List of Italian football champions

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Scudetto

The Italian football champions (Italian: Scudetto, "little shield", plural: scudetti) are the annual winners of Serie A, Italy's premier football league competition. The title has been contested since 1898 in varying forms of competition. Juventus are the current champions, and have won a record 30 titles. The first time the Scudetto was used was in 1924 when Genoa won its 9th championship title and decided to add a little shield to their shirt as to reward and celebrate themselves as champions.

The finals of the first Italian Football Championship was decided in a single day with four teams competing, three from Turin and one from Genoa. The title was decided using a knock-out format between the finalists with Genoa Cricket and Athletic Club, the inaugural winners. The knock-out format was used until the 1909–10 season, when a league consisting of nine teams was formed. The championship, which had been confined to a single league in the north of Italy, became a national competition in 1929 with the foundation of Serie A and Serie B.

History[edit]

Prima Categoria[edit]

Juventus, 1903 runners-up

The first official national football tournament was organised in 1898 by the Italian Football Federation (Italian: Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio, FIGC).[1] This tournament, the final matches of the first Italian Football Championship, were held in a single day on 8 May 1898 in Turin. Genoa Cricket and Athletic Club were crowned as champions, defeating Internazionale Torino by 3–1, following extra time.[1] In the following years, the tournament (called Prima Categoria) was structured into regional groups with the winners of each group participating in a playoff with the eventual winners being declared champions.

In November 1907, FIF organised two championships in the same season:[2]

  1. Federal Championship, where also foreign players (if they live in Italy) are allowed to play; the Federal Champions win Coppa Spensley[3]
  2. Italian Championship, where only Italian players are allowed to play; the Italian Champions win Coppa Buni

FIF wanted to organize two different championships in order to allow weaker clubs composed only by Italian players ("squadre pure italiane", "pure italian teams") to compete and win against the big clubs composed mostly by stronger foreign players ("squadre spurie internazionali", "spurious international teams"). The big clubs (Genoa, Torino and Milan) withdrew from both the championships in order to protest against the autarchical policy of FIF. The Federal Championship was won by Juventus against Doria.[4] However, Juventus didn't receive Spensley Cup because Milan (the former champions) refused to give the Cup to the new Champion, Juventus, giving it to Spensley and his team, Genoa.[5] In November 1908, FIF decided to award permanently Spensley Cup to Milan. The Italian Championship 1908 and Coppa Buni were won by Pro Vercelli beating Juventus, Doria and US Milanese. However, only Pro Vercelli was later recognized as "Italian Champions 1908", forgetting the Federal Championship won by Juventus.

In 1909 season, too, two different championships were organised:

  1. Federal Championship, where also foreign players (if they live in Italy) are allowed to play; the Federal Champions win Coppa Oberti
  2. Italian Championship, where only Italian players are allowed to play; the Italian Champions win Coppa Buni

The Federal Championship was won by Pro Vercelli, beating in the Final US Milanese. The Italian Championship was won by Juventus, beating in the Final US Milanese.[6] However, only Pro Vercelli was later recognized as "Italian Champions 1909", forgetting the Italian Championship won by Juventus.

The format was modified for the 1909–10 season which was played in a league format. Nine clubs participated playing each other both home and away. The split between Federal and Italian championship was not completely abolished, because, while unifying these tournaments, it was decided to assign to the end of the season two titles:

I Campionati Nazionali di calcio sono di I e II Categoria. Quello di I Categoria é suddiviso in Campionato Federale e Campionato Italiano. Al primo possono prendere parte anche giuocatori di nazionalità estera, residenti in Italia, il secondo è riservato esclusivamente ai giuocatori di nazionalità italiana.["There are two National Football Championships: Prima and Seconda Categoria. The Prima Categoria Championship is divided into Federal and Italian championship. In the first one foreign players living in Italy, too, are allowed to play, in the second one only players of Italian nationality are allowed to play. " (Article 2 of the Championship Rules promulgated the FIGC to Milan on August 8, 1909)] [7]

According to an article in the newspaper La Stampa dated December 24, 1909, at the end of the season will be "proclaimed Italian Champions the best placed club among pure italian teams and Federal Champions the best placed club among Spurious International Clubs".[8] At the end of the season, Pro Vercelli and Inter placed both in the first place, so a playoff was needed in order to assign the Federal title (the Italian one was won by Pro Vercelli). This season was the first victory for Football Club Internazionale Milano, who defeated Unione Sportiva Pro Vercelli Calcio in the final by a score of 10–3.[9]

In the 1910–11 season, teams from Veneto and Emilia were admitted for the first time to the championship. The championship was divided in two groups: Liguria-Piemonte-Lombardia group, the most important one, and Veneto-Emilia group. The winners of each group qualified to the Final for the title. The 1912–13 season saw the competition nationalised with North and South divisions.[10] The 1914–1915 Championship was suspended because of World War I while Genoa was placed in the first place in Northern Italy Finals and only when the war ended, in 1919, FIGC decided to award the 1915 title to Genoa. In 1916, Associazione Calcio Milan won the Coppa Federale, which for that season was a substitute for the championship, which had been suspended because of World War I.[11] The tournament that year was limited to clubs from the north, with the exception of Pro Vercelli, but was not treated as an official trophy or recognised by FIGC as an Italian title.

Prima Divisione[edit]

Controversy hit the Championship in the 1921–22 season which saw the major clubs (including Pro Vercelli, Bologna and Juventus) in dispute with the FIGC. The best 24 teams had asked for a reduction in the number of clubs in the top division in accordance with a plan drawn up by Vittorio Pozzo, the Italian national team coach. Pozzo's plan was dismissed and the CCI (Italian: Confederazione Calcistica Italiana) was founded and organised a 1921–22 CCI league (Prima Divisione) to run concurrently with the 1921–22 season (Prima Categoria) organised by the FIGC.[12] Therefore, that season saw two champions: Novese (FIGC) and Pro Vercelli (CCI). The schism ended when FIGC accepted to reduce the Northern Championship 1922–23 to only 36 clubs ("Compromesso Colombo/Colombo compromise"); from 1923–24 the Northern Championship was reduced to 24 clubs divided into two groups.[13]

Divisione Nazionale[edit]

The Carta di Viareggio/Viareggio charter (1926) was drawn up to legalise professionalism, ban foreign players, and rationalise the championship creating a new national top league where Northern and Southern teams play in the same championship: Divisione Nazionale. To the new Championship were admitted 17 teams from Lega Nord (Northern League) and 3 teams from Lega Sud (Southern League) for a total of 20 teams, divided into two national groups of 10 teams each.

Further scandal followed in the 1926–27 season when title-winners Torino Football Club were stripped of their Scudetto following an FIGC investigation. A Torino official was found to have bribed opposing defender Luigi Allemandi in Torino's match against Juventus on 5 June 1927, and thus the season finished with no declared champions.[14]

Serie A[edit]

In 1929 Divisione Nazionale (two groups of 16 teams each) split into two Championships: Divisione Nazionale Serie A (the new Top Division) and Divisione Nazionale Serie B (the new second level of Italian Football).[15][16] The 1929–30 season was the inaugural Serie A season and was won by Internazionale (called Ambrosiana at the time). The next 11 years were also dominated by Juventus and Bologna, when all of the Scudetti were won between the three of them, Juventus winning five times in a row, a record only equalled by Grande Torino in 1948 and by Internazionale in 2010. The competition was truncated as the Championship was suspended in 1943 due to World War II.[12] A Championship was held in 1944, the Campionato Alta Italia, and won by Spezia.[17] The title was not officially recognised by FIGC until 2002 and even then the Scudetto is considered a "decoration."[18]

The post-war years were dominated by a Torino side known as Il Grande Torino ("The Great Torino"), a team which found a dramatic end in the Superga air disaster in 1949.[12] The 1950s saw the gradual emergence of Milan, with the help of Swedish striker Gunnar Nordahl, who was Serie A's leading scorer (Italian: Capocannonieri) for five out of six seasons. Juventus began to dominate throughout the 1970s and early 1980s with nine Scudetti in fifteen seasons while the 1990s saw Milan come to prominence.[12]

Serie A was dealt another blow by the 2006 Italian football scandal which involved alleged widespread match fixing implicating league champions Juventus, and other major teams including Milan, Fiorentina, Lazio, and Reggina.[19] The FIGC ruled Juventus be stripped of their title, relegated to Serie B and start the following season with a nine-point deduction. The other clubs involved suffered similarly with relegation and points deduction.[20]

Prima Categoria[edit]

Year Winner Runners-up Third Place Top scorer (club) (goals)
1898 Genoa (1) Internazionale Torino (Unknown) (Unknown)
1899 Genoa (2) Internazionale Torino - (Unknown)
1900 Genoa (3) Torinese - (Unknown)
1901 Milan (1) Genoa - Italy Umberto Malvano (Juventus) (4)
1902 Genoa (4) Milan - (Unknown)
1903 Genoa (5) Juventus - (Unknown)
1904 Genoa (6) Juventus - (Unknown)
1905 Juventus (1) Genoa US Milanese (Unknown)
1906 Milan (2) Juventus Genoa (Unknown)
1907 Milan (3) Torino Andrea Doria (Unknown)
1908 Pro Vercelli (1) US Milanese Andrea Doria (Unknown)
1909 Pro Vercelli (2) US Milanese Genoa (Unknown)
1909–10 Internazionale (1) Pro Vercelli Juventus (Unknown)
1910–11 Pro Vercelli (3) Vicenza - (Unknown)
1911–12 Pro Vercelli (4) Venezia - (Unknown)
1912–13 Pro Vercelli (5) Lazio - (Unknown)
1913–14 Casale (1) Lazio - (Unknown)
1914–15 Genoa (7) [21] Internazionale Napoli/Lazio - (Unknown)
1916–19
Postponed due to First World War
1919–20 Internazionale (2) Livorno - (Unknown)
1920–21 Pro Vercelli (6) Pisa - (Unknown)
1921–22
(F.I.G.C.)
Novese (1) Sampierdarenese - (Unknown)

Prima Divisione[edit]

Year Winner Runners-up Third Place Top scorer (club) (goals)
1921–22
(C.C.I.)
Pro Vercelli (7) Fortitudo Roma - (Unknown)
1922–23 Genoa (8) Lazio - (Unknown)
1923–24 Genoa (9) Savoia - Austria Heinrich Schönfeld (Torino) (22)
1924–25 Bologna (1) Alba Trastevere - Italy Mario Magnozzi (Livorno) (19)
1925–26 Juventus (2) Alba Trastevere - Hungary Ferenc Hirzer (Juventus) (35)

Divisione Nazionale[edit]

Year Winner Runners-up Third Place Top scorer (club) (goals)
1926–27 No winner [22] Bologna Juventus Austria Anton Powolny (Internazionale) (22)
1927–28 Torino (1) Genoa Alessandria/Juventus Argentina Julio Libonatti (Torino) (35)
1928–29 Bologna (2) Torino - Italy Gino Rossetti (Torino) (36)

Serie A[edit]

Year Winner Runners-up Third Place Top scorer (club) (goals)
1929–30 Internazionale (3) Genoa Juventus Italy Giuseppe Meazza (Internazionale) (31)
1930–31 Juventus (3) Roma Bologna Italy Rodolfo Volk (Roma) (29)
1931–32 Juventus (4) Bologna Roma Uruguay Pedro Petrone (Fiorentina)
Italy Angelo Schiavio (Bologna) (25)
1932–33 Juventus (5) Internazionale Bologna/Napoli Italy Felice Placido Borel (Juventus) (29)
1933–34 Juventus (6) Internazionale Napoli Italy Felice Placido Borel (Juventus) (31)
1934–35 Juventus (7) Internazionale Fiorentina Argentina Enrico Guaita (Roma) (31)
1935–36 Bologna (3) Roma Torino Italy Giuseppe Meazza (Internazionale) (25)
1936–37 Bologna (4) Lazio Torino Italy Silvio Piola (Lazio) (21)
1937–38 Internazionale (4) Juventus Genoa/Milan Italy Giuseppe Meazza (Internazionale) (20)
1938–39 Bologna (5) Torino Internazionale Italy Aldo Boffi (Milan)
Uruguay Ettore Puricelli (Bologna) (19)
1939–40 Internazionale (5) Bologna Juventus Italy Aldo Boffi (Milan) (24)
1940–41 Bologna (6) Internazionale Milan Uruguay Ettore Puricelli (Bologna) (22)
1941–42 Roma (1) Torino Venezia Italy Aldo Boffi (Milan) (22)
1942–43 Torino (2) Livorno Juventus Italy Silvio Piola (Lazio) (21)
1944–45
Postponed due to Second World War
1945–46 Torino (3) Juventus Milan Italy Guglielmo Gabetto (Torino) (22)
1946–47 Torino (4) Juventus Modena Italy Valentino Mazzola (Torino) (29)
1947–48 Torino (5) Juventus/Milan/Triestina - Italy Giampiero Boniperti (Juventus) (27)
1948–49 Torino (6) [23] Internazionale Milan Hungary István Nyers (Internazionale) (26)
1949–50 Juventus (8) Milan Internazionale Sweden Gunnar Nordahl (Milan) (35)
1950–51 Milan (4) Internazionale Juventus Sweden Gunnar Nordahl (Milan) (34)
1951–52 Juventus (9) Milan Internazionale Denmark John Hansen (Juventus) (30)
1952–53 Internazionale (6) Juventus Milan Sweden Gunnar Nordahl (Milan) (26)
1953–54 Internazionale (7) Juventus Fiorentina/Milan Sweden Gunnar Nordahl (Milan) (23)
1954–55 Milan (5) Udinese Roma Sweden Gunnar Nordahl (Milan) (26)
1955–56 Fiorentina (1) Milan Internazionale/Lazio Italy Gino Pivatelli (Bologna) (29)
1956–57 Milan (6) Fiorentina Lazio Brazil Dino da Costa (Roma) (22)
1957–58 Juventus (10) Fiorentina Padova Wales John Charles (Juventus) (28)
1958–59 Milan (7) Fiorentina Internazionale Argentina Antonio Valentin Angelillo (Internazionale) (33)
1959–60 Juventus (11) Fiorentina Milan Argentina Omar Sivori (Juventus) (28)
1960–61 Juventus (12) Milan Internazionale Italy Sergio Brighenti (Sampdoria) (27)
1961–62 Milan (8) Internazionale Fiorentina Brazil José Altafini (Milan)
Italy Aurelio Milani (Fiorentina) (22)
1962–63 Internazionale (8) Juventus Milan Denmark Harald Nielsen (Bologna)
Argentina Pedro Manfredini (Roma) (19)
1963–64 Bologna (7) Internazionale Milan Denmark Harald Nielsen (Bologna) (21)
1964–65 Internazionale (9) Milan Torino Italy Sandro Mazzola (Internazionale)
Italy Alberto Orlando (Fiorentina) (17)
1965–66 Internazionale (10) Bologna Napoli Italy Luis Vinicio (Vicenza) (25)
1966–67 Juventus (13) Internazionale Bologna Italy Gigi Riva (Cagliari) (18)
1967–68 Milan (9) Napoli Juventus Italy Pierino Prati (Milan) (15)
1968–69 Fiorentina (2) Cagliari Milan Italy Gigi Riva (Cagliari) (21)
1969–70 Cagliari (1) Internazionale Juventus Italy Gigi Riva (Cagliari) (21)
1970–71 Internazionale (11) Milan Napoli Italy Roberto Boninsegna (Internazionale) (24)
1971–72 Juventus (14) Milan Torino Italy Roberto Boninsegna (Internazionale) (22)
1972–73 Juventus (15) Milan Lazio Italy Giuseppe Savoldi (Bologna)
Italy Paolino Pulici (Torino)
Italy Gianni Rivera (Milan) (17)
1973–74 Lazio (1) Juventus Napoli Italy Giorgio Chinaglia (Lazio) (24)
1974–75 Juventus (16) Napoli Roma Italy Paolino Pulici (Torino) (18)
1975–76 Torino (7) Juventus Milan Italy Paolino Pulici (Torino) (21)
1976–77 Juventus (17) Torino Fiorentina Italy Francesco Graziani (Torino) (21)
1977–78 Juventus (18) Vicenza Torino Italy Paolo Rossi (Vicenza) (24)
1978–79 Milan (10) Perugia Juventus Italy Bruno Giordano (Lazio) (19)
1979–80 Internazionale (12) Juventus Torino Italy Roberto Bettega (Juventus) (16)
1980–81 Juventus (19) Roma Napoli Italy Roberto Pruzzo (Roma) (18)
1981–82 Juventus (20) Fiorentina Roma Italy Roberto Pruzzo (Roma) (15)
1982–83 Roma (2) Juventus Internazionale France Michel Platini (Juventus) (16)
1983–84 Juventus (21) Roma Fiorentina France Michel Platini (Juventus) (20)
1984–85 Verona (1) Torino Internazionale France Michel Platini (Juventus) (18)
1985–86 Juventus (22) Roma Napoli Italy Roberto Pruzzo (Roma) (19)
1986–87 Napoli (1) Juventus Internazionale Italy Pietro Paolo Virdis (Milan) (17)
1987–88 Milan (11) Napoli Roma Argentina Diego Maradona (Napoli) (15)
1988–89 Internazionale (13) Napoli Milan Italy Aldo Serena (Internazionale) (22)
1989–90 Napoli (2) Milan Internazionale Netherlands Marco van Basten (Milan) (19)
1990–91 Sampdoria (1) Milan Internazionale Italy Gianluca Vialli (Sampdoria) (19)
1991–92 Milan (12) Juventus Torino Netherlands Marco van Basten (Milan) (25)
1992–93 Milan (13) Internazionale Parma Italy Giuseppe Signori (Lazio) (26)
1993–94 Milan (14) Juventus Sampdoria Italy Giuseppe Signori (Lazio) (23)
1994–95 Juventus (23) Lazio Parma Argentina Gabriel Batistuta (Fiorentina) (26)
1995–96 Milan (15) Juventus Lazio Italy Igor Protti (Bari)
Italy Giuseppe Signori (Lazio) (24)
1996–97 Juventus (24) Parma Internazionale Italy Filippo Inzaghi (Atalanta) (24)
1997–98 Juventus (25) Internazionale Udinese Germany Oliver Bierhoff (Udinese) (27)
1998–99 Milan (16) Lazio Fiorentina Brazil Márcio Amoroso (Udinese) (22)
1999–00 Lazio (2) Juventus Milan Ukraine Andriy Shevchenko (Milan) (24)
2000–01 Roma (3) Juventus Lazio Argentina Hernán Crespo (Lazio) (26)
2001–02 Juventus (26) Roma Internazionale France David Trezeguet (Juventus)
Italy Dario Hübner (Piacenza) (24)
2002–03 Juventus (27) Internazionale Milan Italy Christian Vieri (Internazionale) (24)
2003–04 Milan (17) Roma Juventus Ukraine Andriy Shevchenko (Milan) (24)
2004–05 No winner Milan Internazionale Italy Cristiano Lucarelli (Livorno) (24)
2005–06 Internazionale (14) Roma Milan Italy Luca Toni (Fiorentina) (31)
2006–07 Internazionale (15) Roma Lazio Italy Francesco Totti (Roma) (26)
2007–08 Internazionale (16) Roma Juventus Italy Alessandro Del Piero (Juventus) (21)
2008–09 Internazionale (17) Juventus Milan Sweden Zlatan Ibrahimović (Internazionale) (25)
2009–10 Internazionale (18) Roma Milan Italy Antonio Di Natale (Udinese) (29)
2010–11 Milan (18) Internazionale Napoli Italy Antonio Di Natale (Udinese) (28)
2011–12 Juventus (28) Milan Udinese Sweden Zlatan Ibrahimović (Milan) (28)
2012–13 Juventus (29) Napoli Milan Uruguay Edinson Cavani (Napoli) (29)
2013–14 Juventus (30) Roma Napoli Italy Ciro Immobile (Torino) (22)

Performances[edit]

Clubs[edit]

The following table lists the performance of each club describing winners of the Championship. 16 teams have been champions.

Performance by club
Club Champions Runners up Third place Winning seasons
Juventus
30
21
13
1905, 1925–26, 1930–31, 1931–32, 1932–33, 1933–34, 1934–35, 1949–50, 1951–52, 1957–58, 1959–60, 1960–61, 1966–67, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1974–75, 1976–77, 1977–78, 1980–81, 1981–82, 1983–84, 1985–86, 1994–95, 1996–97, 1997–98, 2001–02, 2002–03, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14
Milan
18
14
21
1901, 1906, 1907, 1950–51, 1954–55, 1956–57, 1958–59, 1961–62, 1967–68, 1978–79, 1987–88, 1991–92, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1995–96, 1998–99, 2003–04, 2010–11
Internazionale
18
14
14
1909–10, 1919–20, 1929–30, 1937–38, 1939–40, 1952–53, 1953–54, 1962–63, 1964–65, 1965–66, 1970–71, 1979–80, 1988–89, 2005–06, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2009–10
Genoa
9
4
3
1898, 1899, 1900, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1914–15, 1922–23, 1923–24
Torino
7
6
7
1927–28, 1942–43, 1945–46, 1946–47, 1947–48, 1948–49, 1975–76
Bologna
7
4
3
1924–25, 1928–29, 1935–36, 1936–37, 1938–39, 1940–41, 1963–64
Pro Vercelli
7
1
0
1908, 1909, 1910–11, 1911–12, 1912–13, 1920–21, 1921–22 (CCI)
Roma
3
12
5
1941–42, 1982–83, 2000–01
Lazio
2
7
6
1973–74, 1999–00
Napoli
2
5
9
1986–87, 1989–90
Fiorentina
2
5
6
1955–56, 1968–69
Cagliari
1
1
0
1969–70
Sampdoria
1
0
1
1990–91
Casale
1
0
0
1913–14
Novese
1
0
0
1921–22 (FIGC)
Verona
1
0
0
1984–85

Bold indicates clubs currently playing in the top division.

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • Almanacco Illustrato del Calcio – La Storia 1898–2004, Panini Edizioni, Modena, September 2005
  • Carlo Chiesa, La grande storia del calcio italiano (The great history of italian football), Guerin Sportivo, 2012–
    • Second installment: 1908–1910, pp. 17–32, in Guerin Sportivo #5 (maggio 2012), pp. 83–98.

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "FIGC History – 1898". FIGC. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  2. ^ Chiesa, p. 18.
  3. ^ "La gran finale del Campionato Federale". La Stampa. 22 February 1908. p. 5. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  4. ^ "La Finale di Campionato a Torino.". La Stampa. 7 May 1908. p. 4. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  5. ^ Chiesa, pp. 20–21.
  6. ^ "Il F.C. Juventus vince il Campionato Italiano.". La Stampa. 7 June 1909. p. 5. Retrieved 17 April 2012. 
  7. ^ Chiesa, pp. 23–24.
  8. ^ Chiesa, p. 24. Original text: "proclamato campione italiano il Club meglio classificato fra le squadre pure italiane, e campione federale il Club meglio classificato tra le squadre spurie internazionali."
  9. ^ "Italy – Championship History 1898–1923". rsssf.com. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  10. ^ "FIGC History – 1913". FIGC. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  11. ^ "Juventus vs Milan". rsssf.com. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  12. ^ a b c d "Italy – List of Champions". rsssf.com. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  13. ^ Annuario 1931, pp. 18–19.
  14. ^ James Lawton (2006-07-08). "Italy are fabulously flawed". The Independent. Retrieved 2007-04-17. 
  15. ^ Annuario 1931, p. 40. "Il campionato di Divisione Nazionale è diviso in due serie: A e B" (The Championship of Divisione Nazionale is divided into two Serie: A and B").
  16. ^ John Foot. Calcio – a history of Italian Football. Fourth Estate. ISBN 0007175744. 
  17. ^ "Italy 1943/44 (War Championship)". rsssf.com. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  18. ^ "Lo scudetto del '44 – 4a parte" (in Italian). Spezia Calcio 1906. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  19. ^ "Serie A quartet will stand trial". BBC Sport. 2006-06-23. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  20. ^ "Italian trio relegated to Serie B". BBC Sport. 2006-07-14. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  21. ^ Championship unfinished due to WWI, title awarded by the FIGC
  22. ^ Torino stripped of their title.
  23. ^ Title awarded by FIGC following the Superga air disaster.

External links[edit]