Indianapolis 500 pace cars
The Indianapolis 500 auto race has used a pace car every year since 1911. In the interest of safety, Indianapolis Motor Speedway founder Carl G. Fisher is commonly credited with the concept of a "rolling start" led by a pace car. Nearly all races at the time, as well as all Formula One races even to the present, utilize a standing start.
In almost every year since 1936, it has been a tradition that the winner of the Indianapolis 500 be presented with one of that year's pace cars (or a replica).
The pace car was used to take the starting field on one unscored lap. The field would use the lap to warm up their engines, tires, and then at the conclusion of the lap, at a prescribed speed, the pace car would pull off the track and allow for a rolling, or "flying," start. Fisher himself drove the pace car in several early years, but it eventually became an honorary position, with invitations extended to notable figures in auto racing or the automobile industry. The driver listed was invited to perform the honor of "pacemaker." In later years, IMS began experimenting with using pop culture celebrities in pace cars, a change that has met with mixed responses from fans.
In 1971, local Indianapolis Dodge dealer Eldon Palmer was involved in a crash driving the pace car. He crashed into a photographer's stand at the south end of the pit area, injuring several persons. In the years immediately following, the pace car driver utilized would only be an experienced race driver. Former Indy winner Jim Rathmann served six times (and once for caution periods only). Celebrities James Garner and Marty Robbins were chosen in part due to their experience in racing.
In most years through the early 1950s, the pace car led the field around the track for one warm up lap, and then the race began. The pace lap concept was popular with fans, as many drivers commonly waved at the fans and the rolling grid made for spectacular photographs. By 1957, the procedure was changed so the pace car led the field for two warm up laps. This allowed extra time to warm up the engines, oil temperatures, and tires, and allowed the drivers the chance to survey the conditions of the entire track at least once before receiving the green flag. Rules of the Speedway at the time also meant following the construction of the new pit lane, the cars had exited pit lane single-file, so the extra lap allowed the cars to form up in the traditional eleven rows of three. Also, this allowed the fans on the mainstretch (where the largest grandstands are located) to see the entire field parade by one time before the start. Previously only fans on other parts of the track got to actually see the grid go by for photographs and waving.
In approximately 1974, and firmly by the late '70s, it was changed to three warm up laps - two "parade laps" and one "pace lap". During the "parade" lap(s), often several replica festival pace cars join the field, usually carrying celebrities or special guest drivers. Since 2010, the IndyCar "two-seater" (a retired Indy race car modified with a special passenger seat) has also been at the front of the field, carrying a celebrity or special guest. The non-participating vehicles pull off the track after one or two circuits, and the lone official pace car leads the field on the "pace" lap. In 2012, it was further changed to four warm up laps as the new 2200cc turbocharged six-cylinder engines were being used for the first time.
Starting in about 1994, the field was observed to be quite straggled during the parade lap(s), and often circulated single-file. On the final pace lap, the field would finally form up into the 11 rows of three on the backstretch, but often it was still loose and not in well order. This practice was often the subject of harsh criticism from fans and media, especially when the start was strung out single file, breaking tradition. In 2010, officials announced they were going to police the parade and pace laps closer, requiring the drivers to stay in the rows of three during the entire warm up period.
Extra pace laps
1957: A new state-of-the-art pit lane was built. For the first time, the pit area was separated from the racing surface. For 1957–1958, the field was lined up in single file on the pit lane, rather than the traditional 11 rows of three on the race surface. This required the cars to pull away, then assemble into formation. This caused tremendous confusion in 1958, as the front row escaped from the pace car, and the field needed an extra pace lap to assemble before the green was displayed.
1967: The race was red-flagged for rain after 18 laps. The conclusion of the race was moved to the following day. At the time, the pace car was not used for caution periods. However, officials decided to utilize the pace car for the resumption on lap 19. The original pace car driver Mauri Rose drove the car for the restart as well. Two unscored laps (one parade lap and one pace lap) preceded the resumption at lap 19.
1973: A crash occurred as the field was about to take the green flag. The start was red flagged, and the cars circulated around back to the pits. After clean up, the field restarted, with two pace laps before the green flag.
1986: Tom Sneva crashed on the backstrech on the pace lap. The start was waved off, and the next time around the cars were halted on the frontstrech with a red flag. During the cleanup, officials decided to replenish the teams' fuel tanks with 3 gallons of methanol. After that was completed, the field restarted, and took two warm up laps before the green flag.
1992: Additional pace laps were run (unscored) after Roberto Guerrero crashed during a parade lap. Instead of halting the proceedings, officials decided to simply extend the number of warm up laps. The race itself ended up having 85 laps of yellow flag conditions, therefore the fuel allotment was not a factor.
1997: Additional laps were run (unscored) due to a three-car crash on the original pace lap.
2009: When the field came out of turn four for the start, the field was not well-formed in the 11 rows of three. For the first time in modern history, the flagman decided to wave off the start, by displaying the yellow flag. The lap was not scored. The field re-formed, and received the green flag the next time by, with a slightly better formation.
Through 1978, the pace car was only used at the start of the race, and was not used during caution periods. Since 1979, the pace car has also been used to pack-up the field during caution flag periods. The ceremonial driver drove only at the start of the race. During caution periods, when the pace car is utilized to pace the field, a trained official has been the driver. In some cases, the officials utilize two separate pace cars (exactly the same models) one each for the start of the race, and the caution periods. Currently, the pace car driver for the caution periods is the same driver who drives the pace car for the Indy Racing League during all other events.
Starting roughly around the 1960s, the auto manufacturer who provided the official pace car, started selling replica pace cars to the general public. In many cases, the official on-track pace car was modified from its street-legal counterpart. Strobe lights, rolls bars, multi-point harnesses, and removing the air conditioning, are among some of the modifications made for the actual pace car. Some official pace cars, however, have undergone extensive modifications, including suspension, transmission, or even engine modifications from their production counterpart (the 1990 Chevrolet Beretta is an example of this). The special edition production replicas available to the public usually come with full paint and "Indy 500" decals, and may be part of a performance package upgrade.
In addition, the track typically is provided with dozens of lower-end pace car production replicas (or different makes by the same manufacturer) for use as festival cars throughout the month. The company who provides the pace car also often provides safety trucks for use at the track. For instance, in 1994, the Ford Mustang Cobra was chosen as the primary pace car. Ford Motor Company provided numerous Mustang GTs (a "stripped-down" model) for festival use. In 1996, the Dodge Viper GTS was chosen as the pace car. Rather than providing a fleet of Vipers, Chrysler provided numerous Stratus, Intrepids, and Special Edition Rams for festival use.
The replica pace cars and the festival cars are usually worth significantly less than the actual car used to perform the pace car duties. Few festival cars may actually have been driven on the track. Actual pace cars are rare and most are kept and owned by the Speedway and the manufacturers.
Traditionally, the make of the pace car has always been a domestic American brand. In 1991, the Dodge Stealth was originally named the pace car. However, the UAW, along with traditionalists, protested since the Stealth was a captive import built by Mitsubishi in Japan. Shortly before the race, the Stealth was downgraded to be the festival car. The pre-production Dodge Viper RT/10 was substituted on race day.
In 2001 and 2003, trucks were used instead of pace cars. In 2005, a specially restored 1955 Bel Air pace car was commissioned by the Indianapolis Race Committee to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Chevrolet V-8 engine. Only one car was built and it was displayed and used on the speedway. It differed from the first 1955 track cars in that is was black. The original 1955 Chevrolet pace cars were red and cream two-tone. This car is currently on display at the Auburn Cord Duesenberg Museum in Auburn Indiana.
Since 1936, the winner of the race has traditionally been awarded a pace car. In some years, the winner receives one of the official street-legal pace car replicas.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Indianapolis 500 pace cars.|
- From 1958-1963, retired driver Sam Hanks was named "Director of Racing" for USAC, and assumed the pace car duties. No "celebrity" drivers were used during that period.
Pace cars (1979–present)
- 1998: Professional golfer Greg Norman was originally selected to drive the pace car in 1998. He participated in testing runs in the early spring. However, Parnelli Jones was named a last-minute substitute after Norman was forced to withdraw because of shoulder surgery.
- 2001 & 2003: Pace truck or SUV
- 2008: There were two Chevrolet Corvette pace cars for the 2008 race; a metallic green pace car that runs on E85 driven by Fittipaldi at the start, and a pace car painted to resemble the 1978 pace car that runs on gasoline (used during caution periods)
- 2011: Donald Trump was initially named the driver, but resigned the honor due to speculation about his candidacy in the 2012 presidential race as well as the negative fan reactions against his selection, including a Facebook campaign.
Starting in 2010, the custom-built, IZOD IndyCar two-seater has also led the field during the parade and pace lap. Billed as the "Fastest Seat in Sports," it is driven by a former Indy driver, and carries a special passenger.
|2010||Michael Andretti||Mark Wahlberg||Mario Andretti coached from the pits|
|2011||Mario Andretti||Sgt. Latseen Benson||Benson was a retired Iraq War veteran (U.S. Army)|
|2012||Mario Andretti||Thomas Patton||Contest winner|
By driver (for start of the race, not caution periods only)
|6||Sam Hanks||1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963|
|Jim Rathmann||1969, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1978, 1982|
|5||Carl G. Fisher||1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915|
|3||"Big Boy" Rader||1927, 1931, 1934|
|Benson Ford||1950, 1964, 1966|
|James Garner||1975, 1977, 1985|
|Jim Perkins||1990, 1993, 1995|
|2||Barney Oldfield||1920, 1922|
|Wilbur Shaw||1948, 1949|
|William Clay Ford||1953, 1968|
|Duke Nalon||1981, 1983|
|Chuck Yeager||1986, 1988|
|Carroll Shelby||1987, 1991|
|Bobby Unser||1989, 1992|
|Parnelli Jones||1994, 1998|
|12||Chevrolet Corvette||1978, 1986, 1995, 1998, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2012,2013|
|7||Chevrolet Camaro||1967, 1969, 1982, 1993, 2009, 2010, 2011|
|3||Stoddard-Dayton||1911, 1913, 1914|
|Packard||1915, 1919, 1936|
|LaSalle||1927, 1934, 1937|
|Ford Mustang||1964, 1979, 1994|
|2||Chrysler Imperial||1926, 1933|
|Hurst/Olds Cutlass||1972, 1974|
|Pontiac Trans Am||1980, 1989|
|Dodge Viper||1991, 1996|
|Oldsmobile Aurora||1997, 2000|
A list of manufacturers and the frequency in which they either provided official pace cars, or one of their vehicles were selected to pace the Indianapolis 500. This list counts all subsidiary marques, current and defunct, from each manufacturer along with vehicles made by a company that later merged with another on the list.
From 1997 to present (2012), all pace cars have been provided by General Motors.
|Manufacturer||Official pace cars fielded||Notes|
|Chrysler||13||Includes the National Sextet, Nash Ambassador and Hudson 112, whose manufacturers were later merged into Chrysler.
The 1971 Dodge Challenger was provided by the Indianapolis area Dodge dealers, not by Chrysler Corporation, and driven by Eldon Palmer of Palmer Dodge in Indianapolis.
|Studebaker||6||Including Packard vehicles|
|Harry C. Stutz||2||Including the 1912 Stutz, made during his ownership of Stutz Motor Company and the H.C.S. 6 of 1921|
1956 Fireflite Convertible Pace Car.
1957 Mercury Turnpike Cruiser
1966 Comet Pace car.
1969 Camaro pace car replica
1972 Hurst Olds Pace Car.
1977 Oldsmobile pace car
1978 Corvette pace car
1991 Stealth Official Car
- The Talk of Gasoline Alley - May 6, 2011
- Powell, Eric (2009-12-18). "Chevrolet Camaro SS To Pace 2010 Indianapolis 500 Mile Race". Indy500.com (Indianapolis Motor Speedway). Retrieved 2009-12-21.
- "Sports Now". Los Angeles Times.
- "Wahlberg, Andrettis Team Up For IZOD Fastest Seat In Sports At Indy". Indy500.com (Indianapolis Motor Speedway). 2010-05-26. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
- "Wounded Warrior Rides With Andretti at Indy 500". Operation Homefront. Retrieved 2012-04-02.
- Honda Indy 500 Talking Points