Military district

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Military districts (also called military regions) are formations of a state's armed forces (often of the Army) which are responsible for a certain area of territory. They are often more responsible for administrative than operational matters, and in countries with conscript forces, often handle parts of the conscription cycle.

Navies have also used a similar model, with organizations such as the United States Naval Districts. A number of navies in South America used naval districts at various points in time.

China[edit]

Republic of China[edit]

There were 76 northern military districts or military regions (軍區), or war areas, which were the largest formations of the National Revolutionary Army, under the Military Affairs Commission, chaired by Chiang Kai Shek during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. During the Second Sino-Japanese War the National Revolutionary Army eventually organized itself into twelve Military Regions.

People's Republic of China[edit]

Main article: PLA Military Region

The military regions (originally eleven, there are now seven) of the People's Liberation Army are divided into military districts, usually contiguous with provinces, and military sub-districts.

Germany[edit]

German Reich[edit]

During World War II Germany used the system of military districts (German: Wehrkreis) to relieve field commanders of as much administrative work as possible and to provide a regular flow of trained recruits and supplies to the Field Army. The method they adopted was to separate the Field Army (Oberbefehlshaber des Heeres) from the Home Command (Heimatkriegsgebiet) and to entrust the responsibilities of training, conscription, supply and equipment to that command.

The Commander of the Infantry Corps with the identical number also commanded the Wehrkreis in peacetime, but command of the Wehrkreis passed to his second-in command at the outbreak of war.

In peace time, the Wehrkreis was the home to the Infantry Corps of the same number and all subordinate units of that Corps.

Federal Republic of Germany[edit]

Today's German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) have four military districts – Wehrbereichskommando (WBK) as part of the Streitkräftebasis or Joint Service Support Command. Each WBK controls several Landeskommandos (State Commands) due to the federal structure of Germany. Previously this function was carried out by the Verteidigungsbezirkskommandos (VBKs) or Military Region Commands (Defence District Commands). These command authorities are in charge of all military facilities in their area of responsibility and of several supporting regiments.

Indonesia[edit]

Kodam districts as of 2007

The Indonesian National Army (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia) uses military districts, created by General Soedirman as a system called Wehrkreise, adapted from the German system during World War II. The system was later ratified in Surat Perintah Siasat No.1, signed by General Soedirman on November 1948.

The Indonesian Military command areas (military districts) are:

  1. Kodam Iskandar Muda HQ in Banda Aceh
  2. Kodam I/Bukit Barisan HQ in Medan
  3. Kodam II/Sriwijaya HQ in Palembang
  4. Kodam Jaya HQ in Jakarta
  5. Kodam III/Siliwangi HQ in Bandung
  6. Kodam IV/Diponegoro HQ in Semarang
  7. Kodam V/Brawijaya HQ in Surabaya
  8. Kodam VI/Mulawarman HQ in Balikpapan
  9. Kodam VII/Wirabuana HQ in Makassar
  10. Kodam IX/Udayana HQ in Denpasar
  11. Kodam XII/Tanjungpura HQ in Pontianak
  12. Kodam XVI/Pattimura HQ in Ambon
  13. Kodam XVII/Cendrawasih HQ in Jayapura

The Wehrkreise was used in Indonesia as a means of circles of defense, or regional defense, to defend islands and provinces under Indonesian control. Each regional commander had full authority to begin operations with assets available in the district. Wehrkreise region commanders had command over the military, political, the economic, education, and local government structures and organisations.

Today the military districts are called KODAM.

Poland[edit]

Main article: Polish Land Forces

Initially, right after the First World War, Poland had five military districts (1918–1921):

In 1921, due to reorganization, the military districts were replaced with Dowództwo Okręgu Korpusu (DOK – Corps District Command). In the Second Polish Republic there were ten DOK's:

Each DOK consisted of four large units (three infantry divisions and one cavalry brigade).

For district arrangements after World War II see Polish Land Forces. The Kraków Military District disbanded in 1953. From 1999 Poland has been divided into two military districts, the Pomeranian Military District and the Silesian Military District, both were disbanded by the end of 2011.

Russia and the Soviet Union[edit]

Russian Empire[edit]

The Russian Empire's military district (Russian: вое́нный о́круг, voyenny okrug) was a territorial association of military units, formations, military schools, and various local military establishments. This territorial division type was utilized in Imperial Russia, USSR and is currently in use in Russian Federation.

Such territorial division provided convenient management of army units, their training and other activities regarding the country’s readiness to defend itself.

Soviet Union[edit]

In the USSR, the military districts continued to perform the same role they had done in the Russian Empire, with first six military districts (Yaroslavsky, Moskovsky, Orlovsky, Belomorsky, Uralsky, and Privolzhsky) were formed on 31 March 1918 during the Russian Civil War.

This increased to 17 military districts of the USSR at the beginning of July 1940 shortly before the USSR was invaded by Germany and entered the Second World War, and were used to create combat Fronts after commencement of the German invasion of the USSR.

During the war the districts were further divided into geographic regions for logistic reasons, these being:[citation needed]

  • North and North Western districts
  • West and Central USSR districts
  • South and South Western districts
  • Siberian and Central Asian districts
  • Far Eastern districts

After the war, the number was increased to 33 to aid in demobilisation of forces, but by October 1946, they had been reduced to 21.[1]

By the end of the 1980s, immediately before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, there were sixteen military districts, within three to five main strategic Theatre groupings.

Russian Federation[edit]

A military district (Russian: вое́нный о́круг, voyenny okrug) in the Russian Federation operates under the command of the district headquarters, headed by the district commander, and is subordinated to the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.[citation needed] (Previously under Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces General Nikolai Kormiltsev, the military districts reported to the General Staff via the Russian Ground Forces staff.) It is a territorial association of military units, formations, military schools, and various local military establishments. This territorial division type was historically adopted, originally by Imperial Russia, to provide a more efficient management of army units, their training and other operations activities related to combat readiness.

From 1992 to 2010, the Armed Forces maintained a diminishing number of former Soviet Armed Forces districts – Leningrad Military District, Moscow Military District, Volga-Urals Military District, North Caucasus Military District, Siberian Military District, Far East Military District.

Military districts of Russia as of 2010

In 2009–2010, these districts were reorganised into 4 Military Districts comprising regional Joint Strategic Commands:[2]

United Kingdom[edit]

British Army regional districts have evolved slowly over the previous 150 years or so. For many years there were regional commands in the UK, including Aldershot Command (from 1880), Eastern Command, Northern Command, Scottish Command, Southern Command and Western Command (from 1905). By 1985 these were superseded by districts, and until the spring of 1991 there were nine of them. Anthony Beevor wrote in his revised edition of Inside the British Army in 1991 that '..the first of the minor districts to be amalgamated were North West District, Western District, and Wales, to form a new Western District.' HQ Northern Ireland remained separate and reported to HQ UK Land Forces only on non-operational matters.[3]

Structure Regional Forces c.2006

From 1995, UK commands and later districts were replaced by regenerative divisions. 2nd Division, 4th Division, 5th Division and London District acted as regional commands within the UK reporting to Commander Regional Forces. Scotland District was absorbed by 2nd Division in 2000. The divisions were responsible for training subordinate formations and units under their command for operations in the UK, such as Military Aid to the Civil Community, as well as training units for overseas deployments. 2nd, 4th and 5th Divisions were replaced by Support Command on 1 November 2011.[4]

Vietnam[edit]

Vietnam People's Army has 8 Military Districts:

  • High Command of Capital Hanoi: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending the capital. The headquarters is in Hanoi.
  • 1st Military District: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to protect against foreign invaders; and to organize, build, manage and command forces in northeastern Vietnam. The headquarters is in Thai Nguyen.
  • 2nd Military District: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending northwestern Vietnam. The headquarters is in Viet Tri.
  • 3rd Military District: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending the Red River Delta area. The headquarters is in Hai Phong.
  • 4th Military District: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending north central Vietnam. The headquarters is in Vinh.
  • 5th Military District: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending south central Vietnam, including the western highlands and south central coastal provinces. The headquarters is in Da Nang.
  • 7th Military District: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending southeastern Vietnam. The headquarters is in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • 9th Military District: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending the Mekong Delta. The headquarters is in Cần Thơ

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ V.I. Feskov et al, The Soviet Army in the Period of the Cold War, Tomsk, 2004
  2. ^ http://www.mil.ru/848/1045/1272/1365/index.shtml
  3. ^ Beevor, 1991 revised edition, 232.
  4. ^ Charles Heyman, 'The British Army: A Pocket Guide 2012-2013', p.31
  • www.mil.ru for official Russian military district information