Afro-Dominican (Dominica)

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Afro-Dominican
Total population
95,7% of the Dominican population.
Languages
Predominantly English
minoritary Dominican Creole French  · Kokoy Creole[1]
Religion
Predominantly Roman Catholicism
minoritary Protestantism
Related ethnic groups
African people · others Afro-Caribbeans · English people · French people

An Afro-Dominican is a Dominican of African descent. They are the most of the Dominica´s population. According to the 2001 census, blacks make up 86.8% of the population, while mixed, 8.9%.[2]

Origins[edit]

The places from which come the slaves seem to have been various. It becomes possible to know them through colonial records preserved in Dominica, where data regarding the arrival of boats to the island seems be very complete, indicating not only the different slave ports from which slaves came (and in some cases ethnic groups to which they belonged) and the date of his arrived to the island, but also the number of slaved people aboard these boats and the number of people that survived to travel when they arrived to Dominica.[3] Based on these records we can affirm the slaves came, in his majority, from the Bight of Biafra,[4] both of the day-present Nigeria (Igbos, Nembe) and Camerun.[3] Those slaves were the 62% of the slaves imported to Dominica. The slaves of Bight of Biafra were more of 57.000 people in Dominica.[4]

The rest of the slaves came from the established ports in the current Senegal (from which comes, in part, the word "Kwéyòl" which designates the Creole dialect of Dominica[5]), Gambia, Sierra Leone (since where arrived the 4,8% of the slaves[4]), Windward Coast (they were a 11% of the slaves arrived to Dominica.[4] Since Liberia were imported specifically people of the Bassa´s tribesmen, which belonged to Kru ethnic group), Ghana (since where arrived only the 3% of the slaves.[4] Arrived Akan slaves[6]), Benin (they only were 1% of the slaves.[4] Arrived popos, from South of country), Congo Republic (Loangos, although just were imported 82 people from this Kington in Dominica, being the smallest ethnic group arrived to the island), Angola (Ambundu)[3] and Southeast of Africa (since where only were exported to Dominica 670 people). The slaves of Congo and Angola were in total the 6,7% de los slaves (more of 6.200 people). All this places (except the Congo and Southeast of Africa), imported thousands of slaves to Dominica (especially since Windward Coast, that impoted more of 11.000 slaves to Dominica, and Senegambia, with more of 6.400 slaves in the archipelago).[4]

Others slaves in Dominica belonged to the ethnic groups Yoruba, Ewes, Fula, Kongo and Wolof.[6]

History[edit]

During British rule of Dominica, reached to the island, at least 100,000 slaves,[3] 40,000 of which arrived on the island between 1763 and 1778 (as only the 60s, 10,551 slaves arrived[3]) many of whom were destined to trade with growers of the islands of Guadeloupe, Martinique and St. Lucia, also former French colonies.[7] However, with the French reoccupation of the island between 1778 and mid-May 1783, no slave ship arrived from Africa to Dominica, at least not directly reached, with the exception of a ship arrived in late 1781. After the British recovery of the island, between May 1783 and late 1789, the slave trade is restored. Thus, there is the arrival of 38,328 slaves during these years. This amount is increased in the 1790s with the arrival of about 11,776 more slaves, especially in 1792.[3] However, already in those years, the amount of slaves in Dominica was important, which prompted, in 1795, a slave rebellion in the island, influenced by the Haitian Revolution, that was called Colihault Uprising.[8]

The revolt, however, did not give positive results, and in the first eight years of the nineteenth century about 7734 more African slaves came to the island.[3]

As was the case in the rest of America, both the slaves - that were majority - as freed slaves and black property owners were forbidden to intervene in political and economic discussions and decision-making, even if they could be affect by this decisions, since they were part of the population of the island.

Due to the large number of slaves and the treatment they received from the British, the Maroons and runaway slaves had been increasing over time. These ex - slaves were well armed and rebelled against the British between 1785 and 1786. However, they were defeated and their leaders were imprisoned and / or executed. However, the struggles of the Maroons and the British each be restored several times and would remain alive until 1815.

In 1831, and even though slavery was still in force in the island, the Brown´s Act of privileges conferred political and social rights to free African-Dominicans, and the following year, three black men were elected members of the House Dominican legislative Assembly. Two years later, on August 1, 1834, was applied in Dominica The Abolition of Slavery, which was passed by the British Parliament a year earlier. Thus, in 1838 there was a black majority in the chamber and the Dominican island became the first British colony in the Caribbean with a legislature controlled by blacks in the nineteenth century. Moreover, most black legislators were smallholders or merchants whose economic and social views were diametrically opposed to the interests of small and wealthy English landowners. In reaction to the perceived threat, the planters lobbied for more direct British domain. Lawmakers began pushing for the implementation of laws that would promote the welfare of former slaves on the island. This caused a growing internal political instability, as it still had settlers who rejected anti-slavery law. So, were revived clashes between ex - slaves and settlers. Thus, in 1844, another group of freed slaves, with the Caribs rebelled against whites.[7]

In 1865, after much agitation and tension, the British colonial authority replaced the elective assembly composed of the other half elected and half appointed members. So, the landowners were allied with colonial administrators and often they exceeded with his tactics to elected lawmakers. In 1871, Dominica became part of the Federation of the Leeward Islands. The power of the black population declined progressively. In 1896 the colonial government was restored, so that the political rights of the vast majority of the population were restricted. The development aid, offered as compensation for disenfranchisement, proved to have negligible effects.

Demography[edit]

According to the 2001 census, blacks make up 86.8% of the population, while mixed, 8.9%. In total, the Afro-Dominican are 95,7% of the population. Most of the Dominicans speak English. Although there are some communities that speak Creole French and Kokoy dialect, a mix of English Creole and Dominican Creole French.[1] The Kokoy dialect, arrived in Dominica in the nineteenth century, with immigrants from Antigua and Montserrat islands.[5] In addition, the population is, mostly, Catholic. A minority of the population is Protestant.

Cultural contributions[edit]

African contributions to language and Dominican culture are remarkable, seen reflected in the dances, music, food, clothing, religion and the practice of certain herbs and medicinal plants. The following is a list of African contributions on the island:[6]

  • Language: The African influence is recorded in some words and syntax, ad the way sentences are constructed. Many words incorporated into French Creole from Dominica are of various African origin, allowing us to dauge at least some of the origins of the slaves. These words are of Yoruba, Ewe, Igbo, Akan, Fula, Kongo and Wolof origin.[6]
  • Dance: Several types of Dominican dance derive from West Africa, among which stands out the Bele.
  • Music: As in other countries and American islands, African retentions in the musical folklore of Dominica are also notable. Particularly highlighted is the frequent use of drums and African rhythms in dances and music. One example is called - in Creole- "Lavway", a type of music based on call and response. The "Lavway" were sung in the ships that brought the enlaved Africans to the island. Currently, the Lavway are used in Bele, in Carnival songs and years ago in work and in the Wood constructions in which they played.
  • Food: Among the African foods of the island are yams, ackras and "one pot hold all".
  • Dress: Dress reflecting African origin includes the use of gold chains, jewelry and, in the case of men, ornaments made with massif gold. Also the Douillette, an ornamented garment that shows the social status of the people who wear it, has a clear African origin.
  • Spiritualism: As in other American places with large black populations, animism is also common in La Dominica. This religious practice was adapted to Christianity, being important in the funerals, "nine night" wakes and the annual Fete La Toussaint, when the souls of the dead are remembered.
  • Plants and herbal medicines: The Africans who came to the island used the tropical plants in many different ways, including for teas, baths and poultices used to cure sickness. Some plants also served as amulets to ward off evil.

References[edit]