Interstate 96

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Interstate 96 marker

Interstate 96
I-96 runs west-northwest to east-southeast across the Lower Peninsula of Michigan
I-96 highlighted in red
Route information
Maintained by MDOT
Length: 192.032 mi[2] (309.046 km)
Existed: 1959[1] – present
Major junctions
West end: US 31 in Norton Shores
 

US 131 in Walker
I-196 in Grand Rapids
I‑69 near Lansing
I‑496 / US 127 in Lansing
US 23 in Brighton
I‑275 / I‑696 / M‑5 in Farmington Hills
I‑275 / M‑14 near Livonia
US 24 in Redford

I‑94 in Detroit
East end: I‑75 in Detroit
Location
Counties: Muskegon, Ottawa, Kent, Ionia, Clinton, Eaton, Ingham, Livingston, Oakland, Wayne
Highway system
M‑95 M‑96

Interstate 96 (I-96) is an Interstate Highway that runs for approximately 192 miles (309 km) entirely within the US state of Michigan. The western terminus is at an interchange with US Highway 31 (US 31) and Business US 31 (BUS US 31) on the western boundary of Norton Shores southeast of Muskegon, and the eastern terminus is at I-75 near the Ambassador Bridge in Detroit. From Grand Rapids through Lansing to Detroit, the freeway parallels Grand River Avenue, never straying more than a few miles from the deleted US 16. The Wayne County section of I-96 is named the Jeffries Freeway from its eastern terminus to the junction with I-275 and M-14. Though maps still refer to the freeway as the Jeffries, the portion within the city of Detroit was renamed by the state legislature as the Rosa Parks Memorial Highway in December 2005 in honor of the late civil rights pioneer. There are four auxiliary Interstates as well as two current and four former business routes associated with I-96.

Grand River Avenue originated as an Indian trail before Michigan statehood. It later was used as a wagon road across the state. The roadway was included in the State Trunkline Highway System in 1919 as M-16 and later the United States Numbered Highway System as US 16. Construction of a freeway along the length of the corridor was proposed in the 1940s, and included as part of the Interstate Highway System in the mid-1950s. This construction was started in 1956 and initially completed across the state to Detroit in 1962. The proposed route for the Jeffries Freeway in Detroit was moved in the 1960s; it was built in the 1970s. I-96 was completed on November 21, 1977, in the Detroit area, closing the last gap along the route. Since then, additional interchanges and lanes have been added in places to accommodate traffic needs.

Route description[edit]

I-96 is maintained by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) as a segment of the larger State Trunkline Highway System. In 2011, the department's traffic surveys showed that on average, 201,200 vehicles used the highway daily between 6 and 7 Mile roads in Livonia. Near Norton Shores, 20,638 vehicles did so each day between Airline and Fruitport roads. These are the highest and lowest counts along the highway, respectively.[3] As an Interstate Highway, all of I-96 is included in the National Highway System,[4] a network of roads important to the country's economy, defense, and mobility.[5] In addition, the highway in Detroit has been named by the Michigan Legislature the Rosa Parks Memorial Highway to honor the civil rights pioneer Rosa Parks.[6] The segment from Livonia east to I-275 is the Jeffries Freeway, named for a former mayor of Detroit, Edward Jeffries.[7]

Muskegon to Grand Rapids[edit]

Photograph of
Westbound I-96 as it passes under Sternberg Road approaching US 31

I-96 begins at a three-quarter cloverleaf interchange with US 31 northeast of the Muskegon County Airport in Norton Shores, near Muskegon. At the starting terminus, the highway has a grassy median and two lanes in each direction as it travels southeasterly through rural Muskegon County. The freeway is paralleled by Airline Highway in an area of with a mix of fields and residences as far as Fruitport. I-96 bypasses that village to the north and east before crossing into Ottawa County at Fruitport Road. After a distance of about five miles (8.0 km) in the county, the trunkline reaches Nunica. The highway crosses the Crockery Creek and turns eastward toward Coopersville. The freeway runs parallel to the Grand River, about 2.5 miles (4.0 km) to the north. Near Ironwood Drive, I-96 turns southeasterly again and goes through Marne.[8][9]

Beyond Marne, I-96 passes the western end of M-11 and crosses into Kent County, curving around a rest area for the eastbound lanes. The freeway runs eastward through a light industrial area of the suburb of Walker as it enters the Grand Rapids metropolitan area. At the interchange with Alpine Avenue, M-37 merges onto the freeway and the two run concurrently past the studios for WZZM-TV[8][9] with its iconic weatherball, a 16-foot-wide (4.9 m) sphere 100 feet (30 m) above the ground that uses colored lights to display a weather forecast.[10] Adjacent to the studios are the ramps from eastbound I-96 to southbound US 131 and from northbound US 131 to westbound I-96.[8][9] These ramps mark the northern end of I-296, an unsigned auxiliary Interstate Highway designation applied to them and the US 131 freeway south to downtown Grand Rapids.[2] I-96 turns northeasterly past a commercial area to a three-quarter cloverleaf interchange that provides all of the other connections with US 131 next to a crossing of the Grand River.[8][9]

Photograph of
WZZM-TV's Weatherball next to I-96 in Walker

East of the river, I-96 and M-37 pass through the northern suburb of Comstock Park, intersecting Connector M-44 (CONN M-44, Plainfield Avenue) near Lamberton Lake. Past that interchange, the freeway angles southeasterly and then southward, bypassing Grand Rapids to the northeast. East of downtown, I-96/M-37 meets I-196 (Gerald R. Ford Freeway) at a partial interchange; traffic headed eastbound on I-196 must enter I-96 eastbound and only westbound I-96 traffic may enter I-196. Immediately east of the interchange is another for M-44 (East Beltline Avenue) where M-37 separates from the freeway to turn southward. Through this series of interchanges, I-96 curves to the east and then turns back southward after passing through them. There are two more interchanges for M-21 (Fulton Street) and Cascade Road before I-96 meets the eastern end of M-11 at 28th Street. The next interchange for 36th Street provides access to the Gerald R. Ford International Airport. The freeway continues to the east of the airport and then intersects the eastern end of M-6 (Paul B. Henry Freeway, South Beltline Freeway) at an interchange over the confluence of the Thornapple and Grand rivers.[8][9]

Grand Rapids to Brighton[edit]

The freeway exits the edges of the Grand Rapids urban area past the interchange with M-6, turning due east and paralleling the northern edge of Cascade Road. I-96 curves to the south of Pratt Lake near the county line, crossing into Ionia County. Grand River Avenue is the frontage road as the freeway heads east through farm fields. South of Ionia, I-96 intersects M-66. Near Portland, the trunkline turns to the southeast to cross the Grand River again. On the east side of town, the freeway crosses Grand River Avenue, its former business spur into town. I-96 continues southeasterly, crossing into Clinton County, and passes the community of Eagle. Entering the western reaches of the Lansing metropolitan area, I-96 merges with I-69 and turns southward at an interchange in the southwestern corner of the county; this interchange also provides access to Business Loop I-96 (BL I-96, Grand River Avenue).[8][9]

Photograph of
Aerial view looking north from the I-496 interchange along I-96/I-69 west of Lansing

These two Interstates run southward together for about 6.5 miles (10.5 km) on the west side of the metropolitan area, picking up a third lane in each direction. The exit numbers and mileposts along the concurrency reflect those of I-96, which is considered the dominant designation of the pair. South of that interchange, the freeway crosses into Eaton County and over the Grand River. The trunkline passes near residential subdivisions, and next to the interchange for BL I-69/M-43 (Saginaw Highway), there is a large retail development. Further south, I-496 (Olds Freeway) branches off to run into downtown Lansing before the split between I-96 and I-69. I-69 turns southward while I-96 turns southeasterly, dropping back to four lanes in total. After the Lansing Road interchange, the freeway crosses the Grand River one last time and runs due east to bypass Lansing.[8][9]

Photograph looking south showing
Southern split between I-96 and I-69 southwest of Lansing

I-96 crosses into Ingham County and continues along the southern edges of the Lansing metro area. It passes through areas with residential subdivisions and commercial developments, coming to a pair of interchanges including one for the eastern end of BL I-96 (Cedar Street). Near the crossing of the Red Cedar River, I-96 goes through the interchange for I-496/US 127. East of that interchange, the freeway begins to exit the metro area as the landscape transitions back to farm fields. I-96 continues eastward, bypassing Williamston and Webberville to the south. Near the latter, the freeway turns more southeasterly and crosses into Livingston County.[8][9]

In Livingston County, I-96 passes to the south of Fowlerville and Howell. Near the Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport on the western edge of Howell, I-96 meets M-59, which carries the Howell business loop easterly to Grand River Avenue. The freeway expands to six lanes and runs parallel to Grand River Avenue on the southern side of town. The business loop reconnects near Lake Chemung on the east side of town, and I-96 turns further to the southeast. On the northeast side of Brighton, I-96 crosses over Grand River Avenue and the landscape transitions to include residential subdivisions. I-96 crosses US 23 and enters the far northwestern edge of Metro Detroit.[8][9]

Metro Detroit[edit]

Satellite photograph
Satellite image of the interchange with M-5, I-275 and I-696 in Novi and Farmington Hills

I-96 passes through an area with several lakes as it crosses into Oakland County. This area includes the Island Lake State Recreation Area to the south and the Kensington Metropark to the north of the freeway in an area where it crosses the Huron River. The Interstate runs through Wixom into Novi, where it passes to the south of the Twelve Oaks Mall. Southeast of the mall, I-96 enters a complex interchange on the border between Novi and Farmington Hills that connects it to M-5 (Haggerty Connector), I-275 and I-696 (Reuther Freeway). The trunkline drops a lane in each direction as it enters the interchange and turns southward. The freeway then merges into I-275 and increases to four lanes in each direction running south in Farmington Hills.[9][11]

According to the Federal Highway Administration, I-275 ends at the junction with I-96 and M-14 along the boundary between Livonia and Plymouth Township and not at the interchange in Novi and Farmington Hills.[a] MDOT considers I-275 to extend northward concurrently with I-96 to the Novi and Farmington Hills,[11] and maps from other providers follow MDOT's lead and label the freeway north of M-14 as I-96/I-275.[13]

I-96/I-275 runs southward for about two miles (3.2 km) before crossing into Wayne County at the interchange with 8 Mile Road near the Meadowbrook Country Club. The freeway curves to the east around Schoolcraft College; then, south of 5 Mile Road, I-96 meets the interchange with M-14 and I-275 where it turns to the east along the Jeffries Freeway. To the north and south sides of I-96 are a pair of service drives named Schoolcraft Road[9][11] which follow the 4 Mile location on the Mile Road System for Detroit.[14] To the north of the Jeffries are residential neighborhoods and to the south are commercial or industrial areas. At Inkster Road, the freeway crosses into Redford Township where it intersects US 24 (Telegraph Road) near Eliza Howell Park. East of the park, I-96 enters Detroit.[9][11]

Past the Outer Drive interchange, I-96 splits into a local-express lanes configuration. There are two carriageways in each direction, and the central ones have three lanes that bypass almost all of the exits while the outer ones have two lanes that have access to each exit. The Jeffries turns southeasterly and separates from Schoolcraft Road shifting one-half mile (0.80 km) to the south. The interchange with M-39 (Southfield Freeway) features slip ramps so that traffic can pass between the local and express lanes. Further east, I-96 turns northeasterly to cross Grand River Avenue at the southern end of M-5. I-96 curves over to the interchange with M-8 (Davison Avenue) and the local-express configuration ends as the freeway turns back to the south to cross over Grand River Avenue.[9][11]

Photograph of
I-96 east at Davison Avenue, the east end of the local–express split

From the crossing south of Davison, I-96 runs parallel to Grand River Avenue southeasterly with eight lanes total. The two run together as far as the interchange with I-94 (Edsel Ford Freeway) near Bishop Park. I-96 turns more south-southeasterly there through residential neighborhoods on Detroit's southeastern side. I-96 terminates at an interchange that connects it to I-75 (Fisher Freeway) and to the Ambassador Bridge.[8][9]

History[edit]

Interstate 96 was mostly constructed in sections that opened from 1957 to 1962, but it was not completed in the Detroit area until 1977. Even before the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act was signed in 1956, the route was being planned as a replacement of the old US 16, which was decommissioned in 1962.

Beginnings[edit]

The Muskegon–Grand Rapids–Lansing–Detroit corridor was initially named the Grand River Road,[15] an Indian trail[16] that was designated as a military highway in 1825.[17] The roadway was included as a branch of "Division 2" of the State Trunkline Highway System when that was created in May 1913.[18] When the system was signposted in 1919,[19] the highway was assigned the M-16 designation.[20] Grand River Avenue was the first paved highway across the state when paving was completed in 1926.[21] The entire highway was designated as part of US 16 later that year.[22]

Map of
1958 numbering plan for Michigan's Interstates

East of Grand Rapids, the highway was a major artery of national importance, and was added to the proposed "Interregional Highway System" as part of a northern route between Chicago and Detroit by the 1940s.[23] A branch from Grand Rapids to Muskegon was added later that decade,[24] and in 1957 the Chicago–Detroit route was labeled as part of Interstate 94, with Interstate 94N on the spur to Muskegon.[25] Michigan, believing that this would "cause considerable confusion to the public", requested a change in April 1958, which would move I-94 to the shorter Kalamazoo route (which was planned as I-92), make the Muskegon–Detroit route I-96, and assign I-67 to the connection from I-94 to I-96 at Grand Rapids,[26] but this was initially rejected by the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO).[27] By mid-1959, Michigan's plan had been approved, with one change: I-96 would take the south leg from I-94 at Benton Harbor to Grand Rapids, and the north leg to Muskegon would be I-196.[28]

Construction of the Brighton–Farmington Expressway piece of the US 16 upgrade began in 1956,[29] and, when a four-mile (6.4 km) piece opened on August 1, 1957, it was the first section of funded Interstate to open in Michigan.[30] The entire 23-mile (37 km) freeway from east of Brighton to a bypass of Farmington was completed in December of that year.[31] By early 1959, when signs for I-96 and I-196 were posted, 59 miles (95 km) of the "Detroit–Muskegon Freeway" had been completed and marked as US 16.[1] With the opening of 51 miles (82 km) from west of Lansing to east of Howell, the entire route, except in the Detroit area, opened for travel on December 12, 1962.[32] US 16 was decommissioned in the state at that time;[33] the portions into Muskegon and Detroit, beyond the ends of the freeway, became separate related highways named Business Spur Interstate 196 (BS I-196) for Muskegon and for Detroit.[34]

In 1963, the Michigan State Highway Department petitioned AASHO to again make the change it had requested back in 1958, moving I-96 over I-196 to end at Muskegon and renumbering I-96 west of Grand Rapids to I-67. The state cited problems with destination signing and numerous complaints from the public about confusion caused by the numbering.[35] At their October 21, 1963 meeting, AASHO approved the relocation of I-96, but rejected I-67, stating that the number should be kept for a more major route in case the system is expanded, and instead assigned I-196 to the not-yet-complete Benton Harbor–Grand Rapids highway.[36] With the scheduled completion of the Lodge Freeway on October 29, 1964, a full freeway route was available from I-96 into downtown Detroit via I-696 and the Lodge,[37] but it would be some time before I-96 was finished into the city.[38]

Construction of the Jeffries Freeway[edit]

The Detroit Expressway and Transit System plan, prepared in 1945 for the city of Detroit, included a Grand River Expressway, which was to parallel Grand River Avenue into downtown and relieve congestion on that artery. A rail line would be built in the median of the freeway west of West Chicago Street, where streetcars would exit onto the existing surface tracks on Grand River Avenue into downtown. The plan called for a future conversion to rapid transit with a grade-separated route to downtown.[39] The Department of Street Railways determined in 1947 that the operation would cost $6 million per year (equivalent to $177 million/yr in 2012[40]), and the planned transit line was dropped from the plans. By 1961, the proposed highway was renamed the Jeffries Freeway, after Edward Jeffries, who served as Detroit mayor from 1940 to 1948.[41][42]

The first piece of the Jeffries Freeway connected the Fisher Freeway (I-75) with the Ford Freeway (I-94) in 1970.[43][44] It was extended northwest to Livernois Avenue (exit 188A) in July 1971,[7] and then to Grand River Avenue at Schaefer Highway (exit 185) in 1973.[45][46] In 1976, the freeway was extended west to the Southfield Freeway (exit 183), and the entire I-275 concurrent section was opened.[47] The final piece was completed on November 21, 1977, connecting the Detroit section to I-275.[38] The I-96 designation was assigned along the I-275 freeway south to the Jeffries Freeway, and eastward along the new freeway to the M-39 interchange; the remaining stub of I-96 around Farmington was redesignated as an extension of M-102 (now M-5).[48]

Photograph showing
Express-local lanes along the westbound Jeffries Freeway approaching M-39 (Southfield Freeway) in Detroit

Originally, the route of Interstate 96 from the east end of the existing freeway in Farmington through Detroit, named the Jeffries Freeway (commonly referred to as simply "the Jeffries"), was to closely parallel Grand River Avenue (formerly US 16).[49] However, by 1963, several freeway revolts were taking place in urban locations throughout the country, including Detroit. Several of Detroit's planned freeways were modified, scaled back, or outright cancelled. To minimize the impact to existing communities and businesses, it was decided that the Jeffries Freeway would no longer utilize the Grand River Avenue corridor. Instead, the new I-96 freeway corridor would partially use right-of-way from the C&O Railroad through the city of Livonia (ultimately being built over Schoolcraft Road), and utilize the planned I-275 freeway bypassing Detroit to the west to connect back to the existing freeway.[50]

Subsequent history[edit]

Since the completion of I-96 in 1977, several changes to the freeway have taken place. Beginning in 1984, an extension of the US 27 freeway (later to become I-69) bypassing Lansing opened; US 27 was then cosigned with I-96 along the western side of Lansing.[51][52] Three years later, the I-69 designation was applied to this new bypass, resulting in a triple concurrency (I-96/I-69/US 27)[53][54] that existed until 2002, when US 27 was decommissioned in Michigan.[55]

Photograph of the
Exit and entry ramps from the 36th Street interchange

From 2003 to 2005, the Beck Road interchange (exit 160) in Novi was reconstructed as a single point urban interchange (SPUI), the first in the metropolitan Detroit area and the first on I-96.[56] An interchange between 36th Street and I-96 was built starting in 2005 and was completed in 2006. The project aimed to improve access to the Gerald R. Ford International Airport southeast of Grand Rapids.[57] The reconstruction of the Wixom Road interchange near Novi as a SPUI was completed in late fall of 2008.[58] Another interchange at Latson Road in Howell was approved for construction on July 19, 2012. This interchange was designed to bring improved access to the eastern Howell area, which prior to construction of the Latson Road exit was only accessible from westbound I-96.[59] The project was completed on December 2, 2013.[60] Also in 2013, the two interchanges near Nunica serving M-104 and B-31 were reconstructed; two ramps were also built in preparation of M-231, a future bypass of Grand Haven that is slated for completion in 2016.[61]

On April 5, 2014, MDOT closed I-96 between Newburgh Road and US 24 (Telegraph Road). The project is to cost $148 million, and it will rebuild the seven miles (11 km), replace two bridges, and repair 32 other bridges. The department will also install new drainage and replace the signs along I-96. The project was expected to be completed in October 2014.[62] Instead, it was finished ahead of schedule, and that segment of I-96 was opened on September 21, 2014.[63]

Also in 2014, work will begin on bypassing the early 1950s interchange with US 23 near Brighton. A new set of through lanes will be built on I-96 between the current eastbound and westbound lanes with three new bridges over northbound and southbound US 23, and over Old US 23. The existing lanes of I-96 will be changed to be collector-distributor lanes for ramp traffic.[64]

Gateway Project[edit]

Beginning on February 25, 2008, MDOT and the Detroit International Bridge Company initiated the Ambassador Gateway Project at the eastern end of I-96. The adjacent section of I-75 closed completely to traffic in both directions to start the complete reconstruction of the road to better connect I-75 and I-96 to the Ambassador Bridge, and the plans included the reconstruction of a mile (1.6 km) of I-96.[65] That segment of I-96 closed on July 14, 2008,[66] and it was scheduled to reopen a month early the following September.[67] The overall project to realign ramps and connect the bridge to the freeways was mired in lawsuits between MDOT and the private company that owns the bridge. The company's owner was jailed for contempt of court during court proceedings in early 2012.[68] MDOT was later ordered to assume responsibility for construction,[69] and the department completed the project on September 21, 2012.[70]

Incidents[edit]

On January 12, 2005, a large multiple-vehicle collision consisting of over 200 motor vehicles occurred on both directions of I-96 near Williamston in Ingham County. Two people, Douglas James Baker (age 15) and Jason Eldridge (age 27) were killed in the incident. It was one of the largest collisions in US history and was blamed on heavy fog.[71]

In October 2012, reports of a sniper shooting cars along I-96 in four counties led to a federal investigation and a multi-jurisdictional task force of 100 law enforcement officials. As of October 30, 2012, 25 shootings had been linked to one suspect.[72] The Federal Bureau of Investigation, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives and Crime Stoppers offered a $102,000 reward for information leading to the arrest of the perpetrator.[73] The suspect, Raulie Casteel of Wixom, was arrested on November 5, 2012,[74] and ordered to stand trial in 2013 in Oakland County for 60 charges in one case,[75] with a second trial on terrorism and murder charges to be brought by the Michigan Attorney General.[76] On October 30, 2013, the suspect pleaded no contest, but mentally ill, in the Oakland County case,[77] and he was sentenced to serve anywhere from six years and eight months to 10 years in prison on multiple assault charges (as well as two concurrent years on weapons charges) for that case on February 4, 2014. The trial for the Livingston County case began on January 14, 2014,[78] and after being convicted on the terrorism charge, Casteel was sentenced to 16 to 40 years in state prison.[79]

Exit list[edit]

County Location Mile[2] km Exit Destinations Notes
Muskegon Norton Shores 0.000 0.000 1 US 31 / LMCT south / Airline Road – Grand Haven, Ludington

BUS US 31 north / LMCT north – Downtown Muskegon
Signed as exits 1A (south) and 1B (north); freeway continues west as BUS US 31
Fruitport Township 0.293 0.472 1C Hile Road Eastbound exit and entrance only; westbound access is at exit 1A
3.517 5.660 4 Airline Road – Fruitport
5.100 8.208 5 Fruitport Road – Fruitport Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
Ottawa Crockery Township 9 M‑104 – Grand Haven, Spring Lake Exit opened late 2013; eastbound exit and westbound entrance connecting to 120th Avenue (future M-231)[61]
9.292 14.954 9 M‑104 – Grand Haven, Spring Lake Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; exit originally had directional access (eastbound to eastbound and westbound to westbound) only, with eastbound exit (signed as B-31, Nunica) and westbound entrance removed in 2013;[61] eastern terminus of M-104
10.081 16.224 10 B-31 – Nunica Converted from westbound exit and eastbound entrance to full interchange in late 2013[61]
Coopersville 15.991 25.735 16 B-35 – Coopersville, Eastmanville

Emergency US 31
Eastern end of concurrency with Emergency US 31, which runs along B-35 (68th Avenue) from I-96 in Coopersville to M-45 in Allendale; westbound entrance via Randall Avenue
18.584 29.908 19 Lamont, Coopersville
Wright Township 22.805 36.701 23 Marne Eastbound access via Jackson Street; westbound access via Franklin Street
Tallmadge Township 23.939 38.526 24 M‑11 – Walker, Grandville Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; western terminus of M-11
24.215 38.970 25 8th Avenue, 4 Mile Road Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; westbound access to M-11
Kent Walker 26.430 42.535 26 Fruit Ridge Avenue
28.367 45.652 28 Walker Avenue
30.295 48.755 30 M‑37 north (Alpine Avenue) – Newaygo Western end of M-37 concurrency; signed as exits 30A (south) and 30B (north) westbound
30.711–
31.440
49.425–
50.598
31 US 131 (I-296 south) – Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, Big Rapids, Cadillac Signed as exits 31A (south) and 31B (north); northern terminus of unsigned I-296
Grand Rapids 33.063 53.210 33
CONN M‑44 north (Plainfield Avenue)
Southern terminus of CONN M-44
36.533 58.794 36 Leonard Street
37.073 59.663 37 I‑196 (Gerald R. Ford Freeway) – Downtown Grand Rapids, Holland Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; eastern terminus of I-196
37.801 60.835 38 M‑37 south / M‑44 (East Belt Line Avenue) to M‑21 Eastern end of M-37 concurrency
Grand Rapids Township 38.687–
38.788
62.261–
62.423
39 M‑21 – Lowell, Flint Eastbound exit and westbound entrance from westbound M-21 only
40.014 64.396 40 Cascade Road – Cascade Signed as exits 40A (west) and 40B (east); former US 16
Cascade Township 42.986 69.179 43 M‑11 west (28th Street) – Cascade Signed as exits 43A (west) and 43B (east); eastern terminus of M-11
44.165–
44.174
71.077–
71.091
44 36th Street Signed as access to Gerald R. Ford International Airport
45.776–
46.015
73.669–
74.054
46 M‑6 west to M‑37 – Holland Eastern terminus of M-6
Lowell Township 52.303 84.174 52 M‑50 east – Charlotte, Lowell Western terminus of M-50
Ionia Boston Township 58.912 94.810 59 Saranac, Clarksville
Berlin Township 64.429 103.688 64 Saranac, Lake Odessa
67.427 108.513 67 M‑66 – Ionia, Battle Creek
Orange Township 73.291 117.950 73 Portland Road, Grand River Avenue – Lyons, Muir
Portland 76.071 122.424 76 Kent Street
77.493 124.713 77 Grand River Avenue – Portland Former BS I-96
Clinton Eagle 83.617 134.569 84 Westphalia, Eagle
Eagle Township 86.273 138.843 86 M‑100 south (Wright Road) – Grand Ledge Northern terminus of M-100
Watertown Township 89.670 144.310 89 I‑69 east – Flint Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
90.040 144.905 90 BL I‑96 east (Grand River Avenue)
90.466 145.591 91 I‑69 east – Flint Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; western end of I-69 concurrency
Eaton Delta Township 93.118 149.859 93 M‑43 / BL I‑69 east (Saginaw Highway) – Grand Ledge Signed as exits 93A (west) and 93B (east)
94.579–
94.815
152.210–
152.590
95 I‑496 east – Downtown Lansing Western terminus of I-496
96.667–
96.687
155.570–
155.603
97 I‑69 south – Charlotte, Fort Wayne Eastern end of I-69 concurrency
Windsor Township 97.847–
97.858
157.469–
157.487
98 Lansing Road Signed as exits 98A (south) and 98B (north); former US 27
Ingham Lansing 101.425 163.228 101 M‑99 (M L King Boulevard) – Eaton Rapids
104.395–
104.404
168.007–
168.022
104 BL I‑96 west (Cedar Street) – Holt Indirect access to Cedar Street, requires exiting onto a trumpet interchange with Edgewood Boulevard
Delhi Township 106.490–
106.518
171.379–
171.424
106 I‑496 west / US 127 – Jackson, East Lansing, Downtown Lansing Signed as exits 106A (south) and 106B (north); eastern terminus of I-496
Alaiedon Township 109.732 176.597 110 Okemos, Mason
Wheatfield Township 117.504 189.104 117 Dansville, Williamston Signed as exits 117A (Dansville) and 117B (Williamston) eastbound
Webberville 121.914 196.202 122 M‑43 / M‑52 – Webberville, Stockbridge Eastern terminus of M-43
Livingston Fowlerville 128.493 206.789 129 Fowlerville
Howell Township 133.305 214.534 133 M‑59 / BL I‑96 east (Highland Road) – Howell, Pontiac
Howell 136.799 220.157 137 D-19 – Howell, Pinckney
Genoa Township 140.113 225.490 140 Latson Road Announced on July 19, 2012[59] and opened December 2, 2013[60]
141.218 227.268 141 BL I‑96 west – Howell Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
Brighton 145.130 233.564 145 Grand River Avenue – Brighton
Brighton Township 146.768 236.200 147 Spencer Road – Brighton
147.578–
147.755
237.504–
237.789
148 US 23 – Ann Arbor, Flint Signed as exits 148A (south) and 148B (north)
149.458 240.529 150 Pleasant Valley Road Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
151.056 243.101 151 Kensington Road
Oakland Lyon Township 152.887 246.048 153 Kent Lake Road – South Lyon Only South Lyon signed eastbound
154.900 249.287 155 New Hudson, Milford Signed as exits 155A (New Hudson) and 155B (Milford) westbound
Wixom 159.236 256.266 159 Wixom Road – Wixom, Walled Lake
Novi 160.299–
160.313
257.976–
257.999
160 Beck Road – Novi
162.413 261.378 162 Walled Lake, Novi, Northville
163.381 262.936 163 I‑696 east (Reuther Freeway) – Port Huron
M‑5 east / Grand River Avenue
I‑275 south
Northern end of I-275 concurrency; eastbound exit and westbound entrance; western terminus of I-696
163.818 263.640 164 M‑5 north / 12 Mile Road Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
Farmington Hills 164.964 265.484 165 I‑696 east (Reuther Freeway) – Port Huron
M‑5 / Grand River Avenue
Westbound exit and eastbound entrance
OaklandWayne
county line
Farmington HillsLivonia city line 167.383 269.377 167 8 Mile Road – Northville
Wayne Livonia 168.440 271.078 169 7 Mile Road Signed as exits 169A (west) and 169B (east) westbound
169.438 272.684 170 6 Mile Road
Plymouth Township 170.503–
171.610
274.398–
276.180
173 I‑275 south – Toledo
M‑14 west – Ann Arbor
Southern end of I-275 concurrency; no exit number eastbound, exit 30 on I-275 northbound
Livonia 172.365 277.395 173 Newburgh Road, Levan Road Signed as exits 173A (Newburgh Road) and 173B (Levan Road) westbound
174.366 280.615 174 Farmington Road
175.369 282.229 175 Merriman Road
176.374 283.846 176 Middlebelt Road
Redford Township 177.372 285.453 177 Inkster Road
178.341 287.012 178 Beech Daly Road
179.303–
179.345
288.560–
288.628
179 US 24 (Telegraph Road)
Detroit 180.328–
180.355
290.210–
290.253
180 Outer Drive
180.465 290.430 Western end of express lanes
181.488 292.077 182 Evergreen Road
182.527–
182.559
293.749–
293.800
183 M‑39 (Southfield Freeway) Additional westbound exit and eastbound entrance on the express lanes
183.505–
183.515
295.323–
295.339
184 Greenfield Road
184.575–
184.700
297.045–
297.246
185 Schaefer Highway, Grand River Avenue (M-5 north)
185.579–
185.586
298.660–
298.672
186A Wyoming Avenue
185.935–
186.141
299.233–
299.565
186B Davison Avenue (M-8)
186.362 299.921 Eastern end of express lanes
186.996 300.941 187 Grand River Avenue Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
187.452–
187.880
301.675–
302.364
188 Livernois Avenue, West Chicago Avenue, Joy Road Signed as exits 188A (Livernois Avenue, West Chicago Avenue) and 188B (Joy Road) westbound
189.070–
189.107
304.279–
304.338
189 Tireman Avenue, West Grand Boulevard
189.791–
189.818
305.439–
305.482
190A I‑94 (Edsel Ford Freeway) – Port Huron, Chicago
190.093 305.925 190B Warren Avenue
190.857–
191.233
307.155–
307.760
191 US 12 (Michigan Avenue) / M L King Jr. Boulevard
190.933 307.277 I‑75 north (Fisher Freeway) – Flint
M‑10 (Lodge Freeway) – Civic Center
Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
191.466 308.135 192A Vernor Highway Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
191.966 308.939 192B Bridge to Canada Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
192.032 309.046 I‑75 south (Fisher Freeway) – Toledo Eastbound exit and westbound entrance
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Related trunklines[edit]

Auxiliary Interstates[edit]

I-96 has four related, auxiliary Interstate highways that connect the main freeway to downtowns and other cities. I-196 is a relatively long freeway spur, beginning at I-96 east of downtown Grand Rapids and heading west through downtown to Holland, and then south to I-94 near Benton Harbor.[8] The unsigned I-296 connects I-96 north of downtown Grand Rapids with I-196 in downtown,[2] and is signed as US 131. I-496 is a loop through downtown Lansing, which I-96 bypasses to the south, and I-696 is a northern bypass of Detroit, connecting I-96 in Novi with I-75 in Royal Oak and I-94 in St. Clair Shores.[8]

Business routes[edit]

I-96 presently has two business loops: one through Lansing and one through Howell.[8] Both follow the old route of US 16,[80] with appropriate connections to I-96.[8] A spur into Muskegon once existed, running concurrently with part of BUS US 31 along former US 16,[34] but it has been eliminated. Two routes in the Detroit area—a loop through Farmington and a spur into Detroit—both using Grand River Avenue, and meeting at the temporary end of I-96 near Purdue Avenue, were eliminated when I-96 was moved to the completed Jeffries Freeway in 1977.[81] On October 31, 2007, a spur into Portland was decommissioned and transferred to the City of Portland.[82]

Portland[edit]

Business Spur Interstate 96
Location: Portland
Length: 1.289 mi[2] (2.074 km)
Existed: September 18, 1978[83]–October 31, 2007[82]

Business Spur Interstate 96 (BS I-96) was a business spur of I-96 through the city of Portland. The western terminus was at the corner of Grand River Avenue and Kent Street in downtown Portland, and its eastern terminus was at exit 77 south of the city. The routing followed Grand River Avenue, the former routing of US 16 through downtown. This section of US 16 was decommissioned on March 7, 1960.[83] It would remain under local control until the first quarter-mile (0.4 km) section was transferred to state control on September 18, 1978.[83] The route was first marked on state highway maps in 1982 along the full mile and a quarter (2.0 km).[84] It was transferred back to local control on October 31, 2007.[82]

Lansing[edit]

Business Loop Interstate 96
Location: Lansing
Length: 10.259 mi[2] (16.510 km)
Existed: 1962[85][86]–present

Business Loop Interstate 96 (BL I-96) is a business loop of I-96 through the city of Lansing. The western terminus is at I-96's exit 90 northwest of Lansing near the I-96/I-69 junction, and its eastern terminus is at exit 104 south of the city.[8]

With the completion of I-96 in between Lansing and Brighton, US 16 was decommissioned in Michigan in 1962. The former routing of US 16 in Lansing was redesignated as BL I-96. From exit 90 on I-96, BL I-96 follows the Grand River Avenue routing of the former US 16 southeasterly to the former US 27 on Larch Street. There, BL I-96 joined US 27 along a one-way pairing of Larch and Cedar streets. Where US 27 turned to join M-78 at Main Street, BL I-96 continued along US 127 along Cedar Street to terminate at I-96 south of the city at exit 104.[85][86] In 1963, BL I-96 was rerouted onto the first portion of the I-496 freeway to be constructed southeast of the city.[86][87] This rerouting would last until 1966 when it was transferred back to the original routing with the completion of the US 127 freeway between Lansing and Mason. BL I-96 was rerouted along M-43/BUS M-78 to the I-496/M-78 freeway and back to I-96 at exit 106. Once the US 127 freeway was completed, BL I-96 was rerouted back along the then former US 127 routing to I-96.[88][89]

Major intersections

County Location Mile[2] km Destinations Notes
Clinton Watertown Township 0.000 0.000 I‑96 – Grand Rapids, Detroit Exit 90 on I-96
Ingham Lansing 3.552–
3.784
5.716–
6.090
North Street east
Cedar Street north
Interchange where BL I-96 transitions between North and Cedar/Larch streets; Cedar Street is a former routing of US 27
4.194 6.750 BL I‑69 (Oakland Avenue) / M‑43 west Oakland Avenue is a one-way street westbound
4.393 7.070 BL I‑69 (Saginaw Avenue) / M‑43 east Saginaw Avenue is a one-way street eastbound
4.893 7.875 Capitol Loop west (Michigan Avenue) Northern end of Capitol Loop concurrency
5.444–
5.458
8.761–
8.784
I‑496
Capitol Loop west
Southern end of Capitol Loop concurrency and eastern terminus of the Capitol Loop; exit 7 on I-496
10.240–
10.259
16.480–
16.510
I‑96 – Grand Rapids, Detroit Exit 104 on I-96; indirect access via trumpet interchange
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi


Howell[edit]

Business Loop Interstate 96
Location: Howell
Length: 7.803 mi[2] (12.558 km)
Existed: 1962[90][91]–present

Business Loop Interstate 96 (BL I-96) is a business loop of I-96 through the city of Howell, located between Detroit and Lansing. The western terminus is at the M-59 junction with I-96 northwest of Howell, and its eastern terminus is at exit 141 east of the city. This highway follows the original route of US 16 though downtown Howell. In 1962, I-96 was completed between Lansing and Brighton, and US 16 was decommissioned in Michigan. At the time, a new limited-access connector road was constructed between I-96 and Grand River Avenue, providing access for the business loop and M-59 to I-96.[90][91]

Major intersections
The entire highway is in Livingston County.

Location Mile[2] km Destinations Notes
Howell Township 0.00 0.00 I‑96 – Lansing, Detroit
M‑59 east
Western end of M-59 concurrency; exit 133 on I-96
1.004 1.616 M‑59 east (Highland Road) – Pontiac Eastern end of M-59 concurrency
Howell 3.645 5.866 M‑155 south (Michigan Avenue) Northern terminus of the unsigned M-155
7.803 12.558 I‑96 east – Detroit Westbound entrance and eastbound exit; exit 141 on I-96
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi


Farmington[edit]

Business Loop Interstate 96
Location: Farmington
Length: 4.129 mi[2] (6.645 km)
Existed: 1961[90][92]–1977[48][81]

Old Business Loop I-96 (OLD BL I-96) was a former business loop of I-96, and is now a 4.129-mile-long (6.645 km) segment of unsigned state trunkline along Grand River Avenue through the city of Farmington. Its western terminus is at the junction of M-5 and Grand River Avenue west of the city, and the eastern terminus is at the intersection between M-5 and Grand River Avenue southeast of Farmington. This highway was the original route of US 16 though downtown Farmington. In 1933, US 16 was routed onto a bypass route which had been constructed south of the city (the present-day Freedom Road) and the route through Farmington was retained as state trunkline.[93][94] In 1956, a new bypass freeway was built just to the south of the old bypass as part of the Brighton–Farmington Expressway and the route through downtown was designated Business US 16.[95][96]

The original plans for I-96 called for it to replace US 16 and to run parallel to Grand River Avenue all the way from Farmington into downtown Detroit. In 1959, the Farmington bypass freeway was given the I-96 designation in addition to the US 16 moniker,[97] and the business route was redesignated as BL I-96 two years later.[90][92] In 1977, as the Jeffries Freeway was completed, I-96 was rerouted south through Livonia and then east into Detroit, the portion of freeway bypassing Farmington was redesignated M-102. Simultaneously, the BL I-96 designation through downtown Farmington was removed,[48][81] and Grand River Avenue became an unsigned state trunkline, a status it has retained to this day.[98]

Detroit[edit]

Business Spur Interstate 96
Location: Detroit
Length: 7.083 mi[2] (11.399 km)
Existed: 1962[90][91]–1977[48][81]

Sometimes referred to as Old Business Spur I-96 (OLD BS I-96), the section of Grand River Avenue in Detroit between I-96 and the intersection with Cass Avenue and Middle Street in downtown Detroit is an unsigned state trunkline. The section of highway had previously been part of US 16.[80] When US 16 was decommissioned in 1962, Grand River Avenue was designated as BS I-96.[90][91] Upon completion of I-96 (Jeffries Freeway) in Detroit in 1977, portions were re-designated as M-102 and M-5.[48][81] From I-96 southeast into downtown Detroit, Grand River Avenue remained under state control as an unsigned state trunkline.[98] In 2004, the state transferred several blocks at the eastern end of Grand River Avenue to the City of Detroit. State trunkline control now ends at the corner of Grand River Avenue, Middle Street, and Cass Avenue.[99][100]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ FHWA's Route Log and Finder List documents the length of I-275 as 29.97 miles (48.23 km),[12] which corresponds to the length from I-75 to the southern I-96 junction.[2] It also omits any mention of an overlap with I-96 from its notes.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "New Highway Signs". Holland Evening Sentinel. February 25, 1959. p. 1. OCLC 13440201. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Michigan Department of Transportation (2003). MDOT Physical Reference Finder Application (Map). Cartography by Michigan Center for Geographic Information. http://www.mcgi.state.mi.us/prfinder/. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
  3. ^ Bureau of Transportation Planning (2008). "Traffic Monitoring Information System". Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved June 30, 2012. 
  4. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (April 23, 2006) (PDF). National Highway System, Michigan (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MDOT. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/MDOT_NHS_Statewide_150626_7.pdf. Retrieved October 7, 2008.
  5. ^ Natzke, Stefan; Neathery, Mike & Adderley, Kevin (September 26, 2012). "What is the National Highway System?". National Highway System. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved January 1, 2013. 
  6. ^ Michigan Legislature (2001). "Rosa Parks Memorial Highway". Michigan Memorial Highway Act (Excerpt) Act 142 of 2001. State of Michigan. MCL 250.1098. Retrieved August 18, 2006. 
  7. ^ a b Barnett, LeRoy (2004). A Drive Down Memory Lane: The Named State and Federal Highways of Michigan. Allegan Forest, MI: Priscilla Press. pp. 120–1. ISBN 1-886167-24-9. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Michigan Department of Transportation (2012). State Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:15 mi / 1 cm:9 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section K8–M13.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Google Inc. "Overview Map of Interstate 96". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. //maps.google.com/maps?saddr=US-31+BUS+S&daddr=Unknown+road&hl=en&sll=42.453735,-83.424511&sspn=0.122096,0.116558&geocode=Fa3GkgIdzYrc-g%3BFajyhQIdsC8M-w&mra=ls&t=h&z=8. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  10. ^ Staff (August 15, 2011). "The Story of the 13 Weatherball". Walker, MI: WZZM-TV. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved March 9, 2013. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Michigan Department of Transportation (2012). State Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:2,5 mi / 1 cm:1.75 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section C3–C7, C7–E7, E7–E11, Detroit Area inset.
  12. ^ a b DeSimone, Tony (October 31, 2002). "Table 2: Auxiliary Routes of the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System Of Interstate and Defense Highways as of October 31, 2002". Route Log and Finder List. Federal Highway Administration. OCLC 47914009. Retrieved July 20, 2012. 
  13. ^ Rand McNally (2013). "Michigan: Cities". The Road Atlas (Map). Cartography by Rand McNally. p. 52, section H3–J3, Detroit & Vicinity inset. ISBN 0-528-00626-6.
  14. ^ Gavrilovich, Peter & McGraw, Bill (2000). The Detroit Almanac: 300 Years of Life in the Motor City. Detroit: Detroit Free Press. pp. 20–1. ISBN 978-0-937247-34-1. 
  15. ^ Woodard, Sadie G. (1966). Grand River Road: A Traveler's View of a Historic Route that Traversed Early Michigan. Lansing, MI: Plane Tree Press. p. 12. OCLC 433271. 
  16. ^ Staff. "Part I: An Indian Trail". History: The River Road. Wayne County Department of Public Services. Archived from the original on December 18, 2007. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  17. ^ Staff. "Part II: A Military Road". History: The River Road. Wayne County Department of Public Services. Archived from the original on December 19, 2007. Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  18. ^ Michigan Legislature (1915). "Chapter 91: State Reward Trunk Line Highways". In Shields, Edmund C.; Black, Cyrenius P. & Broomfield, Archibald. The Compiled Laws of the State of Michigan, Volume I. Lansing, MI: Wynkoop, Hallenbeck, Crawford. pp. 1868–72. OCLC 44724558. Retrieved January 24, 2012. 
  19. ^ "Michigan May Do Well Following Wisconsin's Road Marking System". The Grand Rapids Press. September 20, 1919. p. 10. OCLC 9975013. 
  20. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (July 1, 1919). State of Michigan: Lower Peninsula (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD.
  21. ^ Barnett, LeRoy (2004). A Drive Down Memory Lane: The Named State and Federal Highways of Michigan. Allegan Forest, MI: Priscilla Press. p. 93. ISBN 1-886167-24-9. 
  22. ^ Bureau of Public Roads (November 11, 1926). United States System of Highways Adopted for Uniform Marking by the American Association of State Highway Officials (Map). 1:7,000,000. Cartography by U.S. Geological Survey. OCLC 32889555. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth298433/m1/1/zoom/. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
  23. ^ Public Roads Administration (c. 1943). Routes of the Recommended Interregional Highway System (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by PRA. http://www.ajfroggie.com/roads/yellowbook/conus-1943.jpg. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
  24. ^ Public Roads Administration (August 2, 1947). National System of Interstate Highways (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by PRA. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/fairbank17.cfm. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
  25. ^ American Association of State Highway Officials (August 14, 1957). Official Route Numbering for the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways (Map). Scale not given. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Interstate_Highway_plan_August_14,_1957.jpg. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
  26. ^ Staff (April 25, 1958). "Recommended Numbering: Interstate Highways in Michigan". Michigan State Highway Department. Archived from the original on November 21, 2003. Retrieved May 10, 2008. 
  27. ^ American Association of State Highway Officials (June 27, 1958). Official Route Numbering for the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by AASHO. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Interstate_Highway_plan_June_27,_1958.jpg. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
  28. ^ "Spring to Bring Debut for Interstate Road Numbering". The Herald-Press (St. Joseph, Michigan). Associated Press. January 8, 1959. p. 5. OCLC 10117184. 
  29. ^ "Road Plans Revised". Holland Evening Sentinel. June 30, 1956. p. 1. OCLC 13440201. 
  30. ^ Kelley, Frank E. (June 29, 2006). "Meeting Minutes" (PDF). Michigan State Transportation Commission. Retrieved May 10, 2008. 
  31. ^ "Expressway to Be Opened by Dec. 13". Ironwood Daily Globe. Associated Press. December 6, 1957. p. 10. Retrieved July 20, 2012. 
  32. ^ "Michigan Freeway Hits 1,000th Mile". The Milwaukee Sentinel. December 13, 1962. Part 1, p. 12. ISSN 1052-4479. 
  33. ^ "Drop US 16 Designation". Holland Evening Sentinel. April 14, 1962. p. 2. OCLC 13440201. 
  34. ^ a b Michigan State Highway Department (1964). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Section K7, M13.
  35. ^ "Muskegon Freeway Link Number Change Sought". Holland Evening Sentinel. August 24, 1963. p. 1. OCLC 13440201. 
  36. ^ "New Numbers Seen for Road". Holland Evening Sentinel. October 23, 1963. p. 4. OCLC 13440201. 
  37. ^ "Lodge Road to be Opened". Holland Evening Sentinel. October 28, 1964. p. 5. OCLC 13440201. 
  38. ^ a b Kulsea, Bill & Shawver, Tom (1980). Making Michigan Move: A History of Michigan Highways and the Michigan Department of Transportation. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Transportation. p. 27. OCLC 8169232. 
  39. ^ Andrews, W. Earle. (1945). Detroit Expressway and Transit System. New York: Detroit Transportation Board. OCLC 7195393. 
  40. ^ United States nominal Gross Domestic Product per capita figures follow the "Measuring Worth" series supplied in Johnston, Louis & Williamson, Samuel H. (2014). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved April 18, 2014.  These figures follow the figures as of 2012.
  41. ^ "Detroit Will Stay Accessible During I-75 Shutdown". The Detroit News. January 18, 1999. ISSN 1055-2715. 
  42. ^ Malo, Alger F. (January 1961). "The Relation of Mass Transportation to Total Transportation in Detroit". Traffic Quarterly (New York: Eno Foundation for Highway Traffic Control) 15 (1): 226–41. ISSN 0041-0713. 
  43. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1970). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:2.5 m. Cartography by MDSHi. Section E8, Detroit and Vicinity inset.
  44. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1971). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:2.5 mi. Cartography by MDSH. Section E8, Detroit and Vicinity inset.
  45. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1973). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:2.5 mi. Cartography by MDSH. Section E7–E8, Detroit and Vicinity inset.
  46. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1974). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:2.5 mi. Cartography by MDSHT. Section E7–E8, Detroit and Vicinity inset.
  47. ^ Milliken, William (1975). Economic Report of the Governor (Report). Lansing, MI: Office of the Governor. p. 37.
  48. ^ a b c d e Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1978). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:2.5 mi. Cartography by MDSHT (1978–79 ed.). Section D5, E5–E5, Detroit Area inset.
  49. ^ Bureau of Public Roads (September 1955). "Detroit and Environs". General Location of National System of Interstate Highways Including All Additional Routes at Urban Areas Designated in September 1955 (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by BPR. p. 41. OCLC 4165975. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Detroit,_Michigan_1955_Yellow_Book.jpg. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  50. ^ Staff (1964). I-96 Freeway Planning and Route Location Study, City of Detroit, Volume 1 (Report). Lansing, MI: Michigan State Highway Department. p. 20.
  51. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1984). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section L11.
  52. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1985). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section L11.
  53. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1986). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section L11.
  54. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1987). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section L11.
  55. ^ Debnar, Kari & Bott, Mark (January 14, 2002). "US 27 Designation Soon to Be Deleted from Michigan Highways" (Press release). Michigan Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on February 23, 2002. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  56. ^ Kalousdian, Aram (August 7, 2004). "Single Point Interchange Under Construction". Michigan Contractor and Builder (Reed Business Information). OCLC 761993683. Retrieved July 21, 2012.  (subscription required)
  57. ^ Bloemendaal, Dirk C. (September 2, 2006). "Interchange Improves Traffic Flow". Michigan Contractor and Builder (Reed Business Information). OCLC 761993683. Retrieved July 21, 2012.  (subscription required)
  58. ^ Kalousdian, Aram (November 3, 2008). "Wixom/I-96 Interchange Reconstructed". Michigan Contractor and Builder (Reed Business Information). OCLC 761993683. Retrieved July 21, 2012.  (subscription required)
  59. ^ a b Greenwood, Tom (July 19, 2012). "$32M Interchange Project OK'd for I-96 in Livingston County". The Detroit News. ISSN 1055-2715. Archived from the original on July 19, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2012. 
  60. ^ a b Behnan, Christopher (December 2, 2013). "Long-Awaited Latson Road Interchange Ready to Roll". Livingston County Daily Press & Argus (Howell, MI). Retrieved December 2, 2013. 
  61. ^ a b c d Anderson, Michelle D. (November 15, 2013). "M-231 Project Update: MDOT Opens Nearly All Lanes and Ramps at New I-96 Interchange". MLive (Booth Newspapers). Retrieved September 23, 2014. 
  62. ^ Abdel-Razzaq, Lauren (April 5, 2014). "The Driving Challenge Begins with I-96 Closure". The Detroit News. Retrieved April 6, 2014. 
  63. ^ Walker, Marlon A. (September 21, 2014). "Yay! I-96 Is Back in the Traffic Business". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved September 22, 2014. 
  64. ^ Graphic Design & Mapping Unit (October 2013). "I-96/US 23 Interchange Improvements, Brighton Township, Livingston County" (PDF). Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  65. ^ Greenwood, Tom & Wilkinson, Mike (February 26, 2008). "Motorists Maneuver Through Gateway Project Maze". The Detroit News. pp. 1B, 5B. ISSN 1055-2715. Retrieved October 29, 2012. 
  66. ^ "I-96 Closes from I-94 to Rosa Parks". The Detroit News. July 14, 2008. p. 2B. ISSN 1055-2715. Retrieved June 6, 2013. 
  67. ^ Greenwood, Tom (September 6, 2008). "Closed Stretch of I-96 near Ambassador Bridge Reopens Early". The Detroit News. ISSN 1055-2715. Retrieved June 6, 2013. 
  68. ^ Helms, Matt & Gallagher, John (January 12, 2012). "Mich. Billionaire, 84, Jailed over Bridge Dispute". USA Today. Retrieved October 29, 2012. 
  69. ^ Wattrick, Jeff T. (March 16, 2012). "MDOT Launches 'Getting Gateway to the Finish Line' Social Campaign". MLive (Detroit: Booth Newspapers). Retrieved October 29, 2012. 
  70. ^ Muller, David (September 20, 2012). "Detroit Neighborhoods to See Less Truck Traffic as $230 million Gateway Plaza Opens". MLive (Detroit: Booth Newspapers). Retrieved October 29, 2012. 
  71. ^ Phillips, Lauren (January 20, 2005). "Police Continue Investigation of Massive I-96 Accident". The State News (Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI). OCLC 6678066. Retrieved September 2, 2006. 
  72. ^ Dolan, Matthew (October 30, 2012). "Drivers Fear Sniper May Prowl Michigan Highway". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 30, 2012.  (subscription required)
  73. ^ Web Staff (October 29, 2012). "$102,000 Reward for Information Leading to I-96 Area Shooter". Detroit: WXYZ-TV. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2012. 
  74. ^ Dougovito, Lori (November 6, 2012). "Task Force Confirms Suspect Arrested in Highway Shootings". Flint, MI: WJRT-TV. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 
  75. ^ Turk, John (May 30, 2013). "Jury Trial for Accused I-96 Corridor Shooter Postponed 5 Months". The Oakland Press (Pontiac, MI). Retrieved June 6, 2013. 
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  82. ^ a b c Staff (October 31, 2007). "Contract Number 103107". Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 2, 2007.  (registration required)
  83. ^ a b c Michigan Department of Transportation (February 2003). "Ionia County" (PDF). Right-of-Way File Application (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by V3 Consultants. Sheet 71. http://mdotcf.state.mi.us/public/ROWFiles/files/Ionia/SHEET071.pdf. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  84. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (1982). Official Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:14.5 mi / 1 in:23 km. Cartography by MDOT. Section L10.
  85. ^ a b Michigan State Highway Department (1962). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:3 mi. Cartography by MSHD. Lansing inset.
  86. ^ a b c Michigan State Highway Department (1963). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:3 mi. Cartography by MSHD. Lansing inset.
  87. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1964). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:3 mi. Cartography by MSHD. Lansing inset.
  88. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1966). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:3 mi. Cartography by MDSH. Lansing inset.
  89. ^ Michigan Department of State Highways (1967). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:3 mi. Cartography by MDSH.
  90. ^ a b c d e f Michigan State Highway Department (1962). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Section Detroit Area.
  91. ^ a b c d Michigan State Highway Department (1963). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Detroit Area inset.
  92. ^ a b Michigan State Highway Department (1961). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Detroit Area inset. (Includes all changes through July 1, 1961)
  93. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (May 1, 1933). Official Highway Service Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by H.M. Gousha.
  94. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (October 1, 1933). Official Highway Service Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by H.M. Gousha.
  95. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (April 15, 1956). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Detroit Area inset.
  96. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (October 1, 1956). Official Highway Map (Map). Scale not given. Cartography by MSHD. Section K8, L10, M12–M13.
  97. ^ "Michigan Delays Road Number System". Toledo Blade. June 4, 1959. p. 11. Retrieved November 21, 2010. 
  98. ^ a b Michigan Department of Transportation (2010). Truck Operator's Map (Map). 1 in:3.5 mi / 1 cm:2 km. Cartography by MDOT. Detroit and Vicinity inset.
  99. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (2004). Truck Operator's Map (Map). 1 in:3.5 mi / 1 cm:2 km. Cartography by MDOT. Detroit and Vicinity inset.
  100. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (2005). Truck Operator's Map (Map). 1 in:3.5 mi / 1 cm:2 km. Cartography by MDOT. Detroit and Vicinity inset.

External links[edit]

Route map: Google / Bing

Mainline
Business routes