Dependent territory

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Dependent area)
Jump to: navigation, search

A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside of the controlling state's integral area.[1]

A dependency is commonly distinguished from other subnational entities in that they are not considered to be part of the integral territory of the governing State. A subnational entity typically represents a division of the State proper, while a dependent territory often maintains a great degree of autonomy from the controlling State. Historically, most colonies were considered to be dependencies of their controlling State. Most of these have either become independent, by joining neighbouring independent countries, or assimilated into the conquering state. The dependencies that remain generally maintain a very high degree of political autonomy. Although dependencies retain a degree of autonomy, not all autonomous entities are considered to be dependencies.[2]

Many political entities have a special position recognized by international treaty or agreement resulting in a certain level of autonomy or differences in immigration rules. These are sometimes[3] considered dependencies,[4] but are officially considered by their controlling states to be integral parts of the state.[3] Examples are Åland (Finland), Hong Kong (China), and Macau (China).[5]

Summary of list contents[edit]

The following listings indicate (or can be interpreted to indicate):

Lists of dependent territories[edit]

Dependency claims without general international recognition, including all claims in Antarctica, are listed in italics. The list includes several territories that are not included in the list of non-self-governing territories listed by the General Assembly of the United Nations.[6] This list includes territories that have not been legally incorporated into their governing state.

New Zealand[edit]

Summary: The Realm of New Zealand includes two self-governing countries in free association with New Zealand, one dependent territory (Tokelau) and a territorial claim in Antarctica

In free association Administration ISO 3166 country code
 Cook Islands Self-governing state in free association with New Zealand since 1965. Cook Islands' status is considered to be equivalent to independence for international law purposes, and the country exercises full sovereignty over its internal and external affairs.[7] Under the terms of the free association agreement, however, New Zealand retains some responsibility for the external affairs and defence of the Cook Islands. These responsibilities confer no rights of control and are only exercised at the request of the Cook Islands Government. CK COK 184
 Niue Self-governing state in free association with New Zealand since 1974. Niue's status is considered to be equivalent to independence for international law purposes, and the country exercises full sovereignty over its internal and external affairs.[7] Under the terms of the free association agreement, however, New Zealand retains some responsibility for the external affairs and defence of Niue. These responsibilities confer no rights of control and are only exercised at the request of the Government of Niue. NU NIU 570
Territory Administration ISO 3166 country code
 Tokelau Territory of New Zealand. As it moves toward free association with New Zealand, Tokelau and New Zealand have agreed to a draft constitution. A UN-sponsored referendum on self-governance in February 2006 did not produce the two-thirds supermajority necessary for changing the current political status. Another one was in October 2007, which failed to reach the 2/3 margin. TK TKL 772
New Zealand Ross Dependency No permanent population. New Zealand's Antarctic claim. no separate code

Norway[edit]

Summary: Norway has 1 dependent territory and 2 dependency claims.

Dependency Administration ISO 3166 country code
 Bouvet Island No permanent population. Dependency administered from Oslo by the Polar Affairs Department of the Ministry of Justice and the Police. BV BVT 074
Norway Peter I Island No permanent population. Dependencies (subject to the Antarctic Treaty System) administered from Oslo by the Polar Affairs Department of the Ministry of Justice and the Police. no separate code
Norway Queen Maud Land no separate code

United Kingdom[edit]

Summary: the United Kingdom has 12 dependent territories, 3 crown dependencies, 1 sovereign base area and 1 dependency claim.

Overseas territories Administration ISO 3166 country code
 Anguilla British overseas territories. AI AIA 660
 Cayman Islands KY CYM 136
 Gibraltar GI GIB 292
 Montserrat MS MSR 500
 Pitcairn Islands PN PCN 612
 Turks and Caicos Islands TC TCA 796
 Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha SH SHN 654
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands GS SGS 239
 Bermuda British overseas territory or self-governing territory as defined by the UK. BM BMU 060
 British Antarctic Territory No permanent population. The UK's Antarctic claim. no separate code
 British Indian Ocean Territory Inhabitants expelled.[8] British overseas territory administered by a commissioner resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London. IO IOT 086
 British Virgin Islands British overseas territory with internal self-government. VG VGB 092
 Falkland Islands British overseas territory. Falkland Islands also administers South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands through the Governor of the Falkland Islands as representative of the British monarch. FK FLK 238
Sovereign Base Areas Administration ISO 3166 country code
United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia British overseas territory administered by the Commander of British Forces, Cyprus. Note: SBAs are primarily required as military bases and not ordinary dependent territories. no separate code
Crown dependencies Administration ISO 3166 country code
 Guernsey Responsibility for defence, international representation, and good government rests with the United Kingdom. Though, the Parliament of the United Kingdom can legislate on their behalf, if it deem necessary.[9][10][11] GG GGY 831
 Jersey JE JEY 832
 Isle of Man IM IMN 833

United States[edit]

Summary: the United States has 14 dependent territories, 2 dependency claims, and 3 self-governing countries in free association with the United States.

Unincorporated Organized and Unorganized territories
(inhabited)
Administration ISO 3166 country code
 American Samoa Unincorporated and unorganized territory administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. AS ASM 016
 Guam Unincorporated organized territory; policy relations between Guam and the U.S. conducted under the jurisdiction of the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. GU GUM 316
 Northern Mariana Islands Commonwealth in political union with the U.S.; federal funding administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. MP MNP 580
 Puerto Rico Unincorporated organized territory of the U.S. with commonwealth status; policy relations between Puerto Rico and the U.S. conducted under the jurisdiction of the Office of the President. PR PRI 630
 U.S. Virgin Islands Unincorporated organized territory; policy relations between the Virgin Islands and the U.S. conducted under the jurisdiction of the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. VI VIR 850
Unincorporated and Incorporated Unorganized territories
(uninhabited)
Administration ISO 3166 country code
United States Baker Island Unorganized and unincorporated territory administered from Washington, D.C. by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the United States Department of the Interior. UM UMI 581
United States Howland Island
United States Jarvis Island
United States Johnston Atoll
United States Kingman Reef
United States Midway Island
United States Navassa Island Unincorporated territory of the U.S. administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior from the Caribbean Islands National Wildlife Refuge in Boquerón, Puerto Rico. Claimed by Haiti and privately via the Guano Islands Act.
United States Wake Island Supervised by the U.S. Air Force, administered from Washington, D.C. by the U.S. Department of the Interior, and is claimed by the Marshall Islands.
United States Bajo Nuevo Bank Unincorporated territory of the U.S. administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior. Currently controlled by Colombia, and also claimed by Jamaica and Nicaragua. no separate code
United States Serranilla Bank Unincorporated territory of the U.S. administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior. Currently controlled by Colombia, and also claimed by Honduras and Nicaragua. no separate code
United States Palmyra Atoll Unorganized incorporated territory administered from Washington, D.C. by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the United States Department of the Interior. Part of the United States Minor Outlying Islands, which is otherwise made up of officially unincorporated territories. The 50 states, District of Columbia and Palmyra comprise the incorporated lands of the United States. UM UMI 581
In free association Administration ISO 3166 country code
 Marshall Islands Self-governing state in free association with the United States since 1986. Although The Marshall Islands is a recognized independent nation. However under the terms of the Compact of free association agreement, The United States maintains the responsibility for the defence, social services, and funding grants of the Marshall Islands.
 F.S. Micronesia Self-governing state in free association with the United States since 1986. Although The Federated States of Micronesia is a recognized independent nation. However under the terms of the Compact of free association agreement, The United States maintains the responsibility for the defence, social services, and funding grants of the Federated States of Micronesia.
 Palau Self-governing state in free association with the United States since 1986. Although Palau is recognized independent nation. However under the terms of the Compact of free association agreement, The United States maintains the responsibility for the defence, social services, and funding grants of Palau.

Lists of other entities[edit]

The following entities have been legally included as a full part of their governing country, but are often described as dependencies. Most inhabited territories have their own country codes.

Australia[edit]

Summary: Australia has 6 territories in its adiministration and 1 dependency claim.

Although all territories of Australia are considered to be fully integrated in its federative system, and the official status of an external territory does not differ largely from that of a mainland territory (except in regards to immigration law), debate remains as to whether the external territories are integral parts of Australia, due to their not being part of Australia in 1901, when its constituent states federated.[12] They are often listed separately for statistical purposes.

External territories(Inhabited) Administration ISO 3166 country code
 Christmas Island Administered from Canberra by the Attorney-General's Department.[13][14] CX CXR 162
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands CC CCK 166
 Norfolk Island Commonwealth responsibilities administered from Canberra through the Attorney-General's Department.[13] NF NFK 574
External territories(Uninhabited) Administration ISO 3166 country code
Australia Ashmore and Cartier Islands Administered from Canberra by the Attorney-General's Department.[13] no separate code
Australia Coral Sea Islands [15] no separate code
Australia Australian Antarctic Territory Administered from Canberra by the Australian Antarctic Division of the Department of the Environment and Heritage. no separate code
Australia Heard Island
and McDonald Islands
HM HMD 334

China[edit]

Summary: China had 2 special administrative regions.

Special Administrative Regions Administration ISO 3166 country code
 Hong Kong Former British colony. Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China since 1997 pursuant to the Sino-British Joint Declaration, an international treaty registered with the United Nations. The Hong Kong Basic Law provides for the territory to enjoy a high degree of autonomy in accordance with the One Country, Two Systems model under the central government of China. Although the territory is not part of Mainland China, it is officially considered as an integral part of the People's Republic of China.[16][17][18] HK HKG 344
 Macau Former Portuguese colony. Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China since 1999 pursuant to the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration, an international treaty registered with the United Nations. The Macau Basic Law provides for the territory to enjoy a high degree of autonomy in accordance with the One Country, Two Systems model under the central government of China. Although the territory is not part of Mainland China, it is officially considered as an integral part of the People's Republic of China. MO MAC 446

Denmark[edit]

Summary: The Kingdom of Denmark contains 2 self-governing countries.

Constituent country Administration ISO 3166 country code
 Faroe Islands Self-governing overseas administrative division since 1948. Part of Denmark, but not of the European Union. FO FRO 234
 Greenland Self-governing overseas administrative division since 1979. Part of Denmark. Withdrew from the European Economic Community in 1985. GL GRL 304

Finland[edit]

Summary: Finland has 1 territory governed according an act and international treaties.

Division Administration ISO 3166 country code
 Åland Islands The Åland Islands are governed according to the Act on the Autonomy of Åland and international treaties. These laws guarantee the islands' autonomy from Finland, which has ultimate sovereignty over them, as well as a demilitarized status AX ALA 248

France[edit]

Summary: France has 7 dependent territories with various administrative descriptions.

Overseas Collectivities Administration ISO 3166 country code
 Saint Barthélemy Changed its status from OMR (outermost region) to OCT (Overseas collectivities) with effect from 1 January 2012.[19] BL BLM 652
Collectivity of Saint Martin Saint Martin MF MAF 663
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Territorial collectivity since 1985; overseas collectivity since 2003. PM SPM 666
 Wallis and Futuna Overseas territory since 1961; overseas collectivity since 2003. WF WLF 876
Overseas Country Administration ISO 3166 country code
 French Polynesia Overseas collectivity since 2003; Overseas country since 2004. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. PF PYF 258
Special Collectivity Administration ISO 3166 country code
 New Caledonia "Sui generis" collectivity since 1999. Appears on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. NC NCL 540
Possession(Uninhabited) Administration ISO 3166 country code
France Clipperton Island Island administered by the Minister for Overseas Territories. No permanent population. no separate code
Overseas territory(Uninhabited) Administration ISO 3166 country code
French Southern and Antarctic Lands French Southern and Antarctic Lands The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (called TAAF for Terres australes et antartiques françaises) is an Overseas territory since 1955, administered from Paris by an Administrateur Supérieur. No permanent population. Includes the French territorial claim in Antarctica: Adelie Land. TF ATF 260

Netherlands[edit]

Summary: The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of 3 Caribbean countries, territories with autonomy in internal affairs and one country (Netherlands) with most of its area in Europe, but which includes 3 Caribbean territories. All Dutch citizens of the Kingdom share the same nationality and are thus citizens of the European Union.

Country Administration ISO 3166 country code
 Aruba Each is defined as a "country" ("land") within the Kingdom of the Netherlands by the Statute of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Aruba obtained full autonomy in internal affairs upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986. Curaçao and Sint Maarten were part of the Netherlands Antilles until it was dissolved in October 2010. The government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands virtually but not entirely coincides with the government of the Netherlands, and is responsible for defence, foreign affairs and nationality law. Part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands but not of the European Union, but owing to their Dutch nationality, its citizens are Citizens of the European Union. AW ABW 533
 Curaçao CW CUW 531
 Sint Maarten SX SXM 534
Division Administration ISO 3166 country code
 Bonaire Following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in October 2010, Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius became formally integrated with the Netherlands as special municipalities, although a different system of law exists. The territories are not part of the European Union, but owing to their Dutch nationality, its citizens are Citizens of the European Union. BQ BES 535
 Saba
 Sint Eustatius

Norway[edit]

Summary: Norway has 2 territories with limited Norwegian sovereignty .

Division Administration ISO 3166 country code
 Svalbard Svalbard is subject to an international treaty with some limits to Norwegian sovereignty. SJ SJM 744
 Jan Mayen The legal status of Jan Mayen is basically the same as the Svalbard archipelago, and unlike the Norwegian possessions in the Antarctic, which are dependencies and not integral parts of the Kingdom.[20] Jan Mayen shares county governor (fylkesmann) with Nordland county.

Description[edit]

Three Crown dependencies are in a form of association with the UK. They are independently administrated jurisdictions, although the British Government is solely responsible for defence and international representation, and has ultimate responsibility for ensuring good government. They do not have diplomatic recognition as independent states, but they are not an integrated part of the UK, nor do they form part of the European Union. The UK Parliament retains the ability to legislate for the Crown dependencies even without the agreement of the insular legislatures. None of the Crown dependencies has representatives in the UK Parliament. Bermuda and Gibraltar have similar relationships to the UK as the Crown dependencies. While Britain is officially responsible for defence and international representation, these jurisdictions maintain their own militaries and have been granted limited diplomatic powers, in addition to having internal self-government. Nevertheless, they are British overseas territories.

New Zealand and dependencies share the same Governor-General and constitute one realm. The Cook Islands and Niue are officially termed associated states.

Puerto Rico (since 1952) and the Northern Mariana Islands (since 1986) are non-independent states freely associated with the United States. The mutually negotiated Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) in Political Union with the United States was approved in 1976. The Covenant was fully implemented November 3, 1986, pursuant to Presidential Proclamation no. 5564, which conferred United States citizenship on legally qualified CNMI residents.[21]

Under the Constitution of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico is described as a Commonwealth and Puerto Ricans have a degree of administrative autonomy similar to citizens of a U.S. state. Puerto Ricans "were collectively made U.S. citizens" in 1917 as a result of the Jones-Shafroth Act.[22][23] The commonly used name in Spanish of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, literally "Associated Free State of Puerto Rico", which sounds similar to "free association" particularly when loosely used in Spanish, is sometimes erroneously interpreted to mean that Puerto Rico's relationship with United States is based on a Compact of Free Association and at other times erroneously held to mean that Puerto Rico's relationship with United States is based on an Interstate compact. This is a constant source of ambiguity and confusion when trying to define, understand and explain Puerto Rico's political relationship with the United States. For various reasons Puerto Rico's political status differs from that of the Pacific Islands that entered into Compacts of Free Association with the United States. As sovereign states, these islands have full right to conduct their own foreign relations, while the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has territorial status subject to United States congressional authority under the Constitution's Territory Clause, “to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory… belonging to the United States.”.[24] Puerto Rico does not have the right to unilaterally declare independence, and at the last referendum (1998) the narrow majority voted for "none of the above", which was a formally undefined alternative used by commonwealth supporters to express their desire for an "enhanced commonwealth" option.[24]

This kind of relationship also can be found in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which is a federacy. The continental part is organized like a unitary state but the status of its territories (Aruba, since 1986, and the Netherlands Antilles, since 1954 until 2010) can be considered dependencies or "associated non-independent states". After the split-up of the Netherlands Antilles, Curaçao and Sint Maarten are separate associated states like Aruba.

Additionally, Denmark operates in a similar manner to a federacy. The Faroes and Greenland are two self-governing territories, or regions within the Kingdom. The relationship between Denmark proper and the two territories is semi-officially termed the "Rigsfællesskabet".

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook.

  1. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514
  2. ^ United Nations Trusteeship Council
  3. ^ a b United Nations General Assembly 15th Session - The Trusteeship System and Non-Self-Governing Territories (pages:509-510)
  4. ^ Listaba.com
  5. ^ The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  6. ^ For the list, see Special Committee on Decolonization (2002). "Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories". United Nations, Special Committee on Decolonization. Retrieved 2010-09-23. 
  7. ^ a b http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/publications-archived/2000/pacific-peoples-constitution-report-september-2000/documents/Bibliography.doc
  8. ^ "The U.S. Government Must Redress Wrongs Against the Chagossians". Whitehouse.gov. Retrieved 4 April 2012. 
  9. ^ CIA (2010-07-15). "Guernsey at the CIA's page". CIA. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  10. ^ CIA (2010-07-15). "Jersey at the CIA's page". CIA. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  11. ^ CIA (2010-07-15). "The Isle of Man at the CIA's page". CIA. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  12. ^ Carney, Gerard (2006). The constitutional systems of the Australian states and territories. Canberra: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86305-6. 
  13. ^ a b c First Assistant Secretary, Territories Division (2008-01-30). "Territories of Australia". Attorney-General's Department. Retrieved 2008-02-07. The Federal Government, through the Attorney-General's Department administers Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Coral Sea Islands, Jervis Bay, and Norfolk Island as Territories. 
  14. ^ Territories and Information Law Division; First Assistant Secretary, Territories and Information Law Division (7 September 2009). "Cocos Islands Governance and Administration". Territories of Australia. Australian Government, Attorney-General's Department. Retrieved 2010-09-23. 
  15. ^ Willis Island is permanently manned by a small team of meteorologists.
  16. ^ 广电总局批准31个境外频道在涉外宾馆等申请接收. Gov.cn (2006-12-30). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  17. ^ 2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报(第1号). Stats.gov.cn. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  18. ^ 項懷誠:香港是社保基金境外投資的首選地之一. Big5.huaxia.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  19. ^ AFP (29 October 2010). "La collectivité de Saint-Barthélémy obtient un nouveau statut européen". Ministère de l’Outre-Mer (in French). Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  20. ^ The Scope for Norwegian Commitments Related to International Research on Jan Mayen Island
  21. ^ CIA (2010-07-15). "Northern Mariana Islands at the CIA's page". CIA. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  22. ^ The Louisiana Purchase and American Expansion: 1803-1898. By Sanford Levinson and Bartholomew H. Sparrow. New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. 2005. Page 166, 178. "U.S. citizenship was extended to residents of Puerto Rico by virtue of the Jones Act, chap. 190, 39 Stat. 951 (1971) (codified at 48 U.S.C. § 731 (1987)")
  23. ^ CIA (2010-07-15). "Puerto Rico at the CIA's page". CIA. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  24. ^ a b December 2005 report of the President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status

Bibliography[edit]

  • George Drower, Britain's Dependent Territories, Dartmouth, 1992
  • George Drower, Overseas Territories Handbook, TSO, 1998

External links[edit]