109, 112. ISBN 978-971-622-003-2. Retrieved June 12, 2021.
  6. ^ Fadul, J. Public Forum on Witchcraft and Illnesses. Rizal Technological and Polytechnic Institute, Morong, Rizal. July 24, 1988.
  7. ^ a b c 100% PINOY (Kapuso Network's cultural program on GMA7 featuring Filipino Culture and Ingenuity to strengthen the Filipino identity.) Aired internationally through GMA Pinoy TV. "Bata, bata, paano ka ginawa?" episode aired August 28, 2008. Pinoy culture, beliefs and practices about "paglilihi, pagbubuntis, panganganak at pag-aalaga sa bata".
  8. ^ Cohen S, Janicki-Deverts D, Miller GE (2007). "Psychological stress and disease". JAMA. 298 (14): 1685–7. doi:10.1001/jama.298.14.1685. PMID 17925521. S2CID 12159960. "Stress Contributes To Range Of Chronic Diseases, Review Shows" ScienceDaily.com (October 10, 2007) [1]
  9. ^ Tan, Michael (2008). Revisiting Usog, Pasma, Kulam. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. p. 178. ISBN 978-971-542-570-4.
  10. ^ Youtube Usog
  11. ^ http://neurophilosophy.wordpress.com/2006/11/14/lick-your-wounds/ Neurophilosophy: Lick your wounds
  12. ^ "Discover Magazine, "The Biology of ...Saliva" October 2005". Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved August 22, 2008.
  13. ^ Wisner, Anne; Evelyne Dufour; Michaël Messaoudi; Amine Nejdi; Audrey Marcel; Marie-Noelle Ungeheuer; Catherine Rougeot (November 13, 2006). "Human Opiorphin, a natural antinociceptive modulator of opioid-dependent pathways". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (47): 17979–17984. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10317979W. doi:10.1073/pnas.0605865103. PMC 1693858. PMID 17101991.
  14. ^ Andy Coghlan (November 13, 2006). "Natural-born painkiller found in human saliva". New Scientist.
  15. ^ "Natural chemical 'beats morphine'". BBC News. November 14, 2006.
  16. ^ Mary Beckman (November 13, 2006). "Prolonging Painkillers". ScienceNOW.