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Kulam or "Pagkukulam" is a form of folk magic practiced in the Philippines. It puts emphasis on the innate power of the self and a secret knowledge of Magica Baja or low magic. Earth (soil), fire, herbs, spices, candles, oils and kitchenwares and utensils are often used for rituals, charms, spells and potions.
Mangkukulam (noun) is a person employing or using Kulam. Kinukulam (noun) is the target of the Kulam. Nakulam (adj.) means someone or something experiencing the effects of the Kulam. Kulamin (verb) means to bewitch or do low magic Ipakulam (verb) to get to be bewitched, blessed or hexed Makulam (verb) means to be able to bewitch or to become bewitched; blessed or hexed.
Kulam in the Philippines is said to be centered on the islands of Siquijor and Talalora, Western Samar and the province of Sorsogon, where many of the country's faith healers reside. Kulam also exists in many of the hinterlands, especially in Samar and Leyte.
The Mangkukulam (/mahng-koo-KOO-lam/) is the Filipino term for a witch or sorcerer, literally meaning "a practitioner of kulam". Other terms are the Spanish brujo and bruja (masculine and feminine forms of "witch"; Filipinized as bruho and bruha). The verb kulamin (/koo-LAH-min/) means "to bless or hex", while a curse is called sumpâ (/soom-PA/), which may also take the meaning of "vow" or "oath". The Mangkukulam use a voodo doll and a needle to cast spells on people they want to revenge on.
The primary methods employed by a mangkukulam are candle lighting ritual, scrying or tawas, recitation of spells, and concocting potions. Modern popular culture also depicts the mangkukulam as using either photographs or the equivalent of a Voodoo doll.
A typical belief of mangkukulam is that curses are mitigated by finding the caster and bribing them to lift the curse. Superstitious people still attribute certain illnesses or diseases to kulam. This most often happens in rural areas, where an herbal doctor called an albularyo (/al-booLAR-yoh/), diagnoses a victim using a divination method called pagtatatawas and helps the victim cure their malady.
- Axismongol SIQUIJOR LAND OF WITCHES & MAGIC
- Tony Perez Panibagong Kulam
- Illinois (1917). University of Illinois Studies in Language and Literature. Original from the New York Public Library: The University of Illinois. p. 41.
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