Triskaidekaphobia

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Stall numbers at Santa Anita Park progress from 12 to 12A to 14, as does Eaton Square, London

Triskaidekaphobia (/ˌtrɪskˌdɛkəˈfbiə/ TRIS-kye-DEK-ə-FOH-bee-ə, /ˌtrɪskə-/ TRIS-kə-; from Ancient Greek τρεισκαίδεκα (treiskaídeka), meaning 'thirteen', and Ancient Greek φόβος (phóbos), meaning 'fear')[1] is fear or avoidance of the number 13. It is also a reason for the fear of Friday the 13th, called paraskevidekatriaphobia (from Ancient Greek Παρασκευή (Paraskevi), meaning 'Friday', Ancient Greek δεκατρείς (dekatreís), meaning 'thirteen', and Ancient Greek φόβος (phóbos), meaning 'fear') or friggatriskaidekaphobia (from Old Norse Frigg, meaning 'Frigg', Ancient Greek τρεισκαίδεκα (treiskaídeka), meaning 'thirteen', and Ancient Greek φόβος (phóbos), meaning 'fear').

The term was used as early as in 1910 by Isador Coriat in Abnormal Psychology.[2]

Origins[edit]

Judas theory[edit]

From the 1890s, a number of English language sources relate the "unlucky" thirteen to an idea that at the Last Supper, Judas, the disciple who betrayed Jesus, was the 13th to sit at the table.[3] The Bible says nothing about the order in which the Apostles sat, but there were thirteen people at the table.

Hammurabi mistranscription[edit]

A translation by L. W. King (1910), edited by Richard Hooker, accidentally omitted one article (law) of the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi (circa 1780 BCE), compounding which he added numeration when the original had none.[4]

Other translations of the Code, such as by Robert Francis Harper, include the 13th article (law):

If the seller have gone to (his) fate (i. e., have died), the purchaser shall recover damages in said case fivefold from the estate of the seller.[5]

Events related to unlucky 13[edit]

The exposed lift shaft of an apartment block under construction. The lift shaft has numbers marking the levels, but the 13th level is instead marked with a heart.

Apollo 13 was launched on April 11, 1970 at 13:13:00 CST and suffered an oxygen tank explosion on April 13 at 21:07:53 CST. It returned safely to Earth on April 17.[6][7]

On Friday, October 13, 1307, the arrest of the Knights Templar was ordered by Philip IV of France. While the number 13 was considered unlucky, Friday the 13th was not considered unlucky at the time. The incorrect idea that their arrest was related to the phobias surrounding Friday the 13th was invented early in the 21st century and popularized by the novel The Da Vinci Code.[8]

In 1881 an influential group of New Yorkers, led by US Civil War veteran Captain William Fowler, came together to put an end to this and other superstitions. They formed a dinner cabaret club, which they called the Thirteen Club. At the first meeting, on January 13, 1881, at 8:13 p.m., thirteen people sat down to dine in Room 13 of the venue. The guests walked under a ladder to enter the room and were seated among piles of spilled salt. Many "Thirteen Clubs" sprang up all over North America over the next 45 years. Their activities were regularly reported in leading newspapers, and their numbers included five future US presidents, from Chester A. Arthur to Theodore Roosevelt. Thirteen Clubs had various imitators, but they all gradually faded due to a lack of interest.[9]

Friday the 13th mini-crash

Vehicle registration plates in the Republic of Ireland are such that the first two digits represent the year of registration of the vehicle (i.e., 11 is a 2011 registered car, 12 is 2012, and so on). In 2012, there were concerns among members of the Society of the Irish Motor Industry (SIMI) that the prospect of having "13" registered vehicles might discourage motorists from buying new cars because of superstition surrounding the number thirteen, and that car sales and the motor industry (which was already failing) would suffer as a result. The government, in consultation with SIMI, introduced a system whereby 2013 registered vehicles would have their registration plates' age identifier string modified to read "131" for vehicles registered in the first six months of 2013 and "132" for those registered in the latter six months of the year.[10][11]1

Similar phobias[edit]

An elevator in a residential apartment building in Shanghai proving its floors which are 4th, 13th and 14th in height are deliberately not so named, such numbers are skipped.

Lucky 13[edit]

In some regions 13 is considered a lucky number. For example, 13 is lucky in Italy except in some contexts, such as sitting at the dinner table.[14] In Cantonese-speaking areas, including Hong Kong and Macau, the number 13 is considered lucky because it sounds similar to the Cantonese words meaning "sure to live" (as opposed to the unlucky number 14 which in Cantonese sounds like the words meaning "sure to die"). Colgate University was started by 13 men with $13 and 13 prayers, so 13 is considered a lucky number. Friday the 13th is the luckiest day at Colgate.[15]

A number of sportspeople are known for wearing the number 13 jersey and performing successfully. On November 23, 2003, the Miami Dolphins retired the number 13 for Dan Marino, who played for the Dolphins from 1983-1999. In 1966, Portugal achieved their best-ever result at the World Cup final tournaments by finishing third, thanks to a Mozambican-born striker, Eusebio, who has scored nine goals at World Cup — four of them in a 5-3 quarterfinal win over North Korea — and won the Golden Boot award as the tournament's top scorer while wearing the number 13. In the 1954 and 1974 World Cup finals, Germany's Max Morlock and Gerd Müller, respectively, played and scored in the final, wearing the number 13.[16] More recently, other top footballers are playing successfully despite wearing #13, including Michael Ballack, Alessandro Nesta, Rafinha, Thomas Müller, Tua Tagovailoa and others.[17] Among other sportspeople who have chosen 13 as squad number, are the Venezuelans Dave Concepción, Omar Vizquel, Oswaldo Guillén and Pastor Maldonado.

Effect on US Shuttle program mission naming[edit]

The disaster that occurred on Apollo 13 may have been a factor that led to a renaming that prevented a mission called STS-13[18][19]

STS-41-G was the name of the thirteenth Space Shuttle flight.[20] However, originally STS-41-C was the mission originally numbered STS-13[21][22] STS-41-C was the eleventh orbital flight of the space shuttle program.[23]

The numbering system of the Space Shuttle was changed to a new one after STS-9.[24] The new naming scheme started with STS-41B, the previous mission was STS-9, and the thirteenth mission (what would have been STS-13) would be STS-41C.[24] The new scheme had first number stand for the U.S. fiscal year, the next number was a launch site (1 or 2), and the next was the number of the mission numbered with a letter for that period.[24]

Alternate mission patch of STS-41C, with a 13 and a black cat, as it landed on April 13th, which was a Friday the 13th and this was the mission originally scheduled as STS-13.[25]

In the case of the actual 13th flight, the crew was apparently not superstitious and made a humorous mission patch that had a black cat on it.[24] Also, that mission re-entered and landed on Friday the 13th which one crew described as being "pretty cool".[24] Because of the way the designations and launch manifest work, the mission numbered STS-13 might not have actually been the 13th to launch as was common throughout the shuttle program; indeed it turned out to be the eleventh.[26][23] One of the reasons for this was when a launch had to be scrubbed, which delayed its mission.[27]

NASA said in a 2016 news article it was due to a much higher frequency of planned launches (pre-Challenger disaster).[24] As it was, the Shuttle program did have a disaster on its one-hundred and thirteenth mission going by date of launch, which was STS-107.[28] The actual mission STS-113 was successful, and had actually launched earlier due to the nature of the launch manifest.[29]

At first glance, it may seem surprising that an agency whose focus lies in science and technology should devote such an emphasis to an ancient superstition, but for one thing: the unlucky voyage of Apollo 13.

— Ben Evans (2012)[30]

Famous people with triskaidekaphobia[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

^1 The main reason for this was stated to be to increase the number of car sales in the second half of the year. Even though 70% of new cars are bought during the first four months of the year, some consumers believe that the calendar year of registration does not accurately reflect the real age of a new car, since cars bought in January will most likely have been manufactured the previous year, while those bought later in the year will be actually made in the same year.
^2 Tuesday is generally unlucky in Greece for the fall of Byzantium Tues 29th May 1453.[36] In Spanish-speaking countries, there is a proverb: En martes no te cases, ni te embarques 'On Tuesday, do not get married or set sail'.[37] The 13th card in Tarot's major arcana is Death.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "triskaidekaphobia - Origin and meaning of triskaidekaphobia by Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  2. ^ "Abnormal Psychology" p. 319, published in 1910, Moffat, Yard and company (New York). Library of Congress Control No. 10011167.
  3. ^ Cecil Adams (1992-11-06). "Why is the number 13 considered unlucky?". The Straight Dope. Retrieved 2011-05-13.
  4. ^ Harper, Robert Francis (5 November 2017). "The Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylon: About 2250 B.C.: Autographed Text, Transliteration, Translation, Glossary Index of Subjects, Lists of Proper Names, Signs, Numuerals ..." The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. Retrieved 5 November 2017 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ "The Code of Hammurabi". Oll.libertyfund.org. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  6. ^ "13 Things That Saved Apollo 13, Part 9: Position of the Tanks - Universe Today". Universetoday.com. 21 April 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  7. ^ "WHAT REALLY HAPPENED TO APOLLO 13 HOME PAGE". Spaceacts.com. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  8. ^ Robinson, John J. (1990). Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry. ISBN 978-0-87131-602-8.
  9. ^ Nick Leys, If you bought this, you've already had bad luck, review of Nathaniel Lachenmayer's Thirteen: The World's Most Popular Superstition, Weekend Australian, 8–9 January 2005
  10. ^ 2013 number plates to be changed to avoid ‘unlucky 13’ , Irish Independent, 24 August 2012
  11. ^ "2013 Number Plates To Be Changed To Avoid 'Unlucky 13'". Irish Independent.
  12. ^ Harris, Nick (15 November 2007). "Bad Omen for Italy as Their Unlucky Number Comes Up". The Independent. London.
  13. ^ Jon Boone. "The curse of number 39 and the steps Afghans take to avoid it". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  14. ^ "Aggiungi un posto a tavola, siamo in 13!" (in Italian). Retrieved 31 March 2012.
  15. ^ Colgate University. "Lucky 13". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  16. ^ Dpa (1 July 2010). "Unlucky 13, unless your name is Mueller". Thehindu.com. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  17. ^ "Football Facts: Who Wears Number 13?". Thefootballnation.co.uk. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  18. ^ Almeida, Andres (5 December 2016). "Behind the Space Shuttle mission numbering system". nasa.gov. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  19. ^ Evans, Ben (1 June 2012). Tragedy and Triumph in Orbit: The Eighties and Early Nineties. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 211. ISBN 9781461434306.
  20. ^ "Challenger mission No. 6 (13th shuttle program mission overall)". Orlando Sentinel. 41-G. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  21. ^ "James D. A. van Hoften" (PDF). Oral History Project. NASA Johnson Space Center. 5 December 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  22. ^ "Terry J. Hart" (PDF). Oral History Project. NASA Johnson Space Center. 10 April 2003. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  23. ^ a b "STS-41-C Information". Astonautix. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  24. ^ a b c d e f Almeida, Andres (5 December 2016). "Behind the Space Shuttle Mission Numbering System". NASA. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  25. ^ Evans, Ben (2007). Space Shuttle Challenger: Ten Journeys into the Unknown. Retrieved 30 May 2012 – via Google Books.
  26. ^ Evans, Ben (1 June 2012). Tragedy and Triumph in Orbit: The Eighties and Early Nineties. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781461434306.
  27. ^ Evans, Ben (1 June 2012). Tragedy and Triumph in Orbit: The Eighties and Early Nineties. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 211. ISBN 9781461434306 – via Google Books.
  28. ^ "The Columbia Disaster". Space Safety Magazine. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  29. ^ Warnock, Lynda. "NASA STS-113". KSC. nasa.gov. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  30. ^ Evans, Ben (1 June 2012). Tragedy and Triumph in Orbit: The Eighties and Early Nineties. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 211. ISBN 9781461434306.
  31. ^ "Fear of 13 and Other Superstitions Embedded in Compositions". WQXR-FM. May 13, 2016. Retrieved 2019-01-24.
  32. ^ Perry, Warren. "Fears of the Fearless FDR: A President's Superstitions for Friday the 13th". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2019-01-24.
  33. ^ Haberman, Clyde (May 17, 2010). "A Reading to Recall the Father of Tevye". The New York Times. Retrieved 2019-01-24.
  34. ^ Chan, Melissa. "Why Friday the 13th Is a Real Nightmare for Some People". Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  35. ^ Tobias, Scott (March 29, 2016). "Film Review: 'The Fear of 13'". Variety. Retrieved 2019-01-24.
  36. ^ Margarita Papantoniou. "Why Are Tuesday and 13 Bad Luck?". GreekReporter. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  37. ^ "Tuesday the 13th… the Friday the 13th of the Spanish-speaking world (and vice-versa)". WordPress. Retrieved 28 December 2017.

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