Type 053 frigate

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BNS OSMAN (F-18).JPEG
Bangladesh Navy BNS OSMAN (F-18) underway.
Class overview
Builders: Hudong Shipyard
Jiangnan Shipyard
Operators:  People's Liberation Army Navy
 Bangladesh Navy
 Egyptian Navy
 Royal Thai Navy
 Myanmar Navy
Succeeded by: Type 054
Subclasses: Type 053H Jianghu-I
Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
Type 053H2 Jianghu-III
Type 053H1Q Jianghu-IV
Type 053H1G Jianghu-V
Type 053H2G Jiangwei-I
Type 053H3 Jiangwei-II
Najim al Zafir
Chao Praya
In service: 1974
Completed: 53
Active:

China: 13
Egypt: 2

Thailand: 4

Bangladesh: 3

Burma: 2
Retired: 11
General characteristics
Class & type: 053
Type: Frigate
Displacement: 1,700 to 2,000 tons
Length: 103 to 112 m
Beam: 10 to 12 m
Draught: 3 to 4 m
Propulsion: 2 to 4 diesel engines
16,000 to 22,000 shp
Speed: 32 knots [1]
Range: 7408km (4000nm)
Complement: 160 to 200
Armament: Many variations amongst sub-classes
Aircraft carried: Some carry 1 helicopter: Harbin Z-9C

The Type 053 frigates were a family of Chinese ships that served with the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN), and a small number of foreign navies. The Type 053 was developed from the Soviet Riga-class frigates after the Sino–Soviet split.

The designation of ships and subclasses is somewhat confusing. Chinese nomenclature temporarily changed during the Cultural Revolution, and some subclasses gained different NATO reporting names.

This article covers the entire Type 053 family except for the final two subclasses, the Type 053H2G and Type 053H3 frigates.

History[edit]

Replicating the Riga and the Type 065[edit]

In the 1950s, the Soviets provided China with four kits for Riga-class frigates and four completed Gnevny-class destroyers.[1] These entered PLAN service as the Type 01 Chengdu-class[2] and the Type 07 Anshan-class respectively.[3] The Riga kits were assembled by the Huangpu Shipyard in Guangzhou, and the Hudong Shipyard in Shanghai,[4] from 1955 to 1958. These ships formed the PLAN's backbone in the 1950s and 1960s.[citation needed]

Following the Sino-Soviet split and the withdrawal of Soviet aid, the Wuhan-based No. 701 Institute began reverse-engineering the Type 01 in 1962. The result was the Type 065.[5] It was based on the Riga hull with the flush deck replaced by a long forecastle. This modification was needed to accommodate a large medium-speed diesel powerplant; the civilian diesel was a substitute for the Riga '​s compact high-pressure steam turbine powerplant that the Chinese were unable to replicate. The first Type 065, 529 Haikou, was laid down at Huangpu in August 1964 and commissioned by August 1966.[citation needed]

Type 053K air-defence frigate[edit]

From 1965 to 1967, the No. 701 Institute designed the Type 053K (Kong for air-defence), an air-defence variant of the Type 065. This met a PLAN requirement for air-defence ships to accompany the surface-warfare Type 051 destroyers. The Type 053K was originally intended to have three screws powered by a combined gas-turbine and diesel engine, with a speed of 38 knots. However, technical constraints forced the Chinese to settle for a diesel engine, powering two screws for a maximum speed of 30 knots.

The Type 053Ks were armed with HQ-61 surface-to-air missiles, launched from two twin-armed launchers; these did not enter service until the mid-1980s. The 100 mm. gun armament was also delayed.

Only two Type 053Ks were completed, possibly due to unsatisfactory performance and the long development time for their intended armament. 531 Yingtan was laid down in 1970 and commissioned in 1977, and followed by 532. Both ships were withdrawn from service in 1992, with one scrapped in 1994 and the other preserved as a museum ship.[6][7][8]

Type 053H surface-warfare frigate[edit]

Zigong 558 was armed with six SY-1 anti-ship missiles

The PLAN retired many older frigates in the 1970s, and the No. 701 Institute developed the Type 053H (Hai for anti-ship) as a replacement. The initial design was armed with six SY-1 anti-ship missiles in two three-missile box launchers, and a single 100 mm. gun. The Type 053H received the NATO codename Jianghu-I. The first was constructed by the Hudong Shipyard and entered service in the mid-1970s. At least a dozen were built and entered service with the PLAN East Sea Fleet.[9]

The Type 053H was improved in four successive subclasses, receiving NATO codenames Jianghu-II through Jianghu-V. The Type 053Hs were succeeded by the PLAN's first multirole frigates, the Type 053H2G and Type 053H3 frigates.[10]

Foreign sales[edit]

The Chinese sold the Type 053H, and derivatives, to foreign navies. The buyers generally found the ships to be of poor quality. One used Type 053H1 was sold to the Bangladesh Navy, with two used Type 053H1s going to the Egyptian Navy. Sonars for these ships are Echo Type 5, a development of EH-5 sonar used on Jianghu-III's, adopting LSIC technology. The stabilizers did not work, and ships that had air conditioning could only use them sparingly to save the generators. The 100 mm. gun was hand-loaded and did not have working fire-control radar. They mounted obsolete Chinese copies of the Soviet P-15 Termit anti-ship missile.

The Royal Thai Navy received four new Type 053Ts (based on the then-latest Type 053H2) in the early-1990s. Each cost ฿2 billion. Two were modified with rear helicopter decks. The sonar on these ships is SJD-5A, a further development of Echo Type 5 sonars on the same class of ships sold to Egyptian and Bangladesh navies, with VLSIC repalcing LSIC. The interior wiring was exposed and had to be rewired. The damage control system, notably the fire-suppression system and water-tight locks, was also poor; it was expected a hull breach would lead to rapid flooding and the loss of the ship. The Thai Navy spent considerable time and effort to correct some of the issues.[11]

The negative feedback drove improvements in the Chinese shipbuilding industry. By the mid-1990s, the Thai Navy was confident enough to order two enlarged Type 053 hulls as the F25T Naresuan-class frigates. The F25Ts were fitted with Western engines and armament, and their construction was supervised by technical advisers from the German ship building industry. Sonars on these F25Ts are SO-7H, which is the Chinese version of French DUBA25.[12]

Transfers to the Coast Guard[edit]

In 2007, the Type 053H frigates 509 and 510 were transferred to the China Coast Guard and refitted as Ocean Patrol Vehicles 1002 and 1003. The superstructure was heavily modified. Armament was reduced to a small cannon forward and heavy machine guns; some of freed space was used to stow small patrol boats and add crew quarters.[13]

Transfers to Myanmar[edit]

In 2012, two units, Anshun (FFG 554) and Jishou (FFG 557) were transferred to Myanmar as UMS Mahar Bandoola (F-21) and UMS Mahar Thiha Thura (F-23) respectively.[14]

Incidents[edit]

On 11 July 2012, a Jianghu-V ship, 560 Dongguan, ran aground on a shoal off the coast of the Philippines. The area where the incident occurred, known as Half Moon Shoal (Hasa Hasa Shoal in the Philippines) in the Spratly Islands is 60 miles west of Rizal, Palawan.[15] By 15 July the ship had been refloated and was returning to port with no injuries and only minor damage.[16] Confrontations over territorial disputes in the South China Sea, and particularly the disputed status of the Spratly Islands, have become more frequent in recent years, and caused noticeable friction at the 2012 ASEAN summit in Phnom Penh that was taking place at the same time as the incident.[16]

Versions[edit]

  • Type 6601 (Chengdu class)
Completed as Riga-class frigates. Slightly more heavily armed than the Soviet Riga class frigate (Project 50) it is based on in that the two twin 25 mm gun mounts on original Riga class are replaced by a second pair of twin 37 mm gun mounts in Chengdu class. In addition, the original RBU-2500 ASW launchers on the original Riga class is replaced by RBU-1200 on Type 6601. All units were converted to Type 01 in the early 1970's.
  • Type 01 (Chengdu class)
By the early 1970s, Type 6601 class went through mid-life upgrade with their torpedo tubes replaced by a twin launcher for SY-1 anti-ship missiles. Although redesignated as Type 01, these ships were still called Chengdu class. Retired in the 1980s.
  • Type 065 (Jiangnan class)
Based on the Type 6601/01. design first started in Dec 1962 by the 701st Institute at Wuhan, and the construction begun in Aug 1964, with the first ship entering service on Aug 1, 1966. Powered by modified civilian diesel engine rather than military-grade steam turbines. Main guns were mounted one forward and two aft, instead of two forward and one aft on the Riga.[17] Completely withdrawn from active duty in the 1980s, but remained as training, museum, and public relations ships. The ships remain on the PLAN's roster, and their upkeep at museums is provided by the PLAN.
  • Type 053K (Jiangdong class)
Air-defense frigate armed with two twin-armed HQ-61 surface-to-air missile (SAM) launchers. Only two built, and retired from active service in the early 1990s. 531 Yingtan is docked at a museum in Qingdao; the PLAN retains ownership and provides upkeep.
  • Type 053H (NATO codename Jianghu-I)
Surface warfare frigate armed with six SY-1s in two triple-box launchers. These ships are equipped with Chinese SJD-3 sonar, which is modification of Soviet Tamir-11 (MG-11, with NATO reporting name Stag Hoof) hull mounted sonar: instead of being fixed to the hull, SJD-3 has a telescoping arm, so when not in use, the sonar is stored in the hull, and when deployed, the sonar is lowered into water several meter below the hull, thus increased detection range by avoiding baffles generated by the hull.11 remained in service with the East Sea Fleet in 2007.[9]
  • Type 053H1 (NATO codename Jianghu-II)
Improved Type 053H with newer electronics, engine, and replenishment equipment. The sonar for Jianghu-II is SJD-5, which is a Chinese development of Soviet Tamir-11 (MG-11), (NATO reporting name Stag Hoof), with transistors replacing vacuum tubes in the original Soviet MG-11. Armed with six SY-2 in two triple-box launchers.[18]
555 Zhaotong was modified with more advanced systems as a test bed. PL-9C SAMs were added to its 37mm AA gun mounts.[18]
8 remained in service in 2007.[18]
  • Type 053H2 (NATO codename Jianghu-III)
Designed on an enlarged Type 053 hull, and displayed European influence. Considered the first "modern" Chinese frigate with airtight cabins, central air condition, NBC protection, and integrated combat system (British CTC-1629/Chinese ZKJ-3A). The sonar for Jianghu-III is EH-5, a development of earlier SJD-5 used on Jianghu-II, with integrated circuits replacing transistors. Armed with two four-box missile launchers, carrying YJ-8 or YJ-82 surface-to-surface missiles (SSM), and four Type 79A 100mm guns in two two-gun turrets. Three were in service with the East Sea Fleet in 1997.[19]
  • Type 053H1Q (NATO codename Jianghu-IV)
Modified Type 053H with aft weapons replaced with a helicopter deck for Harbin Z-9 helicopter. Armed with one SY-1 SSM dual-box launcher, and a compact French-made 100mm gun. Only one ship was built; 544 Siping served with the North Sea Fleet. This ship was renamed Lushun in July 2010, and later transferred to Chinese Naval Academy to serve as a training ship.
  • Type 053H1G (NATO codename Jianghu-V)
Originally an economy class based on the Type 053H1. Six built by the Guangzhou-based Huangpu Shipyard in the 1990s to meet an urgent need for ships by the South Sea Fleet. Incorporated improvements from the Type 053H2, including air-tight cabins, central air conditioning, NBC protection, and integrated combat system. The sonar for Jianghu-V is EH-5A, the latest variant of SJD-5/EH-5/Echo Type 5 family, and it's a highly digitized version. Initially armed with six obsolescent SY-1A in two tripled-box launchers, later upgraded to eight YJ-83 SSM in two four-box launchers.[20]
  • Type 053H2G (NATO codename Jiangwei-I)
Main article: Type 053H2G frigate
  • Type 053H3 (NATO codename Jiangwei-II)
Main article: Type 053H3 frigate

General characteristics[edit]

Type 053K Type 053H Type 053H2
Displacement
  • 1,674 tons (normal)
  • 1,924 tons (full)
  • 1,457 tons (normal)
  • 1,702 tons (full)
  • 1,720 tons (normal)
  • 1,960 tons (full)
Length 103 m 103.2 m 103.2 m
Beam 10.8 m 10.8 m 11.3 m
Draft 3.1 m 3.05 m 3.19 m
Powerplant 2 x 14,000 hp diesels 2 x 12E390VA,880 kW (7,885 hp) at 480 rpm.
Speed
  • 26 knots (design)
  • 30 knots+ (trials)
26 knots 26.5 knots
Crew 200 190 190-200
Electronics
  • Type 354 Radar (Eye Shield) 2D air/surface search
  • Type 352 Radar (Square Tie)
  • G/H-band radar for SSM and 100 mm gun targeting
  • EH-5 hull-mounted MF sonar
  • Jug Pair intercept ECM/EW system
  • ZKJ-3 combat data system (with reported speed of 1 Mbit/s) in some units
  • Data link: HN-900 (Chinese equivalent of Link 11A/B, to be upgraded)
  • Communication: SNTI-240 SATCOM
  • Type 354 Radar (Eye Shield) 2D air/surface search, I-band
  • Type 517H-1 (Knife Rest) 2D long-range air search, A-band
  • Type 352 Radar (Square Tie) surface search fire-control, I-band
  • Type 343 (Wasp Head) fire control radar, G/H-band
  • 2 x Type 341 fire control radar for dual 37 mm AA gun
  • 2 x Racal RM-1290 navigation radars, I-band
  • SJD-5 medium-frequency sonar
  • SJC-1B reconnaissance sonar
  • SJX-4 communications sonar
  • CTC-1629 combat data system (or Chinese copy ZKJ-3A)
  • Data link: HN-900 (Chinese equivalent of Link 11A/B, to be upgraded)
  • Communication: SNTI-240 SATCOM
  • RWD-8 (Jug Pair) intercept EW suite
  • Type 9230I radar warning receiver
  • Type 651A IFF
Armament
  • 2 x twin 100 mm gun (22 km range)
  • 2-4 x twin 37mm AAA (8.5 km range)
  • 2 x twin HQ-61B SAM (10 km range)
  • 2 x Type 62, 5-tube ASW RL (1.2 km range)
  • DC rack
  • 6 x SY-1 SSM
  • 2 x 100 mm gun
  • 4 x dual 37 mm AA guns
  • 2 x Type 81 (RBU-1200) 5-tube ASW RL (30 rockets), or 2 x Type 3200 6-tube ASW RL (36 rockets)
  • 2 x Type 62 5-tube A/S mortar launchers
  • 2 x depth charge (DC) racks & projector
  • 8 x YJ-8 or YJ-82 SSM
  • 2 x Type 79A dual-100 mm gun
  • 4 x Type 76 dual-37 mm AA guns
  • 2 x 5-tube Type 81 ASW rocket launcher (30 rounds)
  • 4 x Type 64 DC projectors
  • 2 x DC racks
  • 2 x Mk-36RBOC 6-barrel decoy rocket launchers

Ships[edit]

Type 053K (Jiangdong) Ships of Class[edit]

 Number   Pennant Number   Name   Builder   Launched   Commissioned   Fleet   Status 
1 531 鹰潭 / Yingtan Hudong October 1971 March 1975 East Sea Fleet Decommissioned in July 1994. Preserved as a museum ship.
2 532  ??? / ??? Qiuxin May 1975 July 1977 East Sea Fleet Decommissioned in June 1986. Scrapped.

Type 053H (Jianghu-I) Ships of Class[edit]

 Number   Pennant Number   Name   Builder   Launched   Commissioned   Fleet   Status 
1 516 九江 / Jiujiang Hudong 28 June 1975 31 December 1975 East Sea Fleet Ex-Changsha, renamed on 1 August 1981. Active. Converted into fire support ship with MRL's in 2002.
2 515 厦门 / Xiamen Hudong 27 October 1975 31 December 1975 East Sea Fleet Decommissioned in August 2013. Preserved as a museum ship.
3 517 南平 / Nanping Hudong 16 April 1976 31 October 1977 East Sea Fleet Active. Transferred to Chinese Naval Academy as training ship in 2012.
4 511 南通 / Nantong Hudong 9 November 1976 31 March 1977 East Sea Fleet Decommissioned in August 2012.
5 513 淮安 / Huai'an Hudong 19 April 1977 31 December 1977 East Sea Fleet Ex-Huaiyin, renamed on 20 December 2006. Decommissioned on 20 May 2013. Transferred to University of Naval Engineering as training ship.
6 512 无锡 / Wuxi Hudong 27 July 1977 14 December 1978 East Sea Fleet Decommissioned on 16 August 2012.
7 514 镇江 / Zhenjiang Hudong 11 February 1978 25 January 1979 East Sea Fleet Decommissioned on 12 May 2013.
8 518 吉安 / Ji'an Hudong 10 July 1978 31 March 1979 South Sea Fleet Decommissioned in 2012.[21]
9 510 绍兴 / Shaoxing Hudong 26 January 1979 30 June 1979 South Sea Fleet Decommissioned in March 2007. Transferred to Coast Guard as Coast Guard Patrol Ship #1003.
10 509 常德 / Changde Hudong 29 April 1979 30 September 1979 South Sea Fleet Decommissioned in March 2007. Transferred to Coast Guard as Coast Guard Patrol Ship #1002.
11 519 长治 / Changzhi Hudong 24 July 1979 16 December 1979 North Sea Fleet Active. Reserved as an experiment platform.
12 520 开封 / Kaifeng Hudong 7 October 1979 28 June 1980 North Sea Fleet Decommissioned in 1992. Running aground on reef in 1985. Scrapped.
13 551 茂名 / Maoming Hudong 10 May 1980 30 September 1980 South Sea Fleet Decommissioned in October 2012. Scrapped.
14 552 宜宾 / Yibin Hudong 17 July 1980 19 December 1980 South Sea Fleet Decommissioned in October 2012. Scrapped.

Type 053H1 (Jianghu-II) Ships of Class[edit]

 Number   Pennant Number   Name   Builder   Launched   Commissioned   Fleet   Status 
1 533 台州 / Taizhou Hudong 13 December 1981 30 June 1982 East Sea Fleet Active. Ex-Ningbo, Renamed on 6 March 2003. Transferred to South Sea Fleet.
2 534 金华 / Jinhua Hudong 21 May 1982 13 December 1982 East Sea Fleet Active. Transferred to South Sea Fleet.
3 543 丹东 / Dandong Hudong 25 January 1985 30 May 1985 North Sea Fleet Active. Transferred to South Sea Fleet.
4 553 韶关 / Shaoguan Hudong 2 May 1985 24 September 1985 South Sea Fleet Active.
5 554 安顺 / Anshun Hudong 10 March 1986 27 June 1986 South Sea Fleet Decommissioned in March 2012. Transferred to Burmese Navy as F21 UMS Mahar Bandoola.
6 555 昭通 / Zhaotong Hudong 7 September 1986 24 March 1987 South Sea Fleet Active.
7 545 临汾 / Linfen Hudong 9 November 1986 30 September 1987 North Sea Fleet Active.Transferred to South Sea Fleet.
8 556 湘潭 / Xiangtan Hudong 14 July 1987 20 December 1987 South Sea Fleet Decommissioned in 1989. Transferred to Bangladesh Navy as F18 BNS Osman.
9 557 吉首 / Jishou Hudong 8 November 1987 15 June 1988 South Sea Fleet Decommissioned in March 2012. Transferred to Burmese Navy as F23 UMS Mahar Thiha Thura.

Type 053H1Q (Jianghu-IV) Ships of Class[edit]

 Number   Pennant Number   Name   Builder   Launched   Commissioned   Fleet   Status 
1 544 旅顺/ Lushun Hudong 29 September 1985 24 December 1985 North Sea Fleet Ex-Siping, Renamed on 28 July 2010. Active. Transferred to Chinese Naval Academy as training ship in 2010.

Type 053H2 (Jianghu-III) Ships of Class[edit]

 Number   Pennant Number   Name   Builder   Launched   Commissioned   Fleet   Status 
1 535 黄石 / Huangshi Hudong 28 December 1985 15 December 1986 East Sea Fleet Decommissioned in April 2013. Sold to Bangladesh Navy as F15 BNS Abu Bakar.
2 536 芜湖 / Wuhu Hudong 9 August 1986 29 December 1987 East Sea Fleet Decommissioned in April 2013. Sold to Bangladesh Navy as F17 BNS Ali Haider.
3 537 沧州 / Cangzhou Hudong 30 October 1989 17 November 1990 East Sea Fleet Active. Ex-Zhoushan, Renamed in 31 July 2006. Transferred to North Sea Fleet

Type 053H1G (Jianghu-V) Ships of Class[edit]

 Number   Pennant Number   Name   Builder   Launched   Commissioned   Fleet   Status 
1 558 北海 / Beihai Huangpu January 1993 May 1993 South Sea Fleet Ex-Zigong. Active.
2 560 东莞 / Dongguan Huangpu March 1993 October 1993 South Sea Fleet Active
3 561 汕头 / Shantou Huangpu October 1993 South Sea Fleet Active.
4 559 佛山 / Foshan Huangpu December 1993 June 1994 South Sea Fleet Active
5 562 江门 / Jiangmen Huangpu 1995 South Sea Fleet Active.
6 563 肇庆 / Zhaoqing Huangpu 1995 South Sea Fleet Active.

Service with other navies[edit]

11 total:

  • Bangladesh Navy [2]
    • F18 Osman (053H1): ex-PLAN #556 Xiangtan, sold to Bangladesh in 1989.
    • F15 Abu Bakar (053H2): ex-PLAN #535 Huangshi, sold to Bangladesh in 2013.
    • F17 Ali Haider (053H2): ex-PLAN #536 Wuhu, sold to Bangladesh in 2013.
  • Myanmar Navy
    • F21 UMS Mahar Bandoola (053H1): ex-PLAN #557 Jishou, sold to Burmese in 2012.
    • F23 UMS Mahar Thiha Thura (053H1): ex-PLAN #554 Anshun, sold to Burmese in 2012.
  • Egyptian Navy [3]
    • 951 Najim al-Zafir (053HE)
    • 956 Al-Nasser (053HE)
  • Royal Thai Navy [4]
    • 455 HTMS Chao Praya (053T): Based on the Type 053H2 (Jianghu III), built for export in 1991 as 053T (T = Thailand).
    • 456 HTMS Bangpakong (053T): Same as above
    • 457 HTMS Kraburi (053HT): Improved 053HT-H design, built in 1992 for export. Helicopter deck + YJ-81 (C-801) SSM's.
    • 458 HTMS Saiburi (053HT): Same as above.

Nomenclature[edit]

The naming of the Type 053/Type 6601/Type 065 frigates reflected contemporary Chinese political turmoil. The PLAN originally named major surface combatants after geographical areas in China, but this practice was abolished during the Cultural Revolution. During that period, most of the third batch of Type 065s were either not named or had their names stripped; ships were referred to only by their hull numbers.[citation needed]

The naming of ships resumed in the latter half of the 1980s. However, by that time the Type 065s were nearing retirement, and the traditional geographic names were given to newer ships. For example, Jinan was allocated to a Type 051 destroyer. When the older Type 053/Type 6601/Type 065 were renamed, none received the same one they had held before.[citation needed]

Coast Guard ship class[edit]

Two Type 053H are now classed as coast guard cutters following transfer and modifications:

  • Changde 509 - now 1002
  • Shaoxing 510 - now 1003
Career (China)
Operator: China Coast Guard
Builder: Jiangnan Shipyard
Launched: 1974-1975
Commissioned: 1975-1976
Recommissioned: 2006
Decommissioned: 2006
In service: 2008-present
Refit: 1996 with PLAN
Status: in active service, as of 2014
General characteristics
Type: ocean patrol vessel - converted ex-Jianghu-I FFG (Type 053 frigate Type H)
Displacement: 1,600 tonnes (1,763.70 short tons)
Length: 103 metres (338 ft)
Beam: 10.8 metres (35 ft)
Height: 3.19 metres (10.5 ft)
Ice class: N/A
Propulsion: 2 12PA68TC DE 16000hp
Speed: 25.6 knots (47.4 km/h)
Boats & landing
craft carried:
  • 2 high speed boats
Complement: 160-200
Armament: small cannon forward and heavy machine guns - replacing 1 dual 37mm G, 2 dual 14.55 mm AAMG 2 water cannons
Aircraft carried: Harbin Z-9C
Notes: 25.6 kn

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bates, Gill; Kim, Taeho (1995). "China's Arms Acquisitions from Abroad: A Quest for 'Superb and Secret Weapons'". SIPRI Research Report No. 11. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  2. ^ "Chengdu-class frigates". GlobalSecurity.org. April 27, 2005. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  3. ^ "Anshan-class Destroyer". GlobalSecurity.org. 11 June 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  4. ^ "Chengdu-class frigates - Specifications". GlobalSecurity.org. April 27, 2005. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  5. ^ "Type 065 Jiangnan-class Frigates". GlobalSecurity.org. July 31, 2005. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  6. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/jiangdong.htm
  7. ^ http://knows.jongo.com/res/article/10300
  8. ^ http://1895-1945.i.tiexue.net/blog/post_2109161_1.html
  9. ^ a b http://www.sinodefence.com/navy/surface/type053h_jianghu.asp
  10. ^ http://www.sinodefence.com/navy/surface/maanshan054.asp
  11. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/thailand/naresuan.htm
  12. ^ http://www.forecastinternational.com/archive/ws/ws11485.htm
  13. ^ http://china-defense.blogspot.com/2008/07/photos-of-two-old-jianghu-ffg-in-coast.html
  14. ^ http://articles.maritimepropulsion.com/article/Two-Chinese-Frigates-for-Myanmar-2028.aspx
  15. ^ Laude, Jamie. "China ship runs aground near Phl" The Philippine Star. 14 July 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  16. ^ a b "Stranded naval frigate refloated." AFP. 15 July 2012
  17. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/jiangnan.htm
  18. ^ a b c http://www.sinodefence.com/navy/surface/type053h1_jianghu2.asp
  19. ^ http://www.sinodefence.com/navy/surface/type053h2_jianghu3.asp
  20. ^ http://www.sinodefence.com/navy/surface/type053h1g_jianghu5.asp
  21. ^ "吉安舰入列海军东海舰队". 8 Jan 2014. Retrieved 3 Feb 2014. 

Jackson, Robert "Fighting Ships of The World." London: Amber Books Ltd, 2004 Pg.383 ISBN 9781840136470

External links[edit]