|This article is outdated. (August 2011)|
|Legal status of persons|
Immigration is the movement of people into another country or region to which they are not native in order to settle there. Immigration is a result of a number of factors, including economic and/or political reasons, family re-unification, natural disasters or the wish to change one's surroundings voluntarily.
- 1 Statistics
- 2 Understanding of immigration
- 3 Economic migrant
- 4 Ethics
- 5 By country
- 6 Economic effects
- 7 Welfare
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
As of 2006[update], the International Organization for Migration has estimated the number of foreign migrants worldwide to be more than 200 million. Europe hosted the largest number of immigrants, with 70 million people in 2005. North America, with over 45 million immigrants, is second, followed by Asia, which hosts nearly 25 million. Most of today's migrant workers come from Asia.
In 2005, the United Nations reported that there were nearly 191 million international migrants worldwide, about 3 percent of the world population. This represented a rise of 26 million since 1990. 60 percent of these immigrants were now in developed countries, an increase on 1990. Those in less developed countries stagnated, mainly because of a fall in refugees. Contrast that to the average rate of globalization (the proportion of cross-border trade in all trade), which exceeds 20 percent. The numbers of people living outside their country of birth is expected to rise in the future.
The Midwestern United States, some parts of Europe, some small areas of Southwest Asia, and a few spots in the East Indies have the highest percentages of immigrant population recorded by the UN Census 2005. The reliability of immigrant censuses is low due to the concealed character of undocumented labor migration.
A 2012 survey by Gallup found roughly 640 million adults would want to migrate to another country if they had the chance to. Nearly one-quarter (23%) of these respondents, which translates to more than 150 million adults worldwide, named the United States as their desired future residence, while an additional 7% of respondents, representing an estimated 45 million, chose the United Kingdom. The other top desired destination countries (those where an estimated 25 million or more adults would like to go) were Canada, France, Saudi Arabia, Australia, Germany and Spain.
Understanding of immigration
One theory of immigration distinguishes between Push and Pull. Push factors refer primarily the motive for immigration from the country of origin. In the case of economic migration (usually labor migration), differentials in wage rates are usual. If the value of wages in the new country surpasses the value of wages in one’s native country, he or she may choose to migrate as long as the costs are not too high. Particularly in the 19th century, economic expansion of the U.S. increased immigrant flow, and in effect, nearly 20% of the population was foreign born versus today’s values of 10%, making up a significant amount of the labor force. Poor individuals from less developed countries can have far higher standards of living in developed countries than in their originating countries. The cost of emigration, which includes both the explicit costs, the ticket price, and the implicit cost, lost work time and loss of community ties, also play a major role in the pull of emigrants away from their native country. As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased dramatically between the 18th and early 20th century. Travel across the Atlantic used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century, but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days. When the opportunity cost is lower, the immigration rates tend to be higher. Escape from poverty (personal or for relatives staying behind) is a traditional push factor, the availability of jobs is the related pull factor. Natural disasters can amplify poverty-driven migration flows. This kind of migration may be illegal immigration in the destination country.
Emigration and immigration are sometimes mandatory in a contract of employment: religious missionaries, and employees of transnational corporations, international non-governmental organizations and the diplomatic service expect, by definition, to work 'overseas'. They are often referred to as 'expatriates', and their conditions of employment are typically equal to or better than those applying in the host country (for similar work).
For some migrants, education is the primary pull factor (although most international students are not classified as immigrants). Retirement migration from rich countries to lower-cost countries with better climate is a new type of international migration. Examples include immigration of retired British citizens to Spain or Italy and of retired Canadian citizens to the U.S. (mainly to the U.S. states of Florida and Texas).
Non-economic push factors include persecution (religious and otherwise), frequent abuse, bullying, oppression, ethnic cleansing and even genocide, and risks to civilians during war. Political motives traditionally motivate refugee flows—to escape dictatorship for instance.
Some migration is for personal reasons, based on a relationship (e.g. to be with family or a partner), such as in family reunification or transnational marriage (especially in the instance of a gender imbalance). Recent research has found gender, age, and cross-cultural differences in the ownership of the idea to immigrate (for more, click here). In a few cases, an individual may wish to immigrate to a new country in a form of transferred patriotism. Evasion of criminal justice (e.g. avoiding arrest) is a personal motivation. This type of emigration and immigration is not normally legal, if a crime is internationally recognized, although criminals may disguise their identities or find other loopholes to evade detection. There have been cases, for example, of those who might be guilty of war crimes disguising themselves as victims of war or conflict and then pursuing asylum in a different country.
Barriers to immigration come not only in legal form or political form; natural and social barriers to immigration can also be very powerful. Immigrants when leaving their country also leave everything familiar: their family, friends, support network, and culture. They also need to liquidate their assets often at a large loss, and incur the expense of moving. When they arrive in a new country this is often with many uncertainties including finding work, where to live, new laws, new cultural norms, language or accent issues, possible racism and other exclusionary behavior towards them and their family. These barriers act to limit international migration (scenarios where populations move en masse to other continents, creating huge population surges, and their associated strain on infrastructure and services, ignore these inherent limits on migration.)
The politics of immigration have become increasingly associated with other issues, such as national security, terrorism, and in western Europe especially, with the presence of Islam as a new major religion. Those with security concerns cite the 2005 civil unrest in France that point to the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy as an example of the value conflicts arising from immigration of Muslims in Western Europe. Because of all these associations, immigration has become an emotional political issue in many European nations.
Studies have suggested that some special interest groups lobby for less immigration for their own group and more immigration for other groups since they see effects of immigration, such as increased labor competition, as detrimental when affecting their own group but beneficial when impacting other groups. A 2010 European study suggested that "that employers are more likely to be pro-immigration than employees, provided that immigrants are thought to compete with employees who are already in the country. Or else, when immigrants are thought to compete with employers rather than employees, employers are more likely to be anti-immigration than employees." A 2011 study examining the voting of US representatives on migration policy suggests that "that representatives from more skilled labor abundant districts are more likely to support an open immigration policy towards the unskilled, whereas the opposite is true for representatives from more unskilled labor abundant districts."
Another contributing factor may be lobbying by earlier immigrants. The Chairman for the US Irish Lobby for Immigration Reform which lobby for more permissive rules for immigrants, as well as special arrangements just for Irish, has stated that "the Irish Lobby will push for any special arrangement it can get — 'as will every other ethnic group in the country.'"
Region-specific factors for immigration
As a principle, citizens of one member nation of the European Union are allowed to work in other member nations with little to no restriction on movement. This is aided by the EURES network which brings together the European Commission and the public employment services of the countries belonging to the European Economic Area and Switzerland. For non-EU-citizen permanent residents in the EU, movement between EU-member states is considerably more difficult. After 155 new waves of accession to the European Union, earlier members have often introduced measures to restrict participation in "their" labour markets by citizens of the new EU-member states. For instance, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal and Spain each restricted their labor market for up to seven years both in the 2004 and 2007 round of accession.
Due to the European Union's—in principle—single internal labour market policy, countries such as Italy and the Republic of Ireland that have seen relatively low levels of labour immigration until recently (and which have often sent a significant portion of their population overseas in the past) are now seeing an influx of immigrants from EU countries with lower per capita annual earning rates, triggering nationwide immigration debates. Spain, meanwhile, is seeing growing illegal immigration from Africa. As Spain is the closest EU member nation to Africa—Spain even has two autonomous cities (Ceuta and Melilla) on the African continent, as well as an autonomous community (the Canary Islands) west of North Africa, in the Atlantic—it is physically easiest for African emigrants to reach. This has led to debate both within Spain and between Spain and other EU members. Spain has asked for border control assistance from other EU states; the latter have responded that Spain has brought the wave of African illegal migrants on itself by granting amnesty to hundreds of thousands of undocumented foreigners.
The United Kingdom, France and Germany have seen major immigration since the end of World War II and have been debating the issue for decades. Foreign workers were brought in to those countries to help rebuild after the war, and many stayed. Political debates about immigration typically focus on statistics, the immigration law and policy, and the implementation of existing restrictions. In some European countries the debate in the 1990s was focused on asylum seekers, but restrictive policies within the European Union, as well as a reduction in armed conflict in Europe and neighboring regions, have sharply reduced asylum seekers.
Some states, such as Japan, have opted for technological changes to increase profitability (for example, greater automation), and designed immigration laws specifically to prevent immigrants from coming to, and remaining within, the country. Globalization, as well as low birth rates and an aging work force, has forced Japan to reconsider its immigration policy. Japan's colonial past has also created considerable number of non-Japanese in Japan. Japan keeps tight control on immigration and in 2009, despite generous overseas aid for refugees, granted political asylum to just 30 people. Japanese Minister Taro Aso described Japan as unique in being "one nation, one civilisation, one language, one culture and one race".
In the United States political debate on immigration has flared repeatedly since the US became independent. Some on the far-left of the political spectrum attribute anti-immigration rhetoric to an all-"white", under-educated and parochial minority of the population, ill-educated about the relative advantages of immigration for the US economy and society. While those on the far-right think that immigration threatens national identity, as well as cheapening labor and increasing dependence on welfare.
The term economic migrant refers to someone who has emigrated from one region to another region for the purposes of seeking employment or improved financial position. An economic migrant is distinct from someone who is a refugee fleeing persecution.
Many countries have immigration and visa restrictions that prohibit a person entering the country for the purposes of gaining work without a valid work visa. Persons who are declared an economic migrant can be refused entry into a country.
The process of allowing immigrants into a particular country has been believed to have effects on wages and employment. Particularly the lower skilled workers are affected directly, but evidence suggests that this is due to adjustments within industries.
Treatment of migrants in host countries, both by governments, employers, and original population, is a topic of continual debate and criticism, as many cases of abuse and violation of rights are being reported frequently. Some countries have developed a particularly notorious reputation regarding treatment of migrants. The United Nations Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, has been ratified but by 20 states, all of which are heavy exporters of cheap labor. With the sole exception of Serbia, none of the signatories are western countries, but all are from Asia, South America, and North Africa. Arab states of the Persian Gulf, which are known for receiving millions of migrant workers, have not signed the treaty as well. Although freedom of movement is often recognized as a civil right in many documents such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966), the freedom only applies to movement within national borders: it may be guaranteed by the constitution or by human rights legislation. Additionally, this freedom is often limited to citizens and excludes others.
No sovereign state currently allows full freedom of movement across its borders, except Uruguay, and international human rights treaties do not confer a general right to enter another state. Proponents of immigration maintain that, according to Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, everyone has the right to leave or enter a country, along with movement within it (internal migration), although article 13 actually restricts freedom of movement to "within the borders of each state." Additionally, the UDHR does not mention entry into other countries when it states that "everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country." Some argue that the freedom of movement both within and between countries is a basic human right, and that the restrictive immigration policies, typical of nation-states, violate this human right of freedom of movement. Such arguments are common among anti-state ideologies like anarchism and libertarianism. As philosopher and "Open Borders" activist Jacob Appel has written, "Treating human beings differently, simply because they were born on the opposite side of a national boundary, is hard to justify under any mainstream philosophical, religious or ethical theory." However, Article 14 does provide that "everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution."
Where immigration is permitted, it is typically selective. Family reunification accounts for approximately two-thirds of legal immigration to the US every year. Ethnic selection, such as the White Australia policy, has generally disappeared, but priority is usually given to the educated, skilled, and wealthy. Less privileged individuals, including the mass of poor people in low-income countries, cannot avail themselves of the legal and protected immigration opportunities offered by wealthy states. This inequality has also been criticized as conflicting with the principle of equal opportunities, which apply (at least in theory) within democratic nation-states. The fact that the door is closed for the unskilled, while at the same time many developed countries have a huge demand for unskilled labor, is a major factor in illegal immigration. The contradictory nature of this policy—which specifically disadvantages the unskilled immigrants while exploiting their labor—has also been criticized on ethical grounds.
Immigration policies which selectively grant freedom of movement to targeted individuals are intended to produce a net economic gain for the host country. They can also mean net loss for a poor donor country through the loss of the educated minority—the brain drain. This can exacerbate the global inequality in standards of living that provided the motivation for the individual to migrate in the first place. One example of competition for skilled labour is active recruitment of health workers from the Third World by First World countries.
Many commentators have raised the issue that immigrants from certain cultures who move into Western countries may not be able to understand and assimilate certain Western concepts, that are relatively alien in some parts of the world, especially related to women's rights, domestic violence, LGBT rights and the supremacy of secular laws in front of religious practices. For instance, in many parts of the world it is legal and socially accepted for men to use physical violence against their wives if they "misbehave"; and wives are expected, both legally and socially, to "obey" their husbands. Various behaviors of women, such as refusing arranged marriages or having premarital sex, are seen in many parts of the world as justifying violence from family members (parents). A 2010 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center found that stoning as a punishment for adultery was supported by 82% of respondents in Egypt and Pakistan, 70% in Jordan, 56% Nigeria, 42% in Indonesia; the death penalty for people who leave the Muslim religion was supported by 86% of respondents in Jordan, 84% in Egypt and 76% in Pakistan; gender segregation in the workplace was supported by 85% of respondents in Pakistan, 54% in Egypt, 50% in Jordan. Some people argue that Western countries have worked very hard and for a very long time to achieve modern values, and they have the right to maintain these values, and protect them from threats. In 2007, Quebec premier Jean Charest said that Quebec had values such as equality of women and men and the separation between the state and religion and that "These values are fundamental. They cannot be the object of any accommodation. They cannot be subordinated to any other principle." (see reasonable accommodation). In recent years, several high profile cases of honor killings, forced marriages and female genital mutilation among immigrant communities in Canada, the US and Europe have reignited the debate on immigration and integration. LGBT rights are another issue of controversy in relation to immigration, because homosexuality is in many parts of the world illegal and widely disapproved by society, and in some places it is even punishable by death (see sodomy laws and LGBT rights by country or territory). Some countries, such as the Netherlands, have adopted policies which explain to immigrants that they have to accept LGBT rights if they want to move to the country.
The Commitment to Development Index ranks 22 of the world's richest countries on their immigration policies and openness to migrants and refugees from the poorest nations. See the CDI for information about specific country policies and evaluation not listed below.
Jewish immigration to Palestine during the 19th century was promoted by the Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl in the late 19th century following the publication of "Der Judenstaat". His Zionist movement sought to encourage Jewish migration, or immigration, to Palestine. Its proponents regard its aim as self-determination for the Jewish people. The percentage of world Jewry living in the former Palestinian Mandate has steadily grown from 25,000 since the movement came into existence. Today about 40% of the world's Jews live in Israel, more than in any other country.
The Israeli Law of Return, passed in 1950, gives those born Jews (having a Jewish mother or grandmother), those with Jewish ancestry (having a Jewish father or grandfather) and converts to Judaism (Orthodox, Reform, or Conservative denominations—not secular—though Reform and Conservative conversions must take place outside the state, similar to civil marriages) the right to immigrate to Israel. A 1970 amendment, extended immigration rights to "a child and a grandchild of a Jew, the spouse of a Jew, the spouse of a child of a Jew and the spouse of a grandchild of a Jew". Over a million Jews from the former Soviet Union have immigrated to Israel since the 1990s, and large numbers of Ethiopian Jews were airlifted to the country in Operation Moses. In the year 1991, Israel helped 14,000 Ethiopian immigrants arrive in operation Solomon.
In the early 1990s, Japan relaxed its relatively tight immigration laws to allow special entry permits for foreigners of Japanese ancestry in South America to make up for a labor shortage. According to Japanese immigration centre, the number of foreign residents in Japan has steadily increased, and the number of foreign residents (including permanent residents, but excluding illegal immigrants and short-term visitors such as foreign nationals staying less than 90 days in Japan) was more than 2.2 million in 2008. The biggest groups are Koreans (both south and north), Chinese (including China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau nationalities), and Brazilians. Most of the Brazilians in Japan have Japanese ancestry due to the huge Japanese immigration to Brazil in the first decades of the 20th century. Immediately after World War II, most Koreans in Japan were illegal immigrants who escaped from civil war on the Korean Peninsula.
Among the immigrants, Japan accepts a steady flow of 15,000 new Japanese citizens by naturalization (帰化 kika?) per year. Indeed, the concept of ethnic groups by the Japanese statistics is different from that used in North American or some Western European statistics. For example, the United Kingdom Census asks about its citizens' "ethnic or racial background". The Japanese Statistics Bureau does not ask this question. Since the Japanese census asks about nationality rather than ethnicity, naturalized Japanese citizens and Japanese nationals with multi-ethnic backgrounds are considered simply to be Japanese in the population of Japan.
According to the Japanese Association for Refugees, the number of refugees who applied to live in Japan has rapidly increased since 2006, and there were more than a thousand applications in 2008. Japan's refugee policy has been criticized because the number of refugees accepted into Japan is small compared to countries such as Sweden and the United States. For example, according to the UNHCR, in 1999 Japan accepted 16 refugees for resettlement, while the United States took in 85,010, and New Zealand (which has a much smaller population than Japan) accepted 1,140. Between 1981, when Japan ratified the U.N. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, and 2002, Japan recognized only 305 persons as refugees.
Morocco is home to more than 20,000 sub-Saharan African immigrants.
According to Eurostat, 47.3 million people lived in the EU in 2010, who were born outside their resident country. This corresponds to 9.4% of the total EU population. Of these, 31.4 million (6.3%) were born outside the EU and 16.0 million (3.2%) were born in another EU member state. The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4 million), France (5.1 million), the United Kingdom (4.7 million), Spain (4.1 million), Italy (3.2 million), and the Netherlands (1.4 million).
Some EU member states are currently receiving large-scale immigration: for instance Spain, where the economy has created more than the whole of all the new jobs in the EU over the past five years. The EU, in 2005, had an overall net gain from international migration of +1.8 million people. This accounts for almost 85% of Europe's total population growth in 2005. In 2004, total 140,033 people immigrated to France. Of them, 90,250 were from Africa and 13,710 from Europe. In 2005, immigration fell slightly to 135,890. British emigration towards Southern Europe is of special relevance. Citizens from the European Union make up a growing proportion of immigrants in Spain. They mainly come from countries like the UK and Germany, but the British case is of special interest due to its magnitude. The British authorities estimate that the British population in Spain at 700,000. Mid- and long term EU demographics indicate a shortage of skilled laborers on a scale that would endanger economic growth and the stability of numerous industries. For this reason the European Union launched an initiative called the EU Blue Card, In 2009. The EU Blue Card is initially a temporary residence and work permit. However it will offer holders the opportunity to apply for a permanent resident permit after working on an EU Blue Card for two to five years uninterrupted, depending on individual member state regulations.
Italy now has an estimated 4 million to 4.5 million immigrants — about 8 percent of the population. Since the expansion of the European Union, the most recent wave of migration has been from surrounding European nations, particularly Central Europe, and increasingly Asia, replacing North Africa as the major immigration area. Some 997,000 Romanians are officially registered as living in Italy, replacing Albanians (590,000) and Moroccans (455,000) as the largest ethnic minority group, but independent estimates put the actual number of Romanians at double that figure or perhaps even more. Other immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe are Ukrainians (260,000), Polish (120,000), Moldovans (190 000) Macedonians (100,000), Serbs (75,000), Bulgarians (124,000), Bosnians (40,000), Russians (45,600), Croatians (25,000), Slovaks (9,000), Hungarians (8,600). As of 2009, the foreign born population origin of Italy was subdivided as follows: Europe (53.5%), Africa (22.3%), Asia (15.8%), the Americas (8.1%) and Oceania (0.06%). The distribution of foreign born population is largely uneven in Italy: 80% of immigrants live in the northern and central parts of the country (the most economically developed areas), while only 20% live in the southern half of the peninsula. In 2008, net immigration to Italy was 47,000.
Pr. January 1, 2012 registered immigrants in Norway numbered 547 000, making up about 11% of the total population. Many are fairly recent immigrants as immigration has gradually increased  in Norway and per 2012 is very high, both historically and compared to other countries. Net immigration in 2011 was 47 032, a national record high. The immigrants come from 219 different countries. If children of two immigrants are included the immigrant population make up 655 170. The largest groups come from Poland (72 103), Sweden (36 578), Pakistan (32 737), Somalia (29 395) Iraq (28 935), Germany (25 683), Lithuania (23 941) and Vietnam (20 871) (numbers per 2012, include immigrants and children of two immigrants). Children of Pakistani, Somali and Vietnamese parents made up the largest groups of all Norwegians born to immigrant parents. The European and Pakistani immigrants are mainly labor immigrants while many other immigrants from outside Europe have come as asylium seekers or family members to such.
Portugal, long a country of emigration, that have created big Portuguese communities in France, USA and Brazil  has now become a country of net immigration, and not just from the former colonies; by the end of 2003, legal immigrants represented about 4% of the population, and the largest communities were from Cape Verde, Brazil, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, UK, Spain, China and Ukraine.
Spain is the most favoured European destination for Britons leaving the UK. Since 2000, Spain has absorbed more than three million immigrants, growing its population by almost 10%. Immigrant population now tops over 4.5 million. According to residence permit data for 2005, about 500,000 were Moroccan, another 500,000 were Ecuadorian, more than 200,000 were Romanian, and 260,000 were Colombian. In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people.
As the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity, there are no exact numbers on the total number of people of immigrant background in Sweden. As of 2010, 1.33 million people or 14.3% of the inhabitants in Sweden were foreign-born. Sweden has been transformed from a nation of emigration ending after World War I to a nation of immigration from World War II onwards. In 2009, immigration reached its highest level since records began with 102,280 people emigrating to Sweden. In 2010, 32000 people applied for asylum to Sweden, a 25% increase from 2009, the highest amount in Swedish history. In 2009, Sweden had the fourth largest number of asylum applications in the EU and the largest number per capita after Cyprus and Malta.  Immigrants in Sweden are mostly concentrated in the urban areas of Svealand and Götaland and the five largest foreign born populations in Sweden come from Finland, Yugoslavia, Iraq, Poland and Iran.
In 2007, net immigration to the UK was 237,000, a rise of 46,000 on 2006. In 2004, the number of people who became British citizens rose to a record 140,795—a rise of 12% on the previous year. This number had risen dramatically since 2000. In the 2001 Census, citizens from the Republic of Ireland were the largest foreign born group and have been for the last 200 years. This figure does not include those from Northern Ireland located since it is part of the United Kingdom. Those of Irish ancestry number roughly 6 million from first, second and third generation. The overwhelming majority of new citizens come from Asia (40%) and Africa (32%), the largest three groups being people from Pakistan, India and Somalia.
In 2011, an estimated 589,000 migrants arrived to live in the UK for at least a year, most of the migrants were people from Asia (particularly the Indian subcontinent) and Africa, while 338,000 people emigrated from the UK for a year or more. Following Poland's entry into the EU in May 2004 it was estimated that by the start of 2007, 375,000 Poles had registered to work in the UK, although the total Polish population in the UK was believed to be 500,000. Many Poles work in seasonal occupations and a large number are likely to move back and forth over time. Some migrants left after the world economic crisis of 2008. In 2011, citizens of the new EU member states made up 13% of the immigrants entering the country. As of May 2010[update] the UK Immigration Minister was Damian Green, who has since been replaced by Mark Harper.
The British Asian (South Asian) population has increased from 2.2 million in 2001 to over 4.2 million in 2011, while the Black British community has increased from 1.1 million in 2001 to nearly 1.9 million in 2011. Between 2001 and 2009, this was part of a general trend seeing a drop in white British people by 36,000 and a concurrent rise in non-white British people from 6.64 million to 9.13 million, including Chinese, Pakistani, mixed white and black Caribbean, black African, Australian, Canadian and European immigrants.
Large numbers of Central American migrants who have crossed Guatemala's border into Mexico are deported every year. Over 200,000 undocumented Central American migrants were deported in 2005 alone. In a 2010 news story, USA Today reported, "... Mexico's Arizona-style law requires local police to check IDs. And Mexican police freely engage in racial profiling and routinely harass Central American migrants, say immigration activists."
After the United States returned to a more closed border, immigration has been more difficult than ever for Mexican residents hoping to migrate. Mexico is the leading country of migrants to the United States. A Mexican Repatriation program was founded by the United States to encourage people to voluntarily move to Mexico. However, the program was not found successful and many immigrants were deported against their will. Last year alone, 400,000 Mexican immigrants were repatriated. In 2010 alone, there was a total of 139,120 legal immigrants who migrated to the United States. This put Mexico as the top country for emigration  According to recent studies, the amount of immigrants migrating from Mexico should continue to increase tremendously each year.
Canada's is driven by economic policy and family reunification, and is aiming for between 240,000 and 265,000 new permanent residents in 2012. In 2001, 250,640 people immigrated to Canada. Newcomers settle mostly in the major urban areas of Toronto and Vancouver. Since the 1990s, the majority of Canada's immigrants have come from Asia. The leading emigrating countries to Canada are China, Philippines and India. India was the third largest source country for immigration to Canada in 2012, with 28,889 permanent residents admitted. This represents an increase of almost 15 percent since 2004. In 2010, a record 280,636 people immigrated to Canada. Accusing a person of racism in Canada is usually considered a serious slur. All political parties are now cautious about criticizing of the high level of immigration, because, as noted by the Globe and Mail, "in the early 1990s, the old Reform Party was branded 'racist' for suggesting that immigration levels be lowered from 250,000 to 150,000."
Historians estimate that fewer than 1 million immigrants – perhaps as few as 400,000 – crossed the Atlantic during the 17th and 18th centuries. Relatively few 18th-century immigrants came from England: only 80,000 between 1700 and 1775, compared to 350,000 during the 17th century. In addition, between the 17th and 19th centuries, an estimated 645,000 Africans were brought to what is now the United States. In the early years of the United States, immigration was fewer than 8,000 people a year. After 1820, immigration gradually increased. From 1850 to 1930, the foreign born population of the United States increased from 2.2 million to 14.2 million. The highest percentage of foreign born people in the United States was found in this period, with the peak in 1890 at 14.7%. During this time, the lower costs of Atlantic Ocean travel in time and fare made it more advantageous for immigrants to move to the U.S. than in years prior. From 1880 to 1924, over 25 million Europeans migrated to the United States, mainly economic migrants. The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act meanwhile suppressed immigration from East Asia, while the Emergency Quota Act, followed by the Immigration Act of 1924, restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe.
Following this time period, immigration fell because in 1924 Congress passed the Immigration Act of 1924, which favored immigrant source countries that already had many immigrants in the U.S. by 1890. Immigration patterns of the 1930s were dominated by the Great Depression, and in the early 1930s, more people emigrated from the United States than immigrated to it. Immigration continued to fall throughout the 1940s and 1950s, but it increased again afterwards.
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 or McCarran-Walter Act brought in major changes to immigration policy and the act removed the immigration restrictions based on race and gender, ending the decades of repression levied upon Chinese immigrants and other Asian immigrant groups. The McCarran-Walter act retained national origin immigration quotas.
The Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 (the Hart-Cellar Act) removed quotas on large segments of the immigration flow and legal immigration to the U.S. surged. In 2006, the number of immigrants totaled record 37.5 million. After 2000, immigration to the United States numbered approximately 1,000,000 per year. Despite tougher border security after 9/11, nearly 8 million immigrants came to the United States from 2000 to 2005 – more than in any other five-year period in the nation's history. Almost half entered illegally. In 2006, 1.27 million immigrants were granted legal residence. Mexico has been the leading source of new U.S. residents for over two decades; and since 1998, China, India and the Philippines have been in the top four sending countries every year. The U.S. has often been called the "melting pot" (derived from Carl N. Degler, a historian, author of Out of Our Past), a name derived from United States' rich tradition of immigrants coming to the US looking for something better and having their cultures melded and incorporated into the fabric of the country.
Appointed by President Clinton, the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, led by Barbara Jordan, called for reducing legal immigration to about 550,000 a year. Since September 11, 2001, the politics of immigration has become an extremely hot issue. It was a central topic of the 2008 election cycle.
The number of foreign nationals who became legal permanent residents (LPRs) of the U.S. in 2009 as a result of family reunification (66 percent) outpaced those who became LPRs on the basis of employment skills (13 percent) and humanitarian reasons (17 percent). Since World War II, more refugees have found homes in the U.S. than any other nation and more than two million refugees have arrived in the U.S. since 1980. Of the top ten countries accepting resettled refugees in 2006, the United States accepted more than twice as much as the next nine countries combined. One econometrics report in 2010 by analyst Kusum Mundra suggested that immigration positively affected bilateral trade when the U.S. had a networked community of immigrants, but that the trade benefit was weakened when the immigrants became assimilated into American culture.
- Persons Obtaining Legal Permanent Resident Status Fiscal Years 1820 to 2010
Source: US Department of Homeland Security, Persons Obtaining Legal Permanent Resident Status: Fiscal Years 1820 to 2010
The table above does not include the years 2011 and 2012. According to Permanent residence (United States), in 2011 there were 2.7 million entries entered in the Diversity Visa Lottery. So far in 2012, there has been 19.6 million participants.[when?] The numbers increase tremendously each year. There is now a waiting period held by the U.S. government to decide who will be eligible for entry as a permanent resident of the United States.
The overall level of immigration to Australia has grown substantially during the last decade. Net overseas migration increased from 30,000 in 1993 to 118,000 in 2003-04. The largest components of immigration are the skilled migration and family re-union programs. The mandatory detention of unauthorised arrivals by boat has generated great levels of controversy. During the 2004-05, total 123,424 people immigrated to Australia. Of them, 17,736 were from Africa, 54,804 from Asia, 21,131 from Oceania, 18,220 from United Kingdom, 1,506 from South America, and 2,369 from the rest of Europe. 131,000 people migrated to Australia in 2005-06 and migration target for 2012–13 is 190,000.
New Zealand has relatively open immigration policies. 23% of the population was born overseas, mainly in Asia, Oceania, and UK, one of the highest rates in the world. In 2010-2014, an annual target of 45,000±5000 immigrants was set by the Immigration New Zealand.
The Cato Institute finds little or no effect of immigration on the income of citizens belonging to established populations. The Brookings Institution finds a 2.3% depression of wages from immigration from 1980 to 2007. The Center for Immigration Studies finds a 3.7% depression wages from immigration from 1980 to 2000. Research indicates that immigrants are more likely to work in risky jobs than U.S.-born workers, partly due to differences in average characteristics, such as immigrants' lower English language ability and educational attainment. Further, some studies indicate that higher ethnic concentration in metropolitan areas is positively related to the probability of self-employment of immigrants.
According to the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, "In Europe, 28% of foreigners between the ages of 25 and 49 are unable to find work, with unemployment rates as high as 35% for Turks and Pakistanis and 60% for recent immigrant groups such as Somalis."
Toronto’s unemployment rate was 6.7% in November 2010, including 19.7% among recent immigrants.
Research has found that that as immigration and ethnic heterogeneity increase, government funding of welfare and public support for welfare decrease. Ethnic nepotism may be an explanation for this phenomenon. Other possible explanations include theories regarding in-group and out-group effects as well as reciprocal altruism.
- Brain drain
- Childhood and migration
- Criticism of multiculturalism
- Feminization of migration
- Illegal immigration
- Migrant worker
- Immigration and crime
- Opposition to immigration
- People smuggling
- Political demography
- Replacement migration
- Political asylum
- Right of foreigners to vote
- First world privilege
- Accademia Apulia
- List of countries by net migration rate
- Definition of immigration by the Free Online Dictionary
- Crisis Strands Vietnamese Workers in a Czech Limbo. The New York Times. 5 June 2009.
- Global Estimates and Trends. International Organization for Migration. 2008. Retrieved on 30 October 2009.
- Rich world needs more foreign workers: report at the Wayback Machine (archived December 18, 2008), FOXNews.com, December 02, 2008. Archived December 18, 2008.
- "Global Migration: A World Ever More on the Move". The New York Times. June 25, 2010.
- PDF (89.4 KB). United Nations. Key Findings. Retrieved on 30 October 2009.
- "International Migration Report 2006". United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- 150 Million Adults Worldwide Would Migrate to the U.S.
- "White ethnic Britons in minority in London". Financial Times. December 11, 2012.
- Graeme Paton (1 October 2007). "One fifth of children from ethnic minorities". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 15 June 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
- See the NIDI/Eurostat push and pull study for details and examples: 
- Boustan, Adain May . "Fertility and Immigration." UCLA. 15 January 2009.
- Rubin, M. (2013). “It wasn’t my idea to come here!”: Ownership of the idea to immigrate as a function of gender, age, and culture. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37, 497-501. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2013.02.001
- Anita Böcker (1998) Regulation of migration: international experiences. Het Spinhuis. p.218. ISBN 90-5589-095-2
- Tamura, Yuji, Do Employers Support Immigration? (July 29, 2010). Trinity Economics Papers No. 1107. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1021941
- Facchini, G.; Steinhardt, M. F. (2011). "What drives U.S. Immigration policy? Evidence from congressional roll call votes". Journal of Public Economics 95 (7–8): 734. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2011.02.008.
- An Irish Face on the Cause of Citizenship, Nina Bernstein, March 16, 2006, The New York Times. 
- National Council of La Raza, Issues and Programs » Immigration » Immigration Reform, 
- "Eures - Free Movement". European Union. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
- See, e.g., EU Enlargement in 2007: No Warm Welcome for Labor Migrants, by Catherine Drew and Dhananjayan Sriskandarajah, Institute for Public Policy Research
- "Independent: "Realism is not racism in the immigration debate"". independent.ie. 2007-10-17. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
- ""Italy's Recent Change From An Emigration Country to An Immigration Country and Its Impact on Italy's Refugee and Migration Policy" by Andrea Bertozzi". Cicero Foundation. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
- "BBC: EU nations clash over immigration". BBC News. 2006-09-22. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
- "Deutsche Welle: Germans Consider U.S. Experience in Immigration Debate". Retrieved 2008-03-23.
- "BBC: Short History of Immigration". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
- "BBC: Analysis: Europe's asylum trends". BBC News. 2005-03-01. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
- "Japanese Immigration Policy: Responding to Conflicting Pressures". Migration Information Source. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
- "Inmates on hunger strike in Japan immigration centre". Google News. May 19, 2010
- "blue eyes, blond hair: that's US problem, says Japanese minister". The Guardian. March 23, 2007
- see, e.g., Archived March 18, 2009 at the Wayback Machine or Archived May 16, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Dustmann, Christian. "Labor market effects on immigration". Business Source Elite. Retrieved 10/4/12.
- Remittance Prices Worldwide
- "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations. 1948 (original work). Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- Theresa Hayter, Open Borders: The Case Against Immigration Controls, London: Pluto Press, 2000.
- "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations. 1948 (original work). Retrieved 25 July 2010.
- "Family Reunification", Ramah McKay, Migration Policy Institute.
- In Iraq husbands have a legal right to "punish" their wives. The criminal code states at Paragraph 41 that there is no crime if an act is committed while exercising a legal right; examples of legal rights include: "The punishment of a wife by her husband, the disciplining by parents and teachers of children under their authority within certain limits prescribed by law or by custom".
- in Yemen marriage regulations state that a wife must obey her husband and must not leave home without his permission.
- In Jordan, part of article 340 of the Penal Code states that "he who discovers his wife or one of his female relatives committing adultery and kills, wounds, or injures one of them, is exempted from any penalty." Article 98 of the Penal Code is often cited alongside Article 340 in cases of honor killings. "Article 98 stipulates that a reduced sentence is applied to a person who kills another person in a 'fit of fury'".[name="GP">Altstein,Howard;Simon, Rita James (2003). Global perspectives on social issues: marriage and divorce. Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books. p. 11. ISBN 0-7391-0588-4.] [name="alertnet.org">"Jordan: Special Report on Honour Killings". Retrieved 2009-02-08.]
- Walter Laqueur (2003) The History of Zionism Tauris Parke Paperbacks, ISBN 1-86064-932-7 p 40
- A national liberation movement: Rockaway, Robert. Zionism: The National Liberation Movement of The Jewish People at the Wayback Machine (archived December 16, 2007), World Zionist Organization, January 21, 1975, accessed August 17, 2006). Shlomo Avineri:(Zionism as a Movement of National Liberation at the Wayback Machine (archived October 12, 2007), Hagshama department of the World Zionist Organization, December 12, 2003, accessed August 17, 2006). Neuberger, Binyamin. Zionism - an Introduction, Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, August 20, 2001. Retrieved August 17, 2006.
- accessed Feb 2009
- "Danny Danon: Send African migrants to Australia". Jerusalem Post. June 30, 2011.
- "Israel to jail illegal migrants for up to 3 years". Reuters. June 3, 2012.
- "Japan paying jobless foreigners to go home". Msnbc.com. April 1, 2009.
- 平成20年末現在における外国人登録者統計について(Number of Foreign residents in Japan)
- Japan Immigration,Alien Registration,One-Stop Solution for Corporates and individuals for Immigration procedures
- 23 Session of the National Diet, Committee on judicial affairs 
- "United Kingdom population by ethnic group". United Kingdom Census 2001. Office for National Statistics. 2001-04-01. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- 2008年9月19日－日本での難民申請数 初の1000人突破に関するリリース People seeking refugee status to stay in Japan are more than 1000 this year (September 19, 2008 article)
- "Refugees in Japan". The Japan Times Online. October 12, 2008
- "Japan's refugee policy"
- "Questioning Japan's 'Closed Country' Policy on Refugees". Isozaki Yumi, Journalist, Mainichi Shimbun.
- "At Europe’s Door: Black African Migrants Trapped In Hellish Limbo in Morocco". International Business Times. September 12, 2013
- De Azevedo, Raimondo Cagiano (1994) Migration and development co-operation.. Council of Europe. p. 25. ISBN 92-871-2611-9.
- 6.5% of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4% are born abroad, Eurostat, Katya VASILEVA, 34/2011.
- Eurostat News Release on Immigration in EU
- Tremlett, Giles (2006-07-26). "Article on Spanish Immigration". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- "Europe: Population and Migration in 2005". Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- "Inflow of third-country nationals by country of nationality". Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- Immigration and the 2007 French Presidential Elections
- "British Immigrants Swamping Spanish Villages?". Bye Bye Blighty article. 2007-01-16. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- Innvandring og innvandrere SSB, retrieved November 24, 2012
- Innvandringer1, etter innvandringsgrunn og innvandringsår. 1990-2011 SSB, retrieved November 24, 2012
- Kåre Vassenden;Hvor stor er egentlig innvandringen til Norge – nå, før og internasjonalt? SSB, Samfunnsspeilet, retrieved November 24, 2012
- 2011 ga nok en gang innvandringsrekord SSB, retrieved November 24, 2012
- Folkemengde 1. januar 2011 og 2012 og endringene i 2011, etter innvandringskategori og landbakgrunn. Absolutte tall SSB, retrieved November 24, 2012
-  Jenson, Campbell, and Emily Lennon. "Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign born population."
- "Portugal - Emigration". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- Charis Dunn-Chan ,Portugal sees integration progress, BBC
- "BBC article: Btits Abroad Country by Country". BBC News. 2006-12-11. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- Marrero, Pilar (2004-12-09). "Immigration Shift: Many Latin Americans Choosing Spain Over U.S.". Imdiversity.com. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- "Spain: Immigrants Welcome". Businessweek.com. 2007-05-21. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Avance del Padrón Municipal a 1 de enero de 2006. Datos provisionales
- Tremlett, Giles (2005-05-09). "Spain grants amnesty to 700,000 migrants". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- Anja Eriksson/TT (2011-01-03). "Serber ökade flyktingströmmen". DN.SE. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
- "Malta has highest per capita rate of asylum applications". timesofmalta.com. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
- Statistics Sweden.  Befolkningsutveckling; födda, döda, in- och utvandring, gifta, skilda 1749–2007
- "Tabeller över Sveriges befolkning 2009 - Statistiska centralbyrån". Scb.se. 2009-01-24. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
- (French) Jacques Neirynck, "Pour son bien-être, la Suisse doit rester une terre d’immigration", Le Temps, Friday 20 September 2011.
- "UK net immigration up to 237,000". BBC News. 2008-11-19. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- "BBC Thousands in UK citizenship queue". BBC News. 2006-02-12. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- "Migration Statistics Quarterly Report May 2012". Office for National Statistics. 24 May 2012.
- "Census 2011 mapped and charted: England & Wales in religion, immigration and race". Guardian. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- Population growth of last decade driven by non-white British. The Daily Telegraph. 18 May 2011.
- Rodriguez, Olga R. (April 13, 2008). "Central America migrant flow to US slows". USA Today. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
- "Mexico: Caught Between the United States and Central America". By Manuel Ángel Castillo, El Colegio de México.
- Hawley, Chris (May 25, 2010). "Activists blast Mexico's immigration law". USA Today.
- Immigration to the United States
- "Supplementary Information for the 2012 Immigration Levels Plan". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
- "Inflow of foreign-born population by country of birth, by year". Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- Lilley, Brian (2010). "Canadians want immigration shakeup". Parliamentary Bureau. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2010-11-14.
- "Canada Welcomes Record Number of Immigrants, Visitors and Students from India in 2012". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- "Canada welcomes highest number of legal immigrants in 50 years while taking action to maintain the integrity of Canada’s immigration system". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. February 13, 2011. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
- Fontaine, Phil (April 24, 1998). "Modern Racism in Canada by Phil Fontaine". Queen's University. Archived from the original on March 14, 2007.
- Is the current model of immigration the best one for Canada?, Globe and Mail, 12 December 2005. Retrieved 16 August 2006.
- "A Look at the Record: The Facts Behind the Current Controversy Over Immigration". American Heritage Magazine. December 1981. Volume 33, Issue 1.
- "The People of British America, 1700-1750", Foreign Policy Research Institute.
- Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and David Eltis, W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research, Harvard University. Based on "records for 27,233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas". Stephen Behrendt (1999). "Transatlantic Slave Trade". Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 0-465-00071-1.
- "A Nation of Immigrants". American Heritage Magazine. February/March 1994. Volume 45, Issue 1.
- Clark, William A.V. (2003). Immigrants and the American Dream. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. p. xii-xvii.
- "Old fears over new faces", The Seattle Times, September 21, 2006
- "Immigration Act of 1924". State.gov. 2007-07-06. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- A Great Depression?, by Steve H. Hanke, Cato Institute
- US Immigration History. laws.com retrieved from immigration.laws.com Accessed 30 November 2012.
- Stephen Ohlemacher, Number of Immigrants Hits Record 37.5M, Washington Post
- "Study: Immigration grows, reaching record numbers". USATODAY.com. December 12, 2005.
- "Immigration surge called 'highest ever'". Washington Times. December 12, 2005.
- Plummer Alston Jones (2004). "Still struggling for equality: American public library services with minorities". Libraries Unlimited. p.154. ISBN 1-59158-243-1
- "BBC: Q&A: US immigration debate". BBC News. 2007-06-28. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
- "CBO: 748,000 Foreign Nationals Granted U.S. Permanent Residency Status in 2009 Because They Had Immediate Family Legally Living in America". CNSnews.com. January 11, 2011
- "Refugee Resettlement in Metropolitan America". Migration Information Source. March 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- Mundra, K. (2010). "Immigrant Networks and the U.S. Bilateral Trade: The Role of Immigrant Income". In Epstein, Gil S.; Gang, Ira N. Frontiers of Economics and Globalization 8. pp. 357–373. doi:10.1108/S1574-8715(2010)0000008021. ISBN 978-0-85724-153-5. ... this paper finds that the immigrant network effect on trade flows is weakened by the increasing level of immigrant assimilation.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010". U.S. Department of Homeland Security
- "3412.0 – Migration, Australia, 2005–06". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 29 March 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics, International migration
- Australian Bureau of Statistics, 3101.0 Australian Demographic Statistics
- Settler numbers on the rise at the Wayback Machine (archived June 9, 2007) Media Release by Amanda Vanstone. Former Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (2003 - 2007). Archived June 9, 2007.
- "Targeted migration increase to fill skills gaps". Department of Immigration and Citizenship. 8 May 2012.
- "Australian Immigration Fact Sheet 20. Migration Program Planning Levels". Immi.gov.au. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- (French) Jacques Neirynck, "Pour son bien-être, la Suisse doit rester une terre d’immigration", Le Temps, Friday 20 September 2011.
- "Immigration: The Demographic and Economic Facts". Cato Institute. Retrieved 12 July 2010.
- "Impact of Immigration on the Distribution of American Well-Being". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
- "Increasing the Supply of Labor Through Immigration". Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved 24 September July 2010.
- Pia m. Orrenius, P. M.; Zavodny, M. (2009). "Do Immigrants Work in Riskier Jobs?". Demography 46 (3): 535–551. doi:10.1353/dem.0.0064. PMC 2831347. PMID 19771943.
- Toussaint-Comeau, Maude (2005). "Do Enclaves Matter in Immigrants' Self-Employment Decision?". Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Working Paper 2005-23.
- George Ritzer (2009). "Globalization: A Basic Text". John Wiley and Sons. p.452. ISBN 1-4051-3271-X
- "Jobless rate up for Toronto immigrants". The Globe and Mail. December 3, 2010.
- Freeman, G. P. (2009). "Immigration, Diversity, and Welfare Chauvinism". The Forum 7 (3). doi:10.2202/1540-8884.1317.
||This article's further reading may not follow Wikipedia's content policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive, less relevant or many publications with the same point of view; or by incorporating the relevant publications into the body of the article through appropriate citations. (February 2010)|
- Appel, Jacob. The Ethical Case for an Open Immigration Policy May 4, 2009.
- Balin, Bryan. State Immigration Legislation and Immigrant Flows: An Analysis Johns Hopkins University, 2008.
- Bauder, Harald. Labor Movement: How Migration Regulates Labor Markets, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
- Borjas, George J. (2014). Immigration Economics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-04977-2.
- Center for Immigration Studies Refer to "Publications" for research on illegal immigration, demographic trends, terrorism concerns, environmental impact, and other subjects.
- De La Torre, Miguel A., Trails of Hope and Terror: Testimonies on Immigration. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Press, 2009.
- Esbenshade, Jill. Division and Dislocation: Regulating Immigration through Local Housing Ordinances. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, Summer 2007.
- Ewing, Walter A. Border Insecurity: U.S. Border-Enforcement Policies and National Security, Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, Spring 2006.
- Fell, Peter and Hayes, Debra. What are they Doing Here? A Critical Guide to Asylum and Immigration, Birmimgham, Venture Press, 2007.
- Fitzgerald, David Scott; Cook-Martin, David (2014). Culling the Masses: The Democratic Origins of Racist Immigration Policy in the Americas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674-72904-9.
- Freeman, Joe. Living and Working in the European Union for Non-EU Nationals. Lulu.com, 2007. ISBN 0-9786254-0-4
- Immigration Policy Center. Economic Growth & Immigration: Bridging the Demographic Divide. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, November 2005.
- Karakayali, Nedim. 2005. “Duality and Diversity in the Lives of Immigrant Children: Rethinking the ‘Problem of Second Generation’ in Light of Immigrant Autobiographies”, Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 325–344.
- Kolb, Eva. The Evolution of New York City's Multiculturalism: Melting Pot or Salad Bowl. Immigrants in New York from the 19th Century until the End of the Gilded Age. BOD, 2009. ISBN 3-8370-9303-4
- Legrain, Philippe. Immigrants: Your Country Needs Them. Little Brown, 2007. ISBN 0-316-73248-6
- Massey, Douglas S. Beyond the Border Buildup: Towards a New Approach to Mexico-U.S. Migration. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, September 2005.
- Massey, Douglas S., Joaquín Arango, Hugo Graeme, Ali Kouaouci, Adela, Pellegrino, and J. Edward Taylor.Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-928276-5
- Meilander, Peter C. Towards a Theory of Immigration. Palgrave Macmillan, 2001. ISBN 978-0-312-24034-9
- Molina, Natalia. Fit to Be Citizens?: Public Health and Race in Los Angeles, 1879-1940. University of California Press, 2006.
- Myers, Dowell. Immigrants and Boomers: Forging a New Social Contract for the Future of America. Russell Sage Foundation, 2007. ISBN 978-0-87154-636-4
- Passel, Jeffrey S. Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population. Pew Hispanic Center, March 2005.
- Passel, Jeffrey S. Growing Share of Immigrants Choosing Naturalization. Pew Hispanic Center, March 2007.
- Passel, Jeffrey S. and Roberto Suro. Rise, Peak and Decline: Trends in U.S. Immigration. Pew Hispanic Center, September 2005.
- Pearce, Susan C. Immigrant Women in the United States: A Demographic Portrait. Immigration Policy Center, American Immigration Law Foundation, Summer 2006.
- Portes, Alejandro and József Böröcz, "Contemporary Immigration: Theoretical Perspectives on Its Determinants and Modes of Incorporation" International Migration Review, 23,3, Silver Anniversary Issue, International Migration: an Assessment for the 90's. (Autumn, 1989), pp. 606–630.
- Rumbaut, Ruben and Walter Ewing. "The Myth of Immigrant Criminality and the Paradox of Assimilation: Incarceration Rates among Native and Foreign-Born Men." The Immigration Policy Center, Spring 2007.
- Sintès Pierre, La raison du mouvement : territoires et réseaux de migrants albanais en Grèce, Karthala, Maison Méditerranéenne des sciences de l’homme, Ecole française d’Athènes, Paris - Aix-en-Provence - Athens, 2010.
- Sirkeci, Ibrahim The Environment of Insecurity in Turkey and the Emigration of Turkish Kurds to Germany, ISBN 9780773457393 New York, Edwin Mellen Press, 2006.
- Valle, Isabel. Fields of Toil: A Migrant Family's Journey. ISBN 978-0-87422-101-5
- West, Lorane A. Color: Latino Voices in the Pacific Northwest. ISBN 978-0-87422-274-6
- Zolberg, Aristide. A Nation by Design: Immigration Policy in the Fashioning of America. Harvard University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-674-02218-1
|Look up immigration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Immigration|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Immigration.|
-  from the 101Migration
- Immigration and Migration from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- International Migration from the United Nations
- UNESCO Programme on International Migration and Multicultural Policies
- Different Types of Immigration Visas in the United States of America
- OECD Migration Data
- BBC News Factfile: Global migration
- The debate about separate Immigration Courts in the US
- Immigration Newspaper Archive A collection of more than 50,000 searchable newspaper articles on Immigration.
- A world map with territory sizes adjusted to the number of immigrants living in those countries
- Princeton Center for Migration and Development—a leading research center on migration to the USA
- Casahistoria - European emigration since 1800—links to 19th & 20th century global European emigration
- Do Foreigners Have Rights? François Crépeau, Professor of International Law, University of Montreal
- Immigration on the Open Directory Project
- Globalization: A Basic Text