Condom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Condoms)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the transmission barrier and contraceptive device. For other uses, see Condom (disambiguation).
Condom
Kondom.jpg
A rolled-up condom
Background
Birth control type Barrier
First use Ancient
Rubber: 1855
Latex: 1920
Polyurethane: 1994
Polyisoprene: 2008
Pregnancy rates (first year, latex)
Perfect use 2[1]%
Typical use 18[1]%
Usage
User reminders Latex condoms damaged by oil-based lubricants
Advantages and disadvantages
STD protection Yes
Benefits No medications or clinic visits required

A condom (/ˈkɒndəm/ or UK /ˈkɒndɒm/) is a barrier device commonly used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy and spreading sexually transmitted infections (STIs/STDs) such as HIV/AIDS. It is put on an erect penis and physically blocks ejaculated semen from entering the body of a sexual partner. Condoms are also used for collection of semen for use in infertility treatment. In the modern age, condoms are most often made from latex, but some are made from other materials such as polyurethane, polyisoprene, or lamb intestine. A female condom is also available, often made of nitrile.

As a method of birth control, male condoms have the advantages of being inexpensive, easy to use, having few side effects, and offering protection against sexually transmitted diseases. With proper knowledge and application technique—and use at every act of intercourse—women whose partners use male condoms experience a 2% per-year pregnancy rate with perfect use and an 18% per-year pregnancy rate with typical use.[2] Condoms have been used for at least 400 years. Since the 19th century, they have been one of the most popular methods of contraception in the world. While widely accepted in modern times, condoms have generated some controversy, primarily over what role they should play in sex education classes.

Medical uses

Birth control

The effectiveness of condoms, as of most forms of contraception, can be assessed two ways. Perfect use or method effectiveness rates only include people who use condoms properly and consistently. Actual use, or typical use effectiveness rates are of all condom users, including those who use condoms incorrectly or do not use condoms at every act of intercourse. Rates are generally presented for the first year of use.[3] Most commonly the Pearl Index is used to calculate effectiveness rates, but some studies use decrement tables.[4]:141

The typical use pregnancy rate among condom users varies depending on the population being studied, ranging from 10 to 18% per year.[5] The perfect use pregnancy rate of condoms is 2% per year.[3] Condoms may be combined with other forms of contraception (such as spermicide) for greater protection.[6]

Sexually transmitted infections

A giant condom on the Obelisk of Buenos Aires, Argentina, part of an awareness campaign for the 2005 World AIDS Day
See also: Safe sex

Condoms are widely recommended for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). They have been shown to be effective in reducing infection rates in both men and women. While not perfect, the condom is effective at reducing the transmission of organisms that cause AIDS, genital herpes, cervical cancer, genital warts, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and other diseases.[7] Condoms are often recommended as an adjunct to more effective birth control methods (such as IUD) in situations where STD protection is also desired.[8]

According to a 2000 report by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), correct and consistent use of latex condoms reduces the risk of HIV/AIDS transmission by approximately 85% relative to risk when unprotected, putting the seroconversion rate (infection rate) at 0.9 per 100 person-years with condom, down from 6.7 per 100 person-years.[9] Analysis published in 2007 from the University of Texas Medical Branch[10] and the World Health Organization[11] found similar risk reductions of 80–95%.

The 2000 NIH review concluded that condom use significantly reduces the risk of gonorrhea for men.[9] A 2006 study reports that proper condom use decreases the risk of transmission of human papillomavirus to women by approximately 70%.[12] Another study in the same year found consistent condom use was effective at reducing transmission of herpes simplex virus-2 also known as genital herpes, in both men and women.[13]

Although a condom is effective in limiting exposure, some disease transmission may occur even with a condom. Infectious areas of the genitals, especially when symptoms are present, may not be covered by a condom, and as a result, some diseases can be transmitted by direct contact.[14] The primary effectiveness issue with using condoms to prevent STDs, however, is inconsistent use.[15]

Condoms may also be useful in treating potentially precancerous cervical changes. Exposure to human papillomavirus, even in individuals already infected with the virus, appears to increase the risk of precancerous changes. The use of condoms helps promote regression of these changes.[16] In addition, researchers in the UK suggest that a hormone in semen can aggravate existing cervical cancer, condom use during sex can prevent exposure to the hormone.[17]

Causes of failure

Several rolled up condoms

Condoms may slip off the penis after ejaculation,[18] break due to improper application or physical damage (such as tears caused when opening the package), or break or slip due to latex degradation (typically from usage past the expiration date, improper storage, or exposure to oils). The rate of breakage is between 0.4% and 2.3%, while the rate of slippage is between 0.6% and 1.3%.[9] Even if no breakage or slippage is observed, 1–2% of women will test positive for semen residue after intercourse with a condom.[19][20] "Double bagging", using two condoms at once, is often believed to cause a higher rate of failure due to the friction of rubber on rubber.[21][22] This claim is not supported by research. The limited studies that have been done on the subject support that double bagging is likely not harmful and possibly beneficial.[23][24]

Different modes of condom failure result in different levels of semen exposure. If a failure occurs during application, the damaged condom may be disposed of and a new condom applied before intercourse begins – such failures generally pose no risk to the user.[25] One study found that semen exposure from a broken condom was about half that of unprotected intercourse; semen exposure from a slipped condom was about one-fifth that of unprotected intercourse.[26]

Standard condoms will fit almost any penis, with varying degrees of comfort or risk of slippage. Many condom manufacturers offer "snug" or "magnum" sizes. Some manufacturers also offer custom sized-to-fit condoms, with claims that they are more reliable and offer improved sensation/comfort.[27][28][29] Some studies have associated larger penises and smaller condoms with increased breakage and decreased slippage rates (and vice versa), but other studies have been inconclusive.[30]

It is recommended for condoms manufacturers to avoid very thick or very thin condoms, because they are both considered less effective.[31] Some authors encourage users to choose thinner condoms "for greater durability, sensation, and comfort",[32] but others warn that "the thinner the condom, the smaller the force required to break it".[33]

Experienced condom users are significantly less likely to have a condom slip or break compared to first-time users, although users who experience one slippage or breakage are more likely to suffer a second such failure.[34] An article in Population Reports suggests that education on condom use reduces behaviors that increase the risk of breakage and slippage.[35] A Family Health International publication also offers the view that education can reduce the risk of breakage and slippage, but emphasizes that more research needs to be done to determine all of the causes of breakage and slippage.[30]

Among people who intend condoms to be their form of birth control, pregnancy may occur when the user has sex without a condom. The person may have run out of condoms, or be traveling and not have a condom with them, or simply dislike the feel of condoms and decide to "take a chance". This type of behavior is the primary cause of typical use failure (as opposed to method or perfect use failure).[36]

Another possible cause of condom failure is sabotage. One motive is to have a child against a partner's wishes or consent.[37] Some commercial sex workers from Nigeria reported clients sabotaging condoms in retaliation for being coerced into condom use.[38] Using a fine needle to make several pinholes at the tip of the condom is believed to significantly impact their effectiveness.[4]:306–307[20] Cases of such condom sabotage have occurred.[39]

Adverse effects

The use of latex condoms by people with an allergy to latex can cause allergic symptoms, such as skin irritation.[40] In people with severe latex allergies, using a latex condom can potentially be life-threatening.[41] Repeated use of latex condoms can also cause the development of a latex allergy in some people.[42]

Use

How to put on a condom

Male condoms are usually packaged inside a foil wrapper, in a rolled-up form, and are designed to be applied to the tip of the penis and then unrolled over the erect penis. It is important that some space be left in the tip of the condom so that semen has a place to collect; otherwise it may be forced out of the base of the device. After use, it is recommended the condom be wrapped in tissue or tied in a knot, then disposed of in a trash receptacle.[43]

Some couples find that putting on a condom interrupts sex, although others incorporate condom application as part of their foreplay. Some men and women find the physical barrier of a condom dulls sensation. Advantages of dulled sensation can include prolonged erection and delayed ejaculation; disadvantages might include a loss of some sexual excitement.[7] Advocates of condom use also cite their advantages of being inexpensive, easy to use, and having few side effects.[7][44]

Adult film industry

In 2012, Los Angeles County passed Measure B, a law requiring the use of condoms in the production of pornographic films. This requirement has received much criticism and is said by some to be counter-productive, merely forcing companies that make pornographic films to relocate to other places without this requirement.[45] Producers claim that condom use depresses sales.

Sex education

Condoms are often used in sex education programs, because they have the capability to reduce the chances of pregnancy and the spread of some sexually transmitted diseases when used correctly. A recent American Psychological Association (APA) press release supported the inclusion of information about condoms in sex education, saying "comprehensive sexuality education programs... discuss the appropriate use of condoms", and "promote condom use for those who are sexually active."[46]

In the United States, teaching about condoms in public schools is opposed by some religious organizations.[47] Planned Parenthood, which advocates family planning and sex education, argues that no studies have shown abstinence-only programs to result in delayed intercourse, and cites surveys showing that 76% of American parents want their children to receive comprehensive sexuality education including condom use.[48]

Infertility treatment

Common procedures in infertility treatment such as semen analysis and intrauterine insemination (IUI) require collection of semen samples. These are most commonly obtained through masturbation, but an alternative to masturbation is use of a special collection condom to collect semen during sexual intercourse.

Collection condoms are made from silicone or polyurethane, as latex is somewhat harmful to sperm. Many men prefer collection condoms to masturbation, and some religions prohibit masturbation entirely. Also, compared with samples obtained from masturbation, semen samples from collection condoms have higher total sperm counts, sperm motility, and percentage of sperm with normal morphology. For this reason, they are believed to give more accurate results when used for semen analysis, and to improve the chances of pregnancy when used in procedures such as intracervical or intrauterine insemination.[49] Adherents of religions that prohibit contraception, such as Catholicism, may use collection condoms with holes pricked in them.[4]:306–307

For fertility treatments, a collection condom may be used to collect semen during sexual intercourse where the semen is provided by the woman's partner. Private sperm donors may also use a collection condom to obtain samples through masturbation or by sexual intercourse with a partner and will transfer the ejaculate from the collection condom to a specially designed container. The sperm is transported in such containers, in the case of a donor, to a recipient woman to be used for insemination, and in the case of a woman's partner, to a fertility clinic for processing and use. However, transportation may reduce the fecundity of the sperm. Collection condoms may also be used where semen is produced at a sperm bank or fertility clinic.

Condom therapy is sometimes prescribed to infertile couples when the female has high levels of antisperm antibodies. The theory is that preventing exposure to her partner's semen will lower her level of antisperm antibodies, and thus increase her chances of pregnancy when condom therapy is discontinued. However, condom therapy has not been shown to increase subsequent pregnancy rates.[50]

Other uses

Condoms excel as multipurpose containers and barriers because they are waterproof, elastic, durable, and (for military and espionage uses) will not arouse suspicion if found.

Ongoing military utilization began during World War II, and includes covering the muzzles of rifle barrels to prevent fouling,[51] the waterproofing of firing assemblies in underwater demolitions,[52] and storage of corrosive materials and garrotes by paramilitary agencies.[53]

Condoms have also been used to smuggle alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and other drugs across borders and into prisons by filling the condom with drugs, tying it in a knot and then either swallowing it or inserting it into the rectum. These methods are very dangerous and potentially lethal; if the condom breaks, the drugs inside become absorbed into the bloodstream and can cause an overdose.[54][55]

Medically, condoms can be used to cover endovaginal ultrasound probes,[56] or in field chest needle decompressions they can be used to make a one-way valve.[57]

Condoms have also been used by to protect scientific samples from the environment,[58] and to waterproof microphones for underwater recording.[59]

Types

Most condoms have a reservoir tip or teat end, making it easier to accommodate the man's ejaculate. Condoms come in different sizes, from oversized to snug and they also come in a variety of surfaces intended to stimulate the user's partner. Condoms are usually supplied with a lubricant coating to facilitate penetration, while flavored condoms are principally used for oral sex. As mentioned above, most condoms are made of latex, but polyurethane and lambskin condoms also exist.

Female condom

Female condom
Main article: Female condom

Male condoms have a tight ring to form a seal around the penis while female condoms typically have a large stiff ring to keep them from slipping into the body orifice. The Female Health Company produced a female condom that was initially made of polyurethane, but newer versions are made of nitrile. Medtech Products produces a female condom made of latex.[60]

Materials

Natural latex

An unrolled latex condom

Latex has outstanding elastic properties: Its tensile strength exceeds 30 MPa, and latex condoms may be stretched in excess of 800% before breaking.[61] In 1990 the ISO set standards for condom production (ISO 4074, Natural latex rubber condoms), and the EU followed suit with its CEN standard (Directive 93/42/EEC concerning medical devices). Every latex condom is tested for holes with an electrical current. If the condom passes, it is rolled and packaged. In addition, a portion of each batch of condoms is subject to water leak and air burst testing.[15]

While the advantages of latex have made it the most popular condom material, it does have some drawbacks. Latex condoms are damaged when used with oil-based substances as lubricants, such as petroleum jelly, cooking oil, baby oil, mineral oil, skin lotions, suntan lotions, cold creams, butter or margarine.[62] Contact with oil makes latex condoms more likely to break or slip off due to loss of elasticity caused by the oils.[30] Additionally, latex allergy precludes use of latex condoms and is one of the principal reasons for the use of other materials. In May 2009 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted approval for the production of condoms composed of Vytex,[63] latex that has been treated to remove 90% of the proteins responsible for allergic reactions.[64] An allergen-free condom made of synthetic latex (polyisoprene) is also available.[65]

Synthetic

The most common non-latex condoms are made from polyurethane. Condoms may also be made from other synthetic materials, such as AT-10 resin, and most recently polyisoprene.[65]

Polyurethane condoms tend to be the same width and thickness as latex condoms, with most polyurethane condoms between 0.04 mm and 0.07 mm thick.[66]

Polyurethane can be considered better than latex in several ways: it conducts heat better than latex, is not as sensitive to temperature and ultraviolet light (and so has less rigid storage requirements and a longer shelf life), can be used with oil-based lubricants, is less allergenic than latex, and does not have an odor.[67] Polyurethane condoms have gained FDA approval for sale in the United States as an effective method of contraception and HIV prevention, and under laboratory conditions have been shown to be just as effective as latex for these purposes.[68]

However, polyurethane condoms are less elastic than latex ones, and may be more likely to slip or break than latex,[67][69] lose their shape or bunch up more than latex,[70] and are more expensive.

Polyisoprene is a synthetic version of natural rubber latex. While significantly more expensive,[71] it has the advantages of latex (such as being softer and more elastic than polyurethane condoms)[65] without the protein which is responsible for latex allergies.[71] Like polyurethane condoms, polyisoprene condoms are said to do a better job of transmitting body heat. Unlike polyurethane condoms, they cannot be used with an oil-based lubricant.[70]

Lambskin

Condoms made from sheep intestines, labeled "lambskin", are also available. Although they are generally effective as a contraceptive by blocking sperm, it is presumed that they are likely less effective than latex in preventing the transmission of agents that cause STDs, because of pores in the material.[72] This is based on the idea that intestines, by their nature, are porous, permeable membranes, and while sperm are too large to pass through the pores, viruses—such as HIV, herpes, and genital warts—are small enough to pass through.[70] However, there are to date no clinical data confirming or denying this theory. Some believe that lambskin condoms provide a more "natural" sensation, and they lack the allergens that are inherent to latex, but because of their lesser protection against infection, other hypoallergenic materials such as polyurethane are recommended for latex-allergic users and/or partners. Lambskin condoms are also significantly more expensive than other types and as slaughter by-products they are also not vegetarian.

Spermicide

Some latex condoms are lubricated at the manufacturer with a small amount of a nonoxynol-9, a spermicidal chemical. According to Consumer Reports, condoms lubricated with spermicide have no additional benefit in preventing pregnancy, have a shorter shelf life, and may cause urinary-tract infections in women.[73] In contrast, application of separately packaged spermicide is believed to increase the contraceptive efficacy of condoms.[6]

Nonoxynol-9 was once believed to offer additional protection against STDs (including HIV) but recent studies have shown that, with frequent use, nonoxynol-9 may increase the risk of HIV transmission.[74] The World Health Organizationsays that spermicidally lubricated condoms should no longer be promoted. However, it recommends using a nonoxynol-9 lubricated condom over no condom at all.>[75] As of 2005, nine condom manufacturers have stopped manufacturing condoms with nonoxynol-9 and Planned Parenthood has discontinued the distribution of condoms so lubricated.[76]

Ribbed and studded

A ribbed condom

Textured condoms include studded and ribbed condoms which can provide extra sensations to both partners. The studs or ribs can be located on the inside, outside, or both; alternatively, they are located in specific sections to provide directed stimulation to either the g-spot or frenulum. Many textured condoms which advertise "mutual pleasure" also are bulb-shaped at the top, to provide extra stimulation to the penis.[77] Some women experience irritation during vaginal intercourse with studded condoms.

Youth condoms

In March 2010, the Swiss government announced that it was planning to promote smaller condoms intended for boys and youths of 12–14 years old following concern about the pregnancy rate among adolescent girls, and also about the potential spread of AIDS among this age group. This was due to the fact that standard condoms were too wide and consequently failed to afford protection to adolescent boys during vaginal and anal intercourse. Family planning groups and the Swiss Aids Federation had campaigned to have a narrower condom produced for youths after a number of studies, including a government study researched at the Centre for Development and Personality Psychology at Basel University, found that standard condoms were unsuitable for boys in this age range, and that the condoms either failed during use or that the boys rejected them altogether because they were too wide, and consequently they used no protection at all.[78]

As a result of these studies, a condom aimed at 12 to 14 year old boys is now produced and is available in Switzerland and in certain other countries. Manufactured by Ceylor, the "Hotshot" is a lubricated, teat-ended latex condom which is narrower than a standard condom and has a tight band at the opening to ensure that it remains on the youth's penis during intercourse. A standard condom has a diameter of 2 inches (5.2 cm) whereas the Hotshot has a diameter of 1.7 inches (4.5 cm). Both are the same length–7.4 inches (19 cm). In 2014, in response to demand for condoms from a younger age-group, German condom manufacturer Amor started producing another condom aimed at young people. Known as "Amor Young Love" these lubricated condoms have a diameter of 1.9 inches (4.9 cm).

Other

The anti-rape condom is another variation designed to be worn by women. It is designed to cause pain to the attacker, hopefully allowing the victim a chance to escape.[79]

A collection condom is used to collect semen for fertility treatments or sperm analysis. These condoms are designed to maximize sperm life.

Some condom-like devices are intended for entertainment only, such as glow-in-the dark condoms. These novelty condoms may not provide protection against pregnancy and STDs.[7]

Prevalence

The prevalence of condom use varies greatly between countries. Most surveys of contraceptive use are among married women, or women in informal unions. Japan has the highest rate of condom usage in the world: in that country, condoms account for almost 80% of contraceptive use by married women. On average, in developed countries, condoms are the most popular method of birth control: 28% of married contraceptive users rely on condoms. In the average less-developed country, condoms are less common: only 6-8% of married contraceptive users choose condoms.[80]

History

A page from De Morbo Gallico (The French Disease), Gabriele Falloppio's treatise on syphilis. Published in 1564, it describes what is possibly the first use of condoms.
Main article: History of condoms

Before the 19th century

Whether condoms were used in ancient civilizations is debated by archaeologists and historians.[81]:11 In ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome, pregnancy prevention was generally seen as a woman's responsibility, and the only well documented contraception methods were female-controlled devices.[81]:17,23 In Asia before the 15th century, some use of glans condoms (devices covering only the head of the penis) is recorded. Condoms seem to have been used for contraception, and to have been known only by members of the upper classes. In China, glans condoms may have been made of oiled silk paper, or of lamb intestines. In Japan, they were made of tortoise shell or animal horn.[81]:60–1

In 16th century Italy, Gabriele Falloppio wrote a treatise on syphilis.[81]:51,54–5 The earliest documented strain of syphilis, first appearing in Europe in a 1490s outbreak, caused severe symptoms and often death within a few months of contracting the disease.[82][83] Falloppio's treatise is the earliest uncontested description of condom use: it describes linen sheaths soaked in a chemical solution and allowed to dry before use. The cloths he described were sized to cover the glans of the penis, and were held on with a ribbon.[81]:51,54–5[84] Falloppio claimed that an experimental trial of the linen sheath demonstrated protection against syphilis.[85]

After this, the use of penis coverings to protect from disease is described in a wide variety of literature throughout Europe. The first indication that these devices were used for birth control, rather than disease prevention, is the 1605 theological publication De iustitia et iure (On justice and law) by Catholic theologian Leonardus Lessius, who condemned them as immoral.[81]:56 In 1666, the English Birth Rate Commission attributed a recent downward fertility rate to use of "condons", the first documented use of that word (or any similar spelling).[81]:66–8

A condom made from animal intestine circa 1900.

In addition to linen, condoms during the Renaissance were made out of intestines and bladder. In the late 16th century, Dutch traders introduced condoms made from "fine leather" to Japan. Unlike the horn condoms used previously, these leather condoms covered the entire penis.[81]:61

Giacomo Casanova tests his condom for holes by inflating it.

Casanova in the 18th century was one of the first reported using "assurance caps" to prevent impregnating his mistresses.[86]

From at least the 18th century, condom use was opposed in some legal, religious, and medical circles for essentially the same reasons that are given today: condoms reduce the likelihood of pregnancy, which some thought immoral or undesirable for the nation; they do not provide full protection against sexually transmitted infections, while belief in their protective powers was thought to encourage sexual promiscuity; and, they are not used consistently due to inconvenience, expense, or loss of sensation.[81]:73,86–8,92

Despite some opposition, the condom market grew rapidly. In the 18th century, condoms were available in a variety of qualities and sizes, made from either linen treated with chemicals, or "skin" (bladder or intestine softened by treatment with sulfur and lye).[81]:94–5 They were sold at pubs, barbershops, chemist shops, open-air markets, and at the theater throughout Europe and Russia.[81]:90–2,97,104 They later spread to America, although in every place there were generally used only by the middle and upper classes, due to both expense and lack of sex education.[81]:116–21

1800 through 1920s

The early 19th century saw contraceptives promoted to the poorer classes for the first time. Writers on contraception tended to prefer other methods of birth control. Feminists of this time period wanted birth control to be exclusively in the hands of women, and disapproved of male-controlled methods such as the condom.[81]:129,152–3 Other writers cited both the expense of condoms and their unreliability (they were often riddled with holes, and often fell off or broke), but they discussed condoms as a good option for some, and as the only contraceptive that also protected from disease.[81]:88,90,125,129–30

An old-fashioned condom package

Many countries passed laws impeding the manufacture and promotion of contraceptives.[81]:144,163–4,168–71,193 In spite of these restrictions, condoms were promoted by traveling lecturers and in newspaper advertisements, using euphemisms in places where such ads were illegal.[81]:127,130–2,138,146–7 Instructions on how to make condoms at home were distributed in the United States and Europe.[81]:126,136 Despite social and legal opposition, at the end of the 19th century the condom was the Western world's most popular birth control method.[81]:173–4

During World War I, the U.S. military was the only one that did not promote condom use. Posters such as these were intended to promote abstinence.

Beginning in the second half of the 19th century, American rates of sexually transmitted diseases skyrocketed. Causes cited by historians include effects of the American Civil War, and the ignorance of prevention methods promoted by the Comstock laws.[81]:137–8,159 To fight the growing epidemic, sex education classes were introduced to public schools for the first time, teaching about venereal diseases and how they were transmitted. They generally taught that abstinence was the only way to avoid sexually transmitted diseases.[81]:179–80 Condoms were not promoted for disease prevention because the medical community and moral watchdogs considered STDs to be punishment for sexual misbehavior. The stigma against victims of these diseases was so great that many hospitals refused to treat people who had syphilis.[81]:176

Condom (and manual) from 1813

The German military was the first to promote condom use among its soldiers, beginning in the later 19th century.[81]:169,181 Early 20th century experiments by the American military concluded that providing condoms to soldiers significantly lowered rates of sexually transmitted diseases.[81]:180–3 During World War I, the United States and (at the beginning of the war only) Britain were the only countries with soldiers in Europe who did not provide condoms and promote their use.[81]:187–90

In the decades after World War I, there remained social and legal obstacles to condom use throughout the U.S. and Europe.[81]:208–10 Founder of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud opposed all methods of birth control on the grounds that their failure rates were too high. Freud was especially opposed to the condom because he thought it cut down on sexual pleasure. Some feminists continued to oppose male-controlled contraceptives such as condoms. In 1920 the Church of England's Lambeth Conference condemned all "unnatural means of conception avoidance." London's Bishop Arthur Winnington-Ingram complained of the huge number of condoms discarded in alleyways and parks, especially after weekends and holidays.[81]:211–2

However, European militaries continued to provide condoms to their members for disease protection, even in countries where they were illegal for the general population.[81]:213–4 Through the 1920s, catchy names and slick packaging became an increasingly important marketing technique for many consumer items, including condoms and cigarettes.[81]:197 Quality testing became more common, involving filling each condom with air followed by one of several methods intended to detect loss of pressure.[81]:204,206,221–2 Worldwide, condom sales doubled in the 1920s.[81]:210

Rubber and manufacturing advances

In 1839, Charles Goodyear discovered a way of processing natural rubber, which is too stiff when cold and too soft when warm, in such a way as to make it elastic. This proved to have advantages for the manufacture of condoms; unlike the sheep's gut condoms, they could stretch and did not tear quickly when used. The rubber vulcanization process was patented by Goodyear in 1844.[87] The first rubber condom was produced in 1855.[88] The earliest rubber condoms had a seam and were as thick as a bicycle inner tube. Besides this type, small rubber condoms covering only the glans were often used in England and the United States. There was more risk of losing them and if the rubber ring was too tight, it would constrict the penis. This type of condom was the original "capote" (French for condom), perhaps because of its resemblance to a woman's bonnet worn at that time, also called a capote.

For many decades, rubber condoms were manufactured by wrapping strips of raw rubber around penis-shaped molds, then dipping the wrapped molds in a chemical solution to cure the rubber.[81]:148 In 1912, Polish inventor Julius Fromm developed a new, improved manufacturing technique for condoms: dipping glass molds into a raw rubber solution.[88] Called cement dipping, this method required adding gasoline or benzene to the rubber to make it liquid.[81]:200 Latex, rubber suspended in water, was invented in 1920. Latex condoms required less labor to produce than cement-dipped rubber condoms, which had to be smoothed by rubbing and trimming. The use of water to suspend the rubber instead of gasoline and benzene eliminated the fire hazard previously associated with all condom factories. Latex condoms also performed better for the consumer: they were stronger and thinner than rubber condoms, and had a shelf life of five years (compared to three months for rubber).[81]:199–200

Until the twenties, all condoms were individually hand-dipped by semi-skilled workers. Throughout the decade of the 1920s, advances in the automation of the condom assembly line were made. The first fully automated line was patented in 1930. Major condom manufacturers bought or leased conveyor systems, and small manufacturers were driven out of business.[81]:201–3 The skin condom, now significantly more expensive than the latex variety, became restricted to a niche high-end market.[81]:220

1930 to present

In 1930 the Anglican Church's Lambeth Conference sanctioned the use of birth control by married couples. In 1931 the Federal Council of Churches in the U.S. issued a similar statement.[81]:227 The Roman Catholic Church responded by issuing the encyclical Casti Connubii affirming its opposition to all contraceptives, a stance it has never reversed.[81]:228–9

In the 1930s, legal restrictions on condoms began to be relaxed.[81]:216,226,234[89] But during this period Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany increased restrictions on condoms (limited sales as disease preventatives were still allowed).[81]:252,254–5 During the Depression, condom lines by Schmid gained in popularity. Schmid still used the cement-dipping method of manufacture which had two advantages over the latex variety. Firstly, cement-dipped condoms could be safely used with oil-based lubricants. Secondly, while less comfortable, these older-style rubber condoms could be reused and so were more economical, a valued feature in hard times.[81]:217–9 More attention was brought to quality issues in the 1930s, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began to regulate the quality of condoms sold in the United States.[81]:223–5

Throughout World War II, condoms were not only distributed to male U.S. military members, but also heavily promoted with films, posters, and lectures.[81]:236–8,259 European and Asian militaries on both sides of the conflict also provided condoms to their troops throughout the war, even Germany which outlawed all civilian use of condoms in 1941.[81]:252–4,257–8 In part because condoms were readily available, soldiers found a number of non-sexual uses for the devices, many of which continue to this day.

After the war, condom sales continued to grow. From 1955–1965, 42% of Americans of reproductive age relied on condoms for birth control. In Britain from 1950–1960, 60% of married couples used condoms. The birth control pill became the world's most popular method of birth control in the years after its 1960 début, but condoms remained a strong second. The U.S. Agency for International Development pushed condom use in developing countries to help solve the "world population crises": by 1970 hundreds of millions of condoms were being used each year in India alone.[81]:267–9,272–5(This number has grown in recent decades: in 2004, the government of India purchased 1.9 billion condoms for distribution at family planning clinics.)[90]

In the 1960s and 1970s quality regulations tightened,[91] and more legal barriers to condom use were removed.[81]:276–9 In Ireland, legal condom sales were allowed for the first time in 1978.[81]:329–30 Advertising, however was one area that continued to have legal restrictions. In the late 1950s, the American National Association of Broadcasters banned condom advertisements from national television: this policy remained in place until 1979.[81]:273–4,285

After learning in the early 1980s that AIDS can be a sexually transmitted infection,[92] the use of condoms was encouraged to prevent transmission of HIV. Despite opposition by some political, religious, and other figures, national condom promotion campaigns occurred in the U.S. and Europe.[81]:299,301,306–7,312–8 These campaigns increased condom use significantly.[81]:309–17

Due to increased demand and greater social acceptance, condoms began to be sold in a wider variety of retail outlets, including in supermarkets and in discount department stores such as Wal-Mart.[81]:305 Condom sales increased every year until 1994, when media attention to the AIDS pandemic began to decline.[81]:303–4 The phenomenon of decreasing use of condoms as disease preventatives has been called prevention fatigue or condom fatigue. Observers have cited condom fatigue in both Europe and North America.[93][94] As one response, manufacturers have changed the tone of their advertisements from scary to humorous.[81]:303–4

New developments continued to occur in the condom market, with the first polyurethane condom—branded Avanti and produced by the manufacturer of Durex—introduced in the 1990s,[81]:32–5 and the first custom sized-to-fit condom, called TheyFit, introduced in 2011.[95]

Worldwide condom use is expected to continue to grow: one study predicted that developing nations would need 18.6 billion condoms by 2015.[81]:342 As of September 2013, condoms are available inside prisons in Canada, most of the European Union, Australia, Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, and the US states of Vermont (on September 17, 2013, the Californian Senate approved a bill for condom distribution inside the state's prisons, but the bill was not yet law at the time of approval).[96]

Etymology and other terms

The term condom first appears in the early 18th century. Its etymology is unknown. In popular tradition, the invention and naming of the condom came to be attributed to an associate of England's King Charles II, one "Dr. Condom" or "Earl of Condom". There is however no evidence of the existence of such a person, and condoms had been used for over one hundred years before King Charles II ascended to the throne.[81]:54,68

A variety of unproven Latin etymologies have been proposed, including condon (receptacle),[97] condamina (house),[98] and cumdum (scabbard or case).[81]:70–1 It has also been speculated to be from the Italian word guantone, derived from guanto, meaning glove.[99] William E. Kruck wrote an article in 1981 concluding that, "As for the word 'condom', I need state only that its origin remains completely unknown, and there ends this search for an etymology."[100] Modern dictionaries may also list the etymology as "unknown".[101]

Other terms are also commonly used to describe condoms. In North America condoms are also commonly known as prophylactics, or rubbers. In Britain they may be called French letters.[102] Additionally, condoms may be referred to using the manufacturer's name.

Society and culture

There do exist some criticisms of condoms both on the moral level and on the scientific level despite the many proven benefits of condoms by scientific consensus and sexual health experts, particularly over the last century when direct and concentrated research on condoms has increased.

Condom usage is typically recommended for new couples whom have yet to develop full trust in their partner with regard to STDs. Established couples on the other hand have few concerns about STDs, and can use other methods of birth control such as the pill, which does not act as a barrier to intimate sexual contact. Note that the polar debate with regard to condom usage is attenuated by the target group the argument is directed. Notably the age category and stable partner question are factors, as well as the distinction between heterosexual and homosexuals, whom have different kinds of sex and have different risk consequences and factors.

Among the prime objections to condom usage is the blocking of erotic sensation, and/or the intimacy that barrier-free sex provides. As the condom is held tightly to the skin of the penis, it diminishes the delivery of stimulation through rubbing and friction. Condom proponents claim this has the benefit of making sex last longer, by diminishing sensation and delaying male ejaculation. Those who promote condom-free heterosexual sex (slang: "bareback") claim that the condom puts a prophylactic barrier between partners, diminishing what is normally a highly sensual, intimate, and spiritual connection between partners.

Religious

Roman Catholic Church opposes all kinds of sexual acts outside of marriage, as well as any sexual act in which the chance of successful conception has been reduced by direct and intentional acts (for example, surgery to prevent conception) or foreign objects (for example, condoms).[103]

The use of condoms to prevent STD transmission is not specifically addressed by Catholic doctrine, and is currently a topic of debate among theologians and high-ranking Catholic authorities. A few, such as Belgian Cardinal Godfried Danneels, believe the Catholic Church should actively support condoms used to prevent disease, especially serious diseases such as AIDS.[104] However, the majority view—including all statements from the Vatican—is that condom-promotion programs encourage promiscuity, thereby actually increasing STD transmission.[105][106] This view was most recently reiterated in 2009 by Pope Benedict XVI.[107]

The Roman Catholic Church is the largest organized body of any world religion.[108] The church has hundreds of programs dedicated to fighting the AIDS epidemic in Africa,[109] but its opposition to condom use in these programs has been highly controversial.[110]

In a November 2011 interview, the Pope discussed for the first time the use of condoms to prevent STD transmission. He said that the use of a condom can be justified in a few individual cases if the purpose is to reduce the risk of an HIV infection.[111] He gave as an example male prostitutes. There was some confusion at first whether the statement applied only to homosexual prostitutes and thus not to heterosexual intercourse at all. However, Federico Lombardi, spokesman for the Vatican, clarified that it applied to heterosexual and transsexual prostitutes, whether male or female, as well.[112] He did, however, also clarify that the Vatican's principles on sexuality and contraception had not been changed.

Scientific and environmental

More generally, some scientific researchers have expressed objective concern over certain ingredients sometimes added to condoms, notably talc and nitrosamines. Dry dusting powders are applied to latex condoms before packaging to prevent the condom from sticking to itself when rolled up. Previously, talc was used by most manufacturers, but cornstarch is currently the most popular dusting powder.[113] Talc is known to be toxic if it enters the abdominal cavity (i.e., via the vagina). Cornstarch is generally believed to be safe; however, some researchers have raised concerns over its use as well.[113][114]

Nitrosamines, which are potentially carcinogenic in humans,[115] are believed to be present in a substance used to improve elasticity in latex condoms.[116] A 2001 review stated that humans regularly receive 1,000 to 10,000 times greater nitrosamine exposure from food and tobacco than from condom use and concluded that the risk of cancer from condom use is very low.[117] However, a 2004 study in Germany detected nitrosamines in 29 out of 32 condom brands tested, and concluded that exposure from condoms might exceed the exposure from food by 1.5- to 3-fold.[116][118]

Used condom on a street.

In addition, the large-scale use of disposable condoms has resulted in concerns over their environmental impact via littering and in landfills, where they can eventually wind up in wildlife environments if not incinerated or otherwise permanently disposed of first. Polyurethane condoms in particular, given they are a form of plastic, are not biodegradable, and latex condoms take a very long time to break down. Experts, such as AVERT, recommend condoms be disposed of in a garbage receptacle, as flushing them down the toilet (which some people do) may cause plumbing blockages and other problems.[43][119] Furthermore, the plastic and foil wrappers condoms are packaged in are also not biodegradable. However, the benefits condoms offer are widely considered to offset their small landfill mass.[43] Frequent condom or wrapper disposal in public areas such as a parks have been seen as a persistent litter problem.[120]

While biodegradable,[43] latex condoms damage the environment when disposed of improperly. According to the Ocean Conservancy, condoms, along with certain other types of trash, cover the coral reefs and smother sea grass and other bottom dwellers. The United States Environmental Protection Agency also has expressed concerns that many animals might mistake the litter for food.[121]

Cultural barriers to use

In much of the Western world, the introduction of the pill in the 1960s was associated with a decline in condom use.[81]:267–9,272–5 In Japan, oral contraceptives were not approved for use until September 1999, and even then access was more restricted than in other industrialized nations.[122] Perhaps because of this restricted access to hormonal contraception, Japan has the highest rate of condom usage in the world: in 2008, 80% of contraceptive users relied on condoms.[80]

Cultural attitudes toward gender roles, contraception, and sexual activity vary greatly around the world, and range from extremely conservative to extremely liberal. But in places where condoms are misunderstood, mischaracterised, demonised, or looked upon with overall cultural disapproval, the prevalence of condom use is directly affected. In less-developed countries and among less-educated populations, misperceptions about how disease transmission and conception work negatively affect the use of condoms; additionally, in cultures with more traditional gender roles, women may feel uncomfortable demanding that their partners use condoms.

As an example, Latino immigrants in the United States often face cultural barriers to condom use. A study on female HIV prevention published in the Journal of Sex Health Research asserts that Latino women often lack the attitudes needed to negotiate safe sex due to traditional gender-role norms in the Latino community, and may be afraid to bring up the subject of condom use with their partners. Women who participated in the study often reported that because of the general machismo subtly encouraged in Latino culture, their male partners would be angry or possibly violent at the woman's suggestion that they use condoms.[123] A similar phenomenon has been noted in a survey of low-income American black women; the women in this study also reported a fear of violence at the suggestion to their male partners that condoms be used.[124]

A telephone survey conducted by Rand Corporation and Oregon State University, and published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes showed that belief in AIDS conspiracy theories among United States black men is linked to rates of condom use. As conspiracy beliefs about AIDS grow in a given sector of these black men, consistent condom use drops in that same sector. Female use of condoms was not similarly affected.[125]

In the African continent, condom promotion in some areas has been impeded by anti-condom campaigns by some Muslim[126] and Catholic clerics.[105] Among the Maasai in Tanzania, condom use is hampered by an aversion to "wasting" sperm, which is given sociocultural importance beyond reproduction. Sperm is believed to be an "elixir" to women and to have beneficial health effects. Maasai women believe that, after conceiving a child, they must have sexual intercourse repeatedly so that the additional sperm aids the child's development. Frequent condom use is also considered by some Maasai to cause impotence.[127] Some women in Africa believe that condoms are "for prostitutes" and that respectable women should not use them.[126] A few clerics even promote the idea that condoms are deliberately laced with HIV.[128] In the United States, possession of many condoms has been used by police to accuse women of engaging in prostitution.[129] The Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS has condemned this practice and there are efforts to end it.[129][130][131]

In March 2013, technology mogul Bill Gates offered a US$100,000 grant through his foundation for a condom design that "significantly preserves or enhances pleasure" to encourage more males to adopt the use of condoms for safer sex. The grant information states: “The primary drawback from the male perspective is that condoms decrease pleasure as compared to no condom, creating a trade-off that many men find unacceptable, particularly given that the decisions about use must be made just prior to intercourse. Is it possible to develop a product without this stigma, or better, one that is felt to enhance pleasure?” The project has been named the "Next Generation Condom" and anyone who can provide a "testable hypothesis" is eligible to apply.[132]

Middle-Eastern couples who have not had children, because of the strong desire and social pressure to establish fertility as soon as possible within marriage, rarely use condoms.[133]

Major manufacturers

One analyst described the size of the condom market as something that "boggles the mind". Numerous small manufacturers, nonprofit groups, and government-run manufacturing plants exist around the world.[81]:322,328 Within the condom market, there are several major contributors, among them both for-profit businesses and philanthropic organizations. Most large manufacturers have ties to the business that reach back to the end of the 19th century.

Research

A spray-on condom made of latex is intended to be easier to apply and more successful in preventing the transmission of diseases. As of 2009, the spray-on condom was not going to market because the drying time could not be reduced below two to three minutes.[134][135][136]

The Invisible Condom, developed at Université Laval in Québec, Canada, is a gel that hardens upon increased temperature after insertion into the vagina or rectum. In the lab, it has been shown to effectively block HIV and herpes simplex virus. The barrier breaks down and liquefies after several hours. As of 2005, the invisible condom is in the clinical trial phase, and has not yet been approved for use.[137]

Also developed in 2005 is a condom treated with an erectogenic compound. The drug-treated condom is intended to help the wearer maintain his erection, which should also help reduce slippage. If approved, the condom would be marketed under the Durex brand. As of 2007, it was still in clinical trials.[81]:345 In 2009, Ansell Healthcare, the makers of Lifestyle condoms, introduced the X2 condom lubricated with "Excite Gel" which contains the amino acid l-arginine and is intended to improve the strength of the erectile response.[138]

References

  1. ^ a b Trussell, James (2011). "Contraceptive efficacy". In Hatcher, Robert A.; Trussell, James; Nelson, Anita L.; Cates, Willard Jr.; Kowal, Deborah; Policar, Michael S. (eds.). Contraceptive technology (20th revised ed.). New York: Ardent Media. pp. 779–863. ISBN 978-1-59708-004-0. ISSN 0091-9721. OCLC 781956734.  Table 26–1 = Table 3–2 Percentage of women experiencing an unintended pregnancy during the first year of typical use and the first year of perfect use of contraception, and the percentage continuing use at the end of the first year. United States.
  2. ^ Trussell, J (2007). "Contraceptive efficacy". Ardent Media. Retrieved 2011-03-13. 
  3. ^ a b Hatcher, RA; Trussel, J; Nelson, AL; et al. (2007). Contraceptive Technology (19th ed.). New York: Ardent Media. ISBN 1-59708-001-2. Archived from the original on May 31, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  4. ^ a b c Kippley, John; Kippley, Sheila (1996). The Art of Natural Family Planning (4th addition ed.). Cincinnati, OH: The Couple to Couple League. ISBN 0-926412-13-2. 
  5. ^ Kippley, John; Sheila Kippley (1996). The Art of Natural Family Planning (4th addition ed.). Cincinnati, OH: The Couple to Couple League. p. 146. ISBN 0-926412-13-2. , which cites:
    Guttmacher Institute (1992). "Choice of Contraceptives". The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics 34 (885): 111–114. PMID 1448019. 
  6. ^ a b Kestelman, P; Trussell, J (1991). "Efficacy of the simultaneous use of condoms and spermicides". Fam Plann Perspect 23 (5): 226–7, 232. doi:10.2307/2135759. JSTOR 2135759. PMID 1743276. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Condom". Planned Parenthood. 2008. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  8. ^ Cates, W., Steiner, M. J. (2002). "Dual Protection Against Unintended Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections: What Is the Best Contraceptive Approach?". Sexually Transmitted Diseases 29 (3): 168–174. doi:10.1097/00007435-200203000-00007. PMID 11875378. 
  9. ^ a b c National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services (2001-07-20). "Workshop Summary: Scientific Evidence on Condom Effectiveness for Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention" (PDF). Hyatt Dulles Airport, Herndon, Virginia. pp. 13–15. Retrieved 2010-09-22. 
  10. ^ Cayley, W.E. & Davis-Beaty, K. (2007). "Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission". In Weller, Susan C. "Effectiveness of Condoms in Reducing Heterosexual Transmission of HIV (Review)". John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003255. 
  11. ^ World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research (WHO/RHR) & Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs (CCP), INFO Project (2007). Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers. INFO Project at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. p. 200. 
  12. ^ Winer, R; Hughes, J; Feng, Q; O'Reilly, S; Kiviat, N; Holmes, K; Koutsky, L (2006). "Condom use and the risk of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women". N Engl J Med 354 (25): 2645–54. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa053284. PMID 16790697. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  13. ^ Wald, Anna; Langenberg, AG; Krantz, E; Douglas Jr, JM; Handsfield, HH; Dicarlo, RP; Adimora, AA; Izu, AE; Morrow, RA; Lawrence, C (2005). "The Relationship between Condom Use and Herpes Simplex Virus Acquisition". Annals of Internal Medicine 143 (10): 707–713. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-143-10-200511150-00007. PMID 16287791. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  14. ^ Villhauer, Tanya (2005-05-20). "Condoms Preventing HPV?". University of Iowa Student Health Service/Health Iowa. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  15. ^ a b Nordenberg, Tamar (March–April 1998). "Condoms: Barriers to Bad News". FDA Consumer magazine (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  16. ^ Hogewoning, Cornelis J; Bleeker, MC; van den Bruler, AJ; Voorhorst, Feja J; Snijders, Peter JF; Berkhof, Johannes; Westenend, Pieter J; Meijer, Chris JLM (2003). "Condom use Promotes the Regression of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Clearance of HPV: Randomized Clinical Trial". International Journal of Cancer 107 (5): 811–816. doi:10.1002/ijc.11474. PMID 14566832. 
  17. ^ "Semen can worsen cervical cancer". Medical Research Council (UK). Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  18. ^ Sparrow, M; Lavill, K (1994). "Breakage and slippage of condoms in family planning clients". Contraception 50 (2): 117–29. doi:10.1016/0010-7824(94)90048-5. PMID 7956211. 
  19. ^ Walsh, T; Frezieres, R; Peacock, K; Nelson, A; Clark, V; Bernstein, L; Wraxall, B (2004). "Effectiveness of the male latex condom: combined results for three popular condom brands used as controls in randomized clinical trials". Contraception 70 (5): 407–13. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2004.05.008. PMID 15504381. 
  20. ^ a b Walsh, T; Frezieres, R; Nelson, A; Wraxall, B; Clark, V (1999). "Evaluation of prostate-specific antigen as a quantifiable indicator of condom failure in clinical trials". Contraception 60 (5): 289–98. doi:10.1016/S0010-7824(99)00098-0. PMID 10717781. 
  21. ^ "Does using two condoms provide more protection than using just one condom?". Condoms and Dental Dams. New York University Student Health Center. Retrieved 2008-06-30. 
  22. ^ "Are two condoms better than one?". Go Ask Alice!. Columbia University. 2005-01-21. Retrieved 2008-06-30. 
  23. ^ "The Truth About Condoms". Planned Parenthood. Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. 2011-07-01. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  24. ^ "Multiple Condom Use and Decreased Condom Breakage and Slippage in Thailand". Rugpao et al. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes & Human Retrovirology. 1996-10-08. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  25. ^ Richters, J; Donovan, B; Gerofi, J (1993). "How often do condoms break or slip off in use?". Int J STD AIDS 4 (2): 90–4. PMID 8476971. 
  26. ^ Walsh, T; Frezieres, R; Peacock, K; Nelson, A; Clark, V; Bernstein, L; Wraxall, B (2003). "Use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to measure semen exposure resulting from male condom failures: implications for contraceptive efficacy and the prevention of sexually transmitted disease". Contraception 67 (2): 139–50. doi:10.1016/S0010-7824(02)00478-X. PMID 12586324. 
  27. ^ "For Condoms, Maybe Size Matters After All". CBS News. 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
  28. ^ "Next big thing, why condom size matters". Menstruation.com. 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
  29. ^ "TheyFit: World's First Sized to Fit Condoms". Retrieved 2008-11-11. [dead link]
  30. ^ a b c Spruyt, Alan B (1998). "Chapter 3: User Behaviors and Characteristics Related to Condom Failure". The Latex Condom: Recent Advances, Future Directions (Family Health International). Retrieved 2007-04-08. 
  31. ^ World Health Organization, Department of Reproductive Health and Research (2004). The male latex condom: specification and guidelines for condom procurement 2003. 
  32. ^ Corina, H. (2007). S.E.X.: The All-You-Need-To-Know Progressive Sexuality Guide to Get You Through High School and College. New York: Marlowe and Company. pp. 207–210. ISBN 978-1-60094-010-1. 
  33. ^ World Health Organization and The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. "The male latex condom" (PDF). 
  34. ^ Valappil T, Kelaghan J, Macaluso M, Artz L, Austin H, Fleenor M, Robey L, Hook E (2005). "Female condom and male condom failure among women at high risk of sexually transmitted diseases". Sex Transm Dis 32 (1): 35–43. doi:10.1097/01.olq.0000148295.60514.0b. PMID 15614119. 
    Steiner M, Piedrahita C, Glover L, Joanis C (1993). "Can condom users likely to experience condom failure be identified?". Fam Plann Perspect 25 (5): 220–3, 226. doi:10.2307/2136075. JSTOR 2136075. PMID 8262171. 
  35. ^ Liskin, Laurie; Wharton, Chris; Blackburn, Richard (September 1991). "Condoms – Now More than Ever". Population Reports H (8). Retrieved 2007-02-13. 
  36. ^ Steiner, M; Cates, W; Warner, L (1999). "The real problem with male condoms is nonuse". Sex Transm Dis 26 (8): 459–62. doi:10.1097/00007435-199909000-00007. PMID 10494937. 
  37. ^ "Childfree And The Media". Childfree Resource Network. 2000. Archived from the original on 2007-03-12. Retrieved 2007-04-08. 
  38. ^ Beckerleg, Susan; Gerofi, John (October 1999). "Investigation of Condom Quality: Contraceptive Social Marketing Programme, Nigeria" (PDF). Centre for Sexual & Reproductive Health. pp. 6, 32. Retrieved 2007-04-08. 
  39. ^ "Canadian man who poked holes in condoms to impregnate girlfriend loses appeal," New York Daily News, March 7, 2014, http://www.nydailynews.com/news/crime/man-put-holes-condoms-sex-girlfriend-loses-appeal-article-1.1714830
  40. ^ "Phase III FIRST (MM-020/IFM 07-01) trial of REVLIMID (lenalidomide) plus dexamethasone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients who are not candidates for stem cell transplant published in New England Journal of Medicine" (Press release). AAAS. Celgene Corporation. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-10. 
  41. ^ Berek, Jonathon S. (2007). "Sexually Transmitted Diseases". Berek & Novak's Gynecology (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) 2007 (935): 256. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  42. ^ White, Melissa (1 October 2014). "Size Does Matter, When It Comes to Condoms". Huffington Post. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  43. ^ a b c d "Environmentally-friendly condom disposal". Go Ask Alice!. December 20, 2002. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  44. ^ "Male Condom". Feminist Women's Health Center. October 18, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  45. ^ Editorial Condoms for porn actors: A statewide law isn't the answer, Los Angeles Times, August 10, 2014, http://www.latimes.com/opinion/editorials/la-ed-condoms-porn-20140810-story.html
  46. ^ "Based on the research, comprehensive sex education is more effective at stopping the spread of HIV infection, says APA committee" (Press release). American Psychological Association. February 23, 2005. Retrieved 2006-08-11. 
  47. ^ Rector, Robert E; Pardue, Melissa G; Martin, Shannan (January 28, 2004). "What Do Parents Want Taught in Sex Education Programs?". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 2006-08-11. 
  48. ^ "New Study Supports Comprehensive Sex Ed Programs". Planned Parenthood of Northeast Ohio. 2007-07-07. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  49. ^ Sofikitis NV, Miyagawa I (1993). "Endocrinological, biophysical, and biochemical parameters of semen collected via masturbation versus sexual intercourse" (PDF). J. Androl. 14 (5): 366–73. PMID 8288490. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
    Zavos PM (October 1985). "Seminal parameters of ejaculates collected from oligospermic and normospermic patients via masturbation and at intercourse with the use of a Silastic seminal fluid collection device". Fertil. Steril. 44 (4): 517–20. PMID 4054324. 
  50. ^ Franken D, Slabber C (1979). "Experimental findings with spermantibodies: condom therapy (a case report)". Andrologia 11 (6): 413–6. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0272.1979.tb02229.x. PMID 532982. 
    Greentree L (1982). "Antisperm antibodies in infertility: the role of condom therapy". Fertil Steril 37 (3): 451–2. PMID 7060795. 
    Kremer J, Jager S, Kuiken J (1978). "Treatment of infertility caused by antisperm antibodies". Int J Fertil 23 (4): 270–6. PMID 33920. 
  51. ^ Ambrose, Stephen E (1994). D-Day, June 6, 1944: the climactic battle of World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-71359-0. 
  52. ^ Couch, D (2001). The Warrior Elite: The Forging of SEAL Class 228. ISBN 0-609-60710-3.
  53. ^ OSS Product Catalog, 1944
  54. ^ "A 41-year-old man has been remanded in custody after being stopped on Saturday by customs officials at the Norwegian border at Svinesund. He had a kilo of cocaine in his stomach." Smuggler hospitalized as cocaine condom bursts
  55. ^ Applebaum, Anne (2004). Gulag : A History. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor. p. 482. ISBN 1-4000-3409-4. 
  56. ^ Jimenez, R; Duff, P (1993). "Sheathing of the endovaginal ultrasound probe: is it adequate?". Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 1 (1): 37–9. doi:10.1155/S1064744993000092. PMC 2364667. PMID 18476204. 
  57. ^ "Decompression of a Tension Pneumothorax" (PDF). Academy of medicine. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  58. ^ Kestenbaum, David (May 19, 2006). "A Failed Levee in New Orleans: Part Two". National Public Radio. Retrieved 2006-09-09. 
  59. ^ Carwardine, Mark; Adams, Douglas (1991). Last chance to see. New York: Harmony Books. ISBN 0-517-58215-5. 
  60. ^ "The Female Condom". AVERT. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  61. ^ Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology PIACT (1980). "Relationship of condom strength to failure during use". PIACT Prod News 2 (2): 1–2. PMID 12264044. 
  62. ^ of Contraceptive Technology > Chapter 11 Condoms From the Knowledge for Health Project, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved July, 2010.
  63. ^ "FDA Clearance for Envy Natural Rubber Latex Condom Made with Vytex NRL" (Press release). Vystar. 2009-05-06. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  64. ^ "How Vytex Works". Vystar. 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  65. ^ a b c "Lifestyles Condoms Introduces Polyisoprene Non-latex" (Press release). HealthNewsDigest.com. 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  66. ^ "Condoms". Condom Statistics and Sizes. 2008-03-12. Retrieved 2012-05-31. 
  67. ^ a b "Nonlatex vs Latex Condoms: An Update". The Contraception Report (Contraception Online) 14 (2). September 2003. Archived from the original on September 26, 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-14. 
  68. ^ "Are polyurethane condoms as effective as latex ones?". Go Ask Alice!. February 22, 2005. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 
  69. ^ "Prefers polyurethane protection". Go Ask Alice!. March 4, 2005. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 
  70. ^ a b c "Allergic to Latex? You Can Still Have Safer Sex". Planned Parenthood Advocates of Arizona. 2012-05-02. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  71. ^ a b "Polyisoprene Surgical Gloves". SurgicalGlove.net. 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  72. ^ Boston Women's Health Book Collective (2005). Our Bodies, Ourselves: A New Edition for a New Era. New York, NY: Touchstone. p. 333. ISBN 0-7432-5611-5. 
  73. ^ "Condoms: Extra protection". ConsumerReports.org. February 2005. Retrieved 2009-07-26. [dead link]
  74. ^ "Nonoxynol-9 and the Risk of HIV Transmission". HIV/AIDS Epi Update. Health Canada, Centre for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control. April 2003. Retrieved 2006-08-06. 
  75. ^ "Nonoxynol-9 ineffective in preventing HIV infection". World Health Organization. 2006. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  76. ^ Boonstra, Heather (May 2005). "Condoms, Contraceptives and Nonoxynol-9: Complex Issues Obscured by Ideology". The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy 8 (2). Retrieved 2007-04-08. 
  77. ^ Stacey, Dawn. "Condom Types: A look at different condom styles". Retrieved 2008-12-08. 
  78. ^ Williams, Alexandra (2010-03-03). "Extra small condoms for 12 year-old boys go on sale in Switzerland". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2010-04-30. 
  79. ^ "Rape-aXe: Questions and answers". Rape-aXe. 2006. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  80. ^ a b "Family Planning Worldwide: 2008 Data Sheet" (PDF). Population Reference Bureau. 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-27.  Data from surveys 1997–2007.
  81. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg Collier, Aine (2007). The Humble Little Condom: A History. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-59102-556-6. 
  82. ^ Oriel, JD (1994). The Scars of Venus: A History of Venereology. London: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-19844-X. 
  83. ^ Diamond, Jared (1997). Guns, Germs and Steel. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 210. ISBN 0-393-03891-2. 
  84. ^ "Special Topic: History of Condom Use". Population Action International. 2002. Retrieved 2008-02-18. [dead link]
  85. ^ Youssef, H (1 April 1993). "The history of the condom". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 86 (4): 226–228. PMC 1293956. PMID 7802734. 
  86. ^ Fryer P. (1965) 'the Birth controllers', London: Secker and Warburg and Dingwall EJ. (1953) 'Early contraceptive sheaths' BMJ, Jan 1: 40-1 in Lewis M. 'A Brief history of condoms' in Mindel A. (2000) 'Condoms', BMJ books
  87. ^ Reprinted from India Rubber World (1891-01-31). "CHARLES GOODYEAR—The life and discoveries of the inventor of vulcanized India rubber". Scientific American Supplement (New York: Munn & Co.) (787). Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
    "The Charles Goodyear Story: The Strange Story of Rubber". Reader's Digest (Pleasantville, New York: The Reader's Digest Association). January 1958. Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  88. ^ a b "Rubbers haven't always been made of rubber". Billy Boy: The excitingly different condom. Retrieved 2006-09-09. 
  89. ^ "Biographical Note". The Margaret Sanger Papers. Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass. 1995. Retrieved 2006-10-21. 
  90. ^ Sharma, AP (2006). "Annual Report of the Tariff Commission" (PDF). India government. p. 9. Retrieved 2009-07-16. 
  91. ^ Collier, pp. 267, 285
  92. ^ Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (1982-06-18). "A Cluster of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia among Homosexual Male Residents of Los Angeles and range Counties, California". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) 31 (23): 305–7. PMID 6811844. Retrieved 2008-06-15. 
  93. ^ 1Adam, Barry D; Husbands, Winston; Murray, James; Maxwell, John (August 2005). "AIDS optimism, condom fatigue, or self-esteem? Explaining unsafe sex among gay and bisexual men". Journal of Sex Research (FindArticles.com) 42 (3): 238–48. doi:10.1080/00224490509552278. PMID 19817037. Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
  94. ^ Walder, Rupert (2007-08-31). "Condom Fatigue in Western Europe?". Rupert Walder's blog. RH Reality Check. Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
    Jazz. "Condom Fatigue Or Prevention Fatigue". Isnare.com. Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
  95. ^ "No lying, chaps! Company sells custom-made condoms in 95 different sizes for the perfect fit". Daily Mail. 2011-12-07. Retrieved 2012-12-08. 
  96. ^ Holly Richmond (18 September 2013). "Everybody wants condom vending machines". Grist Magazine. Grist Magazine, Inc. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  97. ^ James, Susan; Kepron, Charis (March 2002). "Of Lemons, Yams and Crocodile Dung: A Brief History of Birth Control". University of Toronto Medical Journal 79 (2): 156–158. Archived from the original on October 13, 2006. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  98. ^ Thundy, Zacharias P (Summer 1985). "The Etymology of Condom". American Speech 60 (2): 177–179. doi:10.2307/455309. JSTOR 455309. 
  99. ^ Harper, Douglas (November 2001). "Condom". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  100. ^ Kruck, William E (1981). "Looking for Dr Condom". Publication of the American Dialect Society 66 (7): 1–105. 
  101. ^ "Condom". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  102. ^ "French letter". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  103. ^ Pope Paul VI (1968-07-25). "Humanæ Vitæ". Retrieved 2009-07-23. 
  104. ^ Hooper, John; Osborn, Andrew (2004-01-13). "Cardinal backs use of condoms". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  105. ^ a b Alsan, Marcella (April 2006). "The Church & AIDS in Africa: Condoms & the Culture of Life". Commonweal: a Review of Religion, Politics, and Culture 133 (8). Retrieved 2006-11-28. 
  106. ^ Trujillo, Alfonso Cardinal López (2003-12-01). "Family Values Versus Safe Sex". Pontifical Council for the Family. Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  107. ^ "Condoms 'not the answer to AIDS': Pope". World News Australia (SBS). 2009-03-17. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  108. ^ "Major Branches of Religions". adherents.com. Retrieved 2006-09-14. 
  109. ^ Karanja, David (March 2005). "Catholics fighting AIDS". Catholic Insight. Retrieved 2007-12-23. 
  110. ^ Barillari, Joseph (October 21, 2003). "Condoms and the church: a well-intentioned but deadly myth". Daily Princetonian. Retrieved 2007-12-23. 
  111. ^ Jonathan Wynne-Jones (20 November 2010). "The Pope drops Catholic ban on condoms in historic shift". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 20 November 2010. 
  112. ^ Donadio, Rachel; Goodstein, Laurie (2010-11-23). "Vatican Confirms Shift on Condoms as AIDS Prevention". The New York Times. 
  113. ^ a b Gilmore, Caroline E (1998). "Chapter 4: Recent Advances in the Research, Development and Manufacture of Latex Rubber Condoms". The Latex Condom: Recent Advances, Future Directions (Family Health International). Retrieved 2007-04-08. 
  114. ^ Wright, H; Wheeler, J; Woods, J; Hesford, J; Taylor, P; Edlich, R (1996). "Potential toxicity of retrograde uterine passage of particulate matter". J Long Term Eff Med Implants 6 (3–4): 199–206. PMID 10167361. 
  115. ^ Jakszyn, P; Gonzalez, C (2006). "Nitrosamine and related food intake and gastric and oesophageal cancer risk: a systematic review of the epidemiological evidence". World J Gastroenterol 12 (27): 4296–303. PMID 16865769. Retrieved 2007-04-08. 
  116. ^ a b DW staff (2004-05-29). "German Study Says Condoms Contain Cancer-causing Chemical". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2007-04-08. 
  117. ^ Proksch, E (2001). "Toxicological evaluation of nitrosamines in condoms". Int J Hyg Environ Health 204 (2–3): 103–10. doi:10.1078/1438-4639-00087. PMID 11759152. 
  118. ^ Altkofer, W; Braune, S; Ellendt, K; Kettl-Grömminger, M; Steiner, G (2005). "Migration of nitrosamines from rubber products—are balloons and condoms harmful to the human health?". Mol Nutr Food Res 49 (3): 235–8. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200400050. PMID 15672455. 
  119. ^ "Using Condoms, Condom Types & Condom Sizes". AVERT. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  120. ^ Power, Robert. "The black plastic bag of qualitative research". BMJ.com. Retrieved 2007-12-02. [dead link]
  121. ^ Hightower, Eve; Hall, Phoebe (March–April 2003). "Clean sex, wasteful computers and dangerous mascara – Ask E". E–The Environmental Magazine. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  122. ^ Hayashi, Aiko (2004-08-20). "Japanese Women Shun The Pill". CBS News. Retrieved 2006-06-12. 
  123. ^ Gomez, Cynthia A; Marín (1996). "Gender, Culture, and Power: Barriers to HIV-Prevention Strategies for Women". The Journal of Sex Research 33 (4): 355–362. doi:10.1080/00224499609551853. JSTOR 3813287. 
  124. ^ Kalichman, SC; Williams, EA; Cherry, C; Belcher, L; Nachimson, D (April 1998). "Sexual coercion, domestic violence, and negotiating condom use among low-income African American women". Journal of Women's Health 7 (3): 371–378. doi:10.1089/jwh.1998.7.371. 
  125. ^ Dotinga, Randy. "AIDS Conspiracy Theory Belief Linked to Less Condom Use". SexualHealth.com. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  126. ^ a b "Muslim opposition to condoms limits distribution". PlusNews. Sep 17, 2007. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  127. ^ Coast, Ernestina (2007). "Wasting semen: context and condom use among the Maasai". Culture, health, and sexuality 9 (4): 387. doi:10.1080/13691050701208474. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  128. ^ Kamau, Pius (August 24, 2008). "Islam, Condoms and AIDS". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  129. ^ a b KLEPPER, DAVID (27 April 2014). "NY bill would bar condoms as proof of prostitution". ap.org (AP). Retrieved 27 April 2014. 
  130. ^ Wurth, MH; Schleifer, R; McLemore, M; Todrys, KW; Amon, JJ (May 24, 2013). "Condoms as evidence of prostitution in the United States and the criminalization of sex work.". Journal of the International AIDS Society 16: 18626. doi:10.7448/ias.16.1.18626. PMC 3664300. PMID 23706178. 
  131. ^ Chanoff, Yael (7 October 2014). "City to cease using condoms as evidence in prostitution cases". www.sfbg.com (San Francisco Bay Guardian). Retrieved 27 April 2014. 
  132. ^ Jessica Chasmar (24 March 2013). "Bill Gates offers $100,000 grant for improved condoms". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2 May 2013. 
  133. ^ Kulczycki, Andrzej (4 December 2004). "The Sociocultural Context of Condom Use Within Marriage in Rural Lebanon". www.jstor.org. jstor.org. Retrieved December 10, 2013. 
  134. ^ Lefevre, Callie (2008-08-13). "Spray-On Condoms: Still a Hard Sell". TIME Magazine. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  135. ^ "Spray-On-Condom" (streaming video [Real format]). Schweizer Fernsehen News. November 29, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-03. 
  136. ^ "Spray-On-Condom". Institut für Kondom-Beratung. 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-03. 
  137. ^ "Safety, Tolerance and Acceptability Trial of the Invisible Condom in Healthy Women". ClinicalTrials.gov. U.S. National Institutes of Health. August 2005. Retrieved 2006-08-14. 
  138. ^ "Condoms: Lifestyles Condoms". Lifestyles.com. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 

Further reading

  • "Sheathing Cupid's Arrow: the Oldest Artificial Contraceptive May Be Ripe for a Makeover", The Economist (London), no. 8874 (15-21 Feb. 2014), p. 73-74. N.B.: Unsigned article, describing new developments, especially in materials, for making and lubricating condoms.

External links