Chess boxing is a hybrid sport that combines chess with boxing in alternating rounds. The sport was invented by south London brothers James and Stewart Robinson, at the Samuel Montagu Boys Club in Kidbrooke near Greenwich.
An image of two boxers at a chessboard was made in the late seventies at a boxing club in South London,. In 1979 Hong Kong martial arts film, "The Mystery Of Chessboxing"  ("Shuang ma lian huan" original English title "Ninja Checkmate" ) was released.
The modern concept of chess boxing was introduced in Berlin by Iepe Rubingh where it quickly developed a dedicated and enthusiastic following. He invented the World Chess Boxing Organisation (WCBO) in 2003 in Berlin and the first ever chessboxing club in 2005 In the following years, chess boxing organisations appeared in more countries. The newest member is the Iranian Chessboxing Organisation ICBO. Several chess boxing events have taken place around the world, including in London, Los Angeles, Tokyo, Nantes (France) Paris, Reykjavík (Iceland), Berlin, Amsterdam, Calcutta (India), Moscow and Krasnoyarsk (Russia). Participants must be skilled as both boxers and chess players, as a match may be won either way.
In 2013, Iepe Rubingh founded the sports marketing agency for professional chessboxing, which is closely connected to the amateur association World Chess Boxing Organisation. The company is backed by Enki Bilal. On November 28, Chess Boxing Global hosted a chess boxing world championship  in three weight divisions in Moscow, Russia.
Structure and rules
A full match consists of eleven rounds: six rounds of chess, each three minutes long, and five rounds of boxing, each three minutes long (four minutes under amateur rules). The match begins with a chess round which is followed by a boxing round. Rounds of chess and boxing alternate until the end of the match. There is a one-minute break between each round, during which competitors cool out and change gear. Rules of fast chess are used, and a competitor only has a total of twelve minutes to use for all his chess moves. Player's chess time is measured using a chess clock.
A competitor may win the match during a boxing round by knockout or a technical stoppage by the referee, by achieving a checkmate or if the opponent's twelve minutes run out during a chess round, or by the opponent's resignation at any point. If the chess game is drawn, the scores from the boxing rounds are used to determine the winner. If the boxing score (calculated on a round-by-round basis) is also a draw, the outcome is declared as a tie.
According to a rule introduced in London in 2009, if a competitor fails to make a move during the chess round, he can be issued a warning after which he must make a legal move within the next 10 seconds or become disqualified. Repeated warnings may also result in a disqualification. The warnings are in use to avoid situations where a competitor would stall a losing chess game and focus his activity only on boxing.
The concept of chess boxing came up by comics artist Enki Bilal, and chess boxing was featured in his graphic novel Froid Équateur. Iepe Rubingh brought the concept to life. Rubingh felt the method described in the book, a boxing match followed by a chess match, was impractical. He instead decided on alternating rounds of chess and boxing.
A similar concept was featured in the 1991 Finnish film Uuno Turhapuro—herra Helsingin herra, where the hero plays blindfold chess against one person using a hands-free telephone headset while boxing another person. Bilal was not aware of the movie. There was also a 1979 movie by director Joseph Kuo called Ninja Checkmate; the English-dubbed American version was known as the Mystery of Chess Boxing. It does not feature chess boxing, but it is probably the inspiration for the Wu-Tang Clan song "Da Mystery of Chessboxin'" on their first album Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers) (1993). Wu-Tang Clan producer RZA is a fan and advocate of the sport.
The sport is governed by World Chess Boxing Association (WCBA). The WCBA hosted several events since 2003 in London. The WCBA has members in Italy,Russia, Spain and the United Kingdom.
The first exhibition of chess boxing in front of an audience was staged in Amsterdam in 2003 between Iepe Rubingh and Jean Louis Veenstra. The First European Chess Boxing Championship took place in London in October 2010. Gianluca Sirci from Italy defeated Andy Costello in Round 8 by checkmate.
On April 21, 2006, 500 spectators paid to watch two chess boxing matches in the Gloria Theatre, Cologne. Zoran "the Priest" Mijatovic opened with the Queen's Gambit. Zoran's opponent, a 37-year-old former UN Peacekeeper named Frank "Anti Terror" Stoldt, was well prepared and dominated in both the chess and the boxing rounds. In the seventh round (chess) Mijatovic realized he was three moves away from being checkmated and resigned.
In April 2008, the World Chess Federation FIDE posted a video on its website showing its president, Kirsan Ilyumzhinov, playing a friendly chess boxing match in Elista. That same month, the United Kingdom's first chess boxing club was begun in London by the Great Britain Chess Boxing Organization's founder Tim Woolgar.
In July 2008 in Berlin, a 19-year-old Russian mathematics student Nikolai Sazhin won the "World Champion" title in chess boxing by defeating Frank Stoldt. Stoldt resigned in the 5th round (chess) after losing his queen.
On November 28, 2009 the light heavyweight world championship bout took place between chess boxers Nikolay "The Chairman" Sazhin and Leo "Granit" Kraft, at the Ivan Yargin Palace of Sport in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, before a crowd of 2000. Sazhin, a native of Krasnoyarsk, had previous amateur boxing experience, having fought in 95 previous bouts (winning 85), and possessed a chess Elo rating of 2005; however, he had recently suffered an injury to his knee. His opponent, Kraft, was four years younger (at 17 years of age); he was born in Gomel, Belarus, but was representing the German Chess Boxing Organisation. Although younger, Kraft had fought in 50 amateur boxing fights (with a record of 45 wins), and had an Elo rating of 1997.
The fight opened with the Grünfeld Defence, and was followed by the first boxing round, which was largely dominated by the younger Kraft. The return to the chess board in the third round saw Kraft castling early, and the resulting play saw Kraft having to defend his king. Sazhin continued in the subsequent boxing round, taking the upper hand in the fight. However, once they returned to the chess board, Sazhin used up too much time attacking Kraft's king. Thus by round eight Sazhin was forced to win by knockout or lose on the board. He failed to do so, and on returning to the chess board, Sazhin resigned the match.
2011 saw London emerge as a force in international chess boxing. Svein Clouston won an inaugural Scottish middleweight title in Tufnell Park in March. London chess boxing experienced success by defeating a Berlin select by two bouts to one at a chess boxing challenge match in Germany. The Scala in Kings Cross became the first nightclub venue in England to host chess boxing. At 900 strong crowd watched Hubert Van Melik defeat American Andrew McGregor in the 2nd round. This event also hosted the first recorded women's chess boxing match.
The Indian Chessboxing Organisation was founded in 2011 and staged its first event in Kolkata in November.
Nikolay Sazhin who had by now moved up to the Heavyweight division took on former Mixed Martial Arts fighter and experienced chess boxer Andy 'The Rock' Costello in Siberia. Sazhin won a chess victory in front of his home supporters.
Nikolay Sazhin faced Andy 'The Rock' Costello again, in March at the Scala in Kings Cross. Costello who held the white pieces opened with a King's Indian Attack. However he failed to find an initiative and quickly fell into a passive position. Despite a determined effort by Costello who dominated the boxing rounds. Sazhin withstood the assault and a capacity crowd saw him win in the final round of chess. The evening also saw Mike Botteley winning a rematch against Chris 'The General' Levy, their second bout. German Tim Bendfeldt defeated Hungarian Atilla Por by TKO in their undercard match on the same bill.
In 2013, Chess Boxing Global, the sports marketing agency for professional chessboxing, founded by Iepe Rubingh, hosted the first professional Chessboxing World Championships in Moscow, Russia. The event took place in the Izvestia Hall on November 28. The event included 3 world championship fights in 3 weight divisions: middleweight, light heavyweight and heavyweight.
The first fight was between Sven Rooch from Germany and the Spaniard Jonatan Rodriguez Vega. After a blunder on the chessboard, Jonatan Rodriguez Vega gave up, putting his King down and Sven Rooch won the fight in the 7th round.
In the second fight Leonid Chernobaev from Belarus and the Indian Tripathi Shailesh converged in the ring and on the board. The fight was won by Leonid Chernobaev after a technical knockout in the 8th round.
The fight for the heavyweight title was between the Russian Nikolay Sazhin and the Italian Gianluca Sirci. Both are seen as very experienced chessboxers as they have been competing since 2008. Nikolay Sazhin became World Champion after checkmating Gianluca Sirci in the 7th round.
Required chess skill
World-class chess-boxers must not only be experienced boxers, but must also be at least Class A strength as chess players. For example, Nikolai Sazhin has an Elo rating of around 1900, roughly corresponding to high Class A or low expert level, while European chess boxing champion Tihomir Atanassov Dovramadjiev is a FIDE Master with a rating over 2300 and has won multiple chess competitions. Arik Braun, the strongest chess player to have competed in chess boxing, is a grandmaster rated 2556 by FIDE.
The first feature-length documentary about chess boxing is currently in production, entitled "Chessboxing: The King's Discipline." The film follows the development of the sport over a span of 3 years as the promoters in Berlin, London and Los Angeles each attempt to bring their differing visions for the sport to a mainstream audience. At the same time the film explores the various critiques of the sport put forth by members of the chess and boxing communities, while also seeking to understand the potential social impact of a never-before-seen mental/physical sporting combination such as this.
The project is completely independent, produced and directed by Canadian filmmaker David Bitton under the banner of his Anonymous Pineapple Productions. A kickstarter campaign was launched on June 12, 2013, in order to raise the funds needed to complete post-production on the film.
The documentary is expected to be completed in early 2014.
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