Congregation of the Peoples of Tradition for Proselytism and Jihad
|Participant in the Nigerian Sharia conflict|
|Ideology||Wahhabism Salafist Jihadism
Dan Hajia (in custody)
Abatcha Flatari †
Momodu Bama †
Mohammed Yusuf †
|Northern Nigeria, Northern Cameroon, Southern Niger, Chad|
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb
Civilian Joint Task Force (CJTF)
|Nigerian Sharia conflict
2009 Nigerian sectarian violence
Boko Haram (usually translated as "Western education is a sin"), is a militant Islamist organization based in northern Nigeria, influenced by the Wahhabi movement. Founded by Mohammed Yusuf in 2002, the organization seeks to establish an Islamic state in Nigeria.The group was designated by the U.S. Department of State as a terrorist organisation in 2013.
In the first half of 2014 Boko Haram killed more than 2000 civilians, in about 95 attacks; and, in the preceding three years, more than 3000. In May 2014, Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan claimed that Boko Haram attacks have left at least 12,000 people dead and 8,000 crippled. Hundreds of thousands have fled their homes.
The group exerts influence in the northeastern Nigerian states of Borno, Adamawa, Kaduna, Bauchi, Yobe and Kano. In this region, a state of emergency has been declared. The group does not have a clear structure or evident chain of command and has been called "diffuse" with a "cell-like structure" facilitating factions and splits. It is reportedly divided into three factions with a splinter group known as Ansaru. The group's main leader is Abubakar Shekau. Its weapons expert, second-in-command and arms manufacturer was Momodu Bama.
The Boko Haram leadership has international connections to Al-Qa`ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), Al-Qa`ida core, Al-Shabab, the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO), Mokhtar Belmokhtar’s factions, and other militant groups outside Nigeria. Attacks by the group on international targets have so far been limited. On November 13, 2013 the United States government designated the group a terrorist organization. On 22 May 2014, the United Nations Security Council added Boko Haram to its list of designated al-Qaeda entities, bringing "funding, travel and weapons sanctions" against the terrorist group.
Many of the group's senior radicals were reportedly partially inspired by the late Islamic preacher known as Maitatsine. Others believe that the group is motivated by inter-ethnic disputes as much as by religion, and that its founder Yusuf believed that a campaign of “ethnic cleansing” was being waged by Plateau State governor Jonah Jang against the Hausa and Fulani people. Amnesty International has accused the Nigerian government of human rights abuses after 950 suspected Boko Harām militants died in detention facilities run by Nigeria's military Joint Task Force in the first half of 2013. The conflicts have left around 90,000 people displaced. Human Rights Watch states that Boko Haram uses child soldiers, including 12-year-olds.
- 1 Name
- 2 Ideology
- 3 History
- 4 Timeline of Boko Harām attacks in Nigeria
- 5 Assessment
- 6 Strategy and recruiting
- 7 Funding
- 8 Notable people that have access to the sect
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
|Part of the Politics series|
The group's official name in Arabic is Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati Wal-Jihad (جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد), meaning "people committed to the propagation of the tradition and jihad". The name by which they are generally known, "Boko Haram", meaning roughly "Western education is forbidden", derives from the Arabic haram, meaning "forbidden" (as opposed to halal); and the Hausa word boko, (pronounced [bo/ko"]), meaning, roughly, "fake" (defined as "(a) Doing anything to create impression that one is better off, or that thing is of better quality or larger in amount than is the case, (b) anything so treated, ... etc."). Western education has always been dismissed as ilimin boko, "fake education", (rather than the seldom used ilimin zamani); a school that teaches Western education is makarantar boko. The uncompromising hostility of the Northern Nigerian Muslims towards anything remotely perceived as foreign, a mindset of boko haram that has in the past been applied even towards vocal recitation of the Quran, has historically been a source of friction with the Muslims from the middle of the country.
Boko Harām was founded as a local Salafi movement and turned into a Salafi-jihadi group in 2009. It proposes that interaction with the Western world is forbidden, and also supports opposition to the Muslim establishment and the government of Nigeria.
In a 2009 BBC interview, Mohammed Yusuf, then leader of the group, stated his belief that the fact of a spherical Earth is contrary to Islamic teaching and should be rejected, along with Darwinian evolution and the fact of rain originating from water evaporated by the sun. Before his death, Yusuf reiterated the group's objective of changing the current education system and rejecting democracy. Nigerian academic Hussain Zakaria told BBC News that the controversial cleric had a graduate education and spoke proficient English.
Dr Ahmad Murtada of the Islamic Studies Department, University of Bayero, Kano has noted in his research into Mohammed Yusuf and Boko Harām that the core principles of the group are: an emphasis on 'Hakimiyyah' [sovereignty to God's law]; a belief that they are the "Saved Sect" mentioned in the Prophetic Tradition of Islam; prohibiting studying in Western educational centers of learning because they consider them to be based on non-Islamic traditions and colonialism, they thus criticize Saudi Arabia for its usage of "Western" educational methods; prohibiting working in any governmental institution or civil service role. Influences include the writings of Ibn Abi Zayd, Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab, Shaykh al-Albani, and Shaykh Fawzan. Post-2009 a close relationship with al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb and further incorporation into the global Jihadi and Takfiri worldview.
Several Nigerian Muslim authorities condemned the group and its ideology. Dr Mu’azu Babangida Aliyu, the Niger State governor said, "Islam is known to be a religion of peace and does not accept violence and crime in any form" and that Boko Harām does not represent Islam. The Sultan of Sokoto Sa'adu Abubakar, a spiritual leader of Nigerian Muslims, has called the sect "anti-Islamic" and, as reported by the website AllAfrica.com, "an embarrassment to Islam". The Coalition of Muslim Clerics in Nigeria (CMCN) have called on the Boko Harām to disarm and embrace peace.
The Islamic Circle of North America, the Islamic Supreme Council of Canada, the Muslim Council of Britain, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Council on American Islamic Relations have all condemned the group's actions.
Middle East and Asia
The Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia Sheikh Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdullah Al ash-Sheikh, a Sunni Islam cleric, has described Boko Harām as misguided and intent on smearing the name of Islam. Iranian Shia Islam jurisprudent Grand Ayatollah Naser Makarem Shirazi has denied any relationship between the Nigerian group and Islam. He has described the group as "savages who do not deserve to be called human beings". The Indonesian Ulema Council in The Jakarta Post condemned the group stating that "[Boko Harām] is not on the right path and contradicts Islamic values". Grand Imam of Al-Azhar University in Cairo Sheik Ahmed el-Tayeb maintains that "the actions by Boko Harām are pure terrorism, with no relation to Islam" and criticizes them for using religion to justify their nefarious activities which "completely contradict Islam and its principles of tolerance."
Before colonisation and subsequent annexation into the British Empire, the Bornu Empire ruled the territory where Boko Harām is currently active. It was a sovereign sultanate run according to the principles of the Constitution of Medina, with a majority Kanuri Muslim population. The Bornu Sultanate emerged after the overthrow of the Kanem-Bornu Empire ruled by the Sayfawa dynasty for over 2000 years.
The Bornu Sultanate of the Kanuri is distinct from the Sokoto Caliphate of the Hausa/Fulani established in 1802 by the military conquest of Usman dan Fodio. Both the Bornu Sultanate and Sokoto Caliphate came under control of the British in 1903. During this period Christian missionaries used western education as a tool for evangelism, which has led to secular education to being viewed with suspicion by many in the local population.
Increased dissatisfaction gave rise to many fundamentalists among the Kanuri and other peoples of northeast Nigeria. One of the most famous such fundamentalists was Mohammed Marwa, also known as Maitatsine, who was at the height of his notoriety during the 1970s and 1980s. He was sent into exile by the Nigerian authorities, refused to believe Muhammad was the Prophet and instigated riots in the country, which resulted in the deaths of thousands of people. Some analysts view Boko Harām actions as an extension of the Maitatsine riots.
In 1995, the group was said to be operating under the name Shabaab, Muslim Youth Organization with Mallam Lawal as the leader. When Lawal left to continue his education, Mohammed Yusuf took over leadership of the group. Yusuf’s leadership allegedly opened the group to political influence and popularity. The group was originally established at Ibn Taymiyyah mosque, which was named after Boko Harām's spiritual head.
Yusuf officially founded the group in 2002 in the city of Maiduguri with the aim of establishing a Shari'a government in Borno State under then-Senator Ali Modu Sheriff. He established a religious complex that included a mosque and a school where many poor families from across Nigeria and from neighbouring countries enrolled their children.
The center had ulterior political goals and soon it was also working as a recruiting ground for future jihadis to fight the state. The group includes members who come from neighbouring Chad and Niger and speak only Arabic.
Human Rights Watch researcher Eric Guttschuss told IRIN News that Yusuf successfully attracted followers from unemployed youth "by speaking out against police and political corruption". Abdulkarim Mohammed, a researcher on Boko Harām, added that violent uprisings in Nigeria are ultimately due to "the fallout of frustration with corruption and the attendant social malaise of poverty and unemployment". Ayaan Hirsi Ali of Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, while pointing out that "where governments are weak, corrupt or non-existent, the message of Boko Harām and its counterparts is especially compelling," argues that this is a dynamic common to Islamic societies worldwide and reflects the darker side of the religious message. Chris Kwaja, a Nigerian university lecturer and researcher, asserts that “religious dimensions of the conflict have been misconstrued as the primary driver of violence when, in fact, disenfranchisement and inequality are the root causes”. Nigeria, he points out, has laws giving regional political leaders the power to qualify people as 'indigenes' (original inhabitants) or not. It determines whether citizens can participate in politics, own land, obtain a job, or attend school. The system is abused widely to ensure political support and to exclude others. Muslims have been denied indigene-ship certificates disproportionately often.°
Nigerian opposition leader Buba Galadima says: "What is really a group engaged in class warfare is being portrayed in government propaganda as terrorists in order to win counter-terrorism assistance from the West."
Beginning of violence
The group conducted its operations more or less peacefully during the first seven years of its existence (with an exception of some skirmishes in Kannama in 2004). That changed in 2009 when the Nigerian government launched an investigation into the group's activities following reports that its members were arming themselves. Prior to that the government reportedly repeatedly ignored warnings about the increasingly militant character of the organization, including that of a military officer.
In the wake of the 2009 crackdown on its members and its subsequent reemergence, the growing frequency and geographical range of attacks attributed to Boko Harām have led some political and religious leaders in the north to the conclusion that the group has now expanded beyond its original religious composition to include not only Islamic militants, but criminal elements and disgruntled politicians as well. For instance Borno State Governor Kashim Shettima said of Boko Harām: “[they have] become a franchise that anyone can buy into. It's something like a Bermuda Triangle.” The group has also forcibly converted non-Muslims to Islam.
When the government came into action, several members of the group were arrested in Bauchi, sparking deadly clashes with Nigerian security forces which led to the deaths of an estimated 700 people. During the fighting with the security forces Boko Harām fighters reportedly "used fuel-laden motorcycles" and "bows with poison arrows" to attack a police station. The group's founder and then leader Mohammed Yusuf was killed during this time while in police custody. After Yusuf's killing, a new leader emerged whose identity was not known at the time.
After the killing of Mohammed Yusuf, the group carried out its first attack in Borno in January 2011. It resulted in the killing of four people. Abubakar Shekau, a former deputy to Yusuf, took control of the group after Yusuf's death in 2009. Shekau has been described as "an intensely private bookish theologian and ruthless killer, and rules a fractured organization". Since Shekau's rise, the violence has only escalated in terms of both frequency and intensity.
According to Human Rights Watch, during the period between 2009 and beginning of 2012, Boko Harām was responsible for over 900 deaths.
On 14 May 2013, President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in the states of Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa in a bid to fight the activities of Boko Harām. He ordered the Nigerian Armed Forces to the three areas around Lake Chad. As of 17 May, Nigerian armed forces' shelling in Borno resulted in at least 21 deaths. A curfew was imposed in Maiduguri as the military used air strikes and shellings to target Boko Harām strongholds. The Nigerian state imposed a blockade on the group's traditional base of Maiduguri in Borno in order to re-establish Nigeria's "territorial integrity".
On 21 May, the Defence Ministry issued a statement that read it had "secured the environs of New Marte, Hausari, Krenoa, Wulgo and Chikun Ngulalo after destroying all the terrorists' camps". Armed Forces Spokesman in Borno Lieutenant Colonel Sagir Musa said that the curfew that had been imposed was not relaxed with the curfew timings being 18:00 to 7:00, however there was minimal traffic in Maiduguri.
On 29 May, Boko Harām's leader Abubakar Shekau, following military claims that the group had been halted, released a video in which he said the group had not lost to the Nigerian armed forces. In the video he showed charred military vehicles and bodies dressed in military fatigues. While he called on Muslims from Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Syria to join his jihad, he said in Arabic and Hausa:
My fellow brethren from all over the world, I assure you that we are strong, hale and hearty since they launched this assault on us following the state of emergency declaration. When they launch any attack on us you see soldiers fleeing and throwing away their weapons like a rabbit that is been hunted down.
On the same day, Nigeria's Director of Defence Information Brigadier-General Chris Olukolade said that Shekau's unnamed deputy was found dead near Lake Chad and that two others from Boko Harām were arrested in the area. However, the military's claims were not verified.
Satellite photos raise questions about the government's retaliatory attack on Boko Harām on April 16–17, 2013. Over 180 died, mostly from fires that appeared to be deliberately set during the government attack. Boko Harām fighters and civilians died in the attack. The people of Maiduguri were unhappy with the declaration of war on the group and instead said the issues of poverty and inequality needed to be tackled first.
It was reported in August 2013 that Shekau had been shot and deposed by members of his sect, but he survived. He had been described as "the most dreaded and wanted" Boko Harām leader and the United States had recently offered a US$7m bounty for information leading to his arrest. He has taken responsibility for the April 2014 kidnapping of over 200 school girls. On 6 May 2014, eight more girls were kidnapped by suspected Boko Harām gunmen. In a videotape, Shekau threatened to sell the kidnapped girls into slavery. On May 12, 2014 Boko Harām released a video which shows the kidnapped girls and alleging that the girls had converted to Islam and would not be released until all militant prisoners were freed. On May 17, 2014, Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan and the presidents of Benin, Chad, Cameroon and Niger met in Paris and agreed to combat Boko Harām on a coordinated basis, sharing in particular surveillance and intelligence gathering. Chad President Idriss Deby said after the meeting African nations were determined to launch a total war on Boko Harām. Westen nations, including Britain, France, Israel, and the United States had also pledged support.
On 22 May 2014 Boko Harām was officially declared a terrorist group affiliated to Al-Qaeda and Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb by the United Nations Security Council. International sanctions including asset freeze, travel ban and arms embargo were imposed against the Islamist extremist group.
On May 2014, Nigerian soldiers shot at the car of their divisional commander whom they suspected of colluding with Boko Harām and it was reported that nine Nigerian generals were being investigated for suspected sale of weapons to Boko Harām.
Timeline of Boko Harām attacks in Nigeria
|Timeline of incidents|
|7 September 2010||Bauchi prison break|
|31 December 2010||December 2010 Abuja attack|
|12 March 2011||Assassinated Muslim Cleric Imam Ibrahim Ahmed Abdullahi for criticizing the violent groups in northeast Nigeria|
|22 April 2011||Boko Harām frees 14 prisoners during a jailbreak in Yola, Adamawa State|
|29 May 2011||May 2011 northern Nigeria bombings|
|16 June 2011||The group claims responsibility for the 2011 Abuja police headquarters bombing|
|26 June 2011||Bombing attack on a beer garden in Maiduguri, leaving 25 dead and 12 injured|
|10 July 2011||Bombing at the All Christian Fellowship Church in Suleja, Niger State|
|11 July 2011||The University of Maiduguri temporarily closes down its campus citing security concerns|
|12 August 2011||Prominent Muslim Cleric Liman Bana is shot dead by Boko Harām.|
|26 August 2011||2011 Abuja bombing|
|4 November 2011||2011 Damaturu attacks|
|25 December 2011||December 2011 Nigeria bombings|
|5–6 January 2012||January 2012 Nigeria attacks|
|20 January 2012||January 2012 Kano bombings|
|28 January 2012||Nigerian army says it killed 11 Boko Harām insurgents|
|8 February 2012||Boko Harām claims responsibility for a suicide bombing at the army headquarters in Kaduna.|
|16 February 2012||Another prison break staged in central Nigeria; 119 prisoners are released, one warden killed.|
|8 March 2012||During a British hostage rescue attempt to free Italian engineer Franco Lamolinara and Briton Christopher McManus, abducted in 2011 by a splinter group Boko Harām, both hostages were killed.|
|31 May 2012||During a Joint Task Force raid on a Boko Harām den, it was reported that 5 sect members and a German hostage were killed.|
|3 June 2012||15 church-goers were killed and several injured in a church bombing in Bauchi state. Boku Harām claimed responsibility through spokesperson Abu Qaqa.|
|17 June 2012||Suicide bombers strike three churches in Kaduna State. At least 50 people were killed.|
|17 June 2012||130 bodies were found in Plateau State. It is presumed they were killed by Boko Harām terrorists.|
|18 September 2012||Family of four murdered|
|18 September 2012||Murder of six at an outdoor party|
|19 September 2012||Nigerian Military arrests Boko Harām militants, reported death of Abu Qaqa|
|3 October 2012||Around 25–46 people were massacred in the town of Mubi in Nigeria during a night-time raid.|
|18 March 2013||2013 Kano Bus bombing: At least 22 killed and 65 injured, when a suicide car bomb exploded in Kano bus station.|
|7 May 2013||At least 55 killed and 105 inmates freed in coordinated attacks on army barracks, a prison and police post in Bama town.|
|6 July 2013||Yobe State school shooting: 42 people, mostly students, were killed in a school attack in northeast Nigeria.|
|29 September 2013||College of Agriculture in Gujba: 40 male students killed.|
|14 January 2014||At least 31 people killed, over 50 people injured by suicide bombing in Maiduguri, Borno State.|
|16 February 2014||Izghe massacre: 106 villagers are killed, 105 of whom were boys and men.|
|25 February 2014||Federal Government College attack: Fury at military over Yobe deaths. At least 29 teenage boys dead at Federal Government College Buni Yadi.|
|14 April 2014||2014 Chibok kidnapping: Government properties, including the only girls' secondary school, attacked. At least 16 killed or missing, and 234 female students kidnapped. The Boko Harām militants said it would treat them as slaves as part of the "war booty".|
|14 April 2014||April 2014 Abuja bombing: Two bombs explode at a crowded bus station in Abuja, Nigeria, killing at least 90 people and injuring more than 200.|
|1 May 2014||A car bomb exploded killing at least 19 people and injured at least 60 in the same area of Abuja as the April bomb.|
|5 May 2014||2014 Gamburu attack: Boko Harām attacked the twin towns of Gamboru and Ngala in Borno State, Nigeria. They started shooting in a busy marketplace, set houses on fire, and gunned down anyone who tried to flee. The death toll of the massacre has been set as high as 336.|
|13 May 2014||Menari, Tsangayari and Garawa: Boko Harām attacked three villages, killing around 60 people in Menari. Vigilantes fought back, killing over 200 Boko Harām militants.|
|17 May 2014||Paris summit: A summit in Paris has declared Boko Harām is part of al-Qaeda as leaders from West African nations resolved to mount a region-wide offensive against the group that is holding more than 200 schoolgirls hostage in a dense jungle. Western nations have pledged to provide technical expertise and training to the new regional African effort against the Islamic extremists.|
|18 May 2014||Kano: Suicide car bomb kills five people.|
|20 May 2014||Jos: Twin bomb explosions kill 118 people.|
|30 May 2014||Assassination of Muslim leader Alhaji Idrissa Timta the Emir of Gwoza in Borno state.|
|1 June 2014||Mubi bombing: An attack at a football field in Mubi, Adamawa state kills at least 40 people.|
|2 June 2014||Militants dressed as soldiers slaughtered at least 200 civilians in three communities in northeastern Nigeria's Borno state, in the Gwoza local government district. A community leader who witnessed the Monday killings had said that local residents had pleaded for help from the military, but it did not arrive in time. It took a few days for word from survivors to reach the provincial capital of Maiduguri, because the roads are extremely dangerous and phone connections are poor or nonexistent. The slaughter was confirmed by both Mohammed Ali Ndume, a senator representing Borno and whose hometown is Gwoza, and by a top security official in Maiduguri who insisted on anonymity.|
|This article is outdated. (June 2014)|
A study by the International Center of Counter-Terrorism suggests how economic abuse, class discrimination and social injustice prevent citizens from reaching their full potential and thereby fuel public support for Boko Harām. The study also refers to the United Nations resolution 3034, elaborating on measures to prevent terrorism.
Nigeria's former National Security Adviser, General Owoye Andrew Azazi, has been working with other African governments, European and Middle Eastern governments, and the U.S. government to build cooperation against Boko Harām. He met in 2010 with CIA Director Leon Panetta, and in 2011 with AFRICOM Commander General Ham, and other U.S. officials, and was in the United States when the congressional panel was preparing its report on Boko Harām. He participated in a CIA conference at about the same time. After the Christmas 2011 bombings carried out by Boko Harām, US President Barack Obama's office issued a statement that confirmed that the US and Nigeria were cooperating against the group.
Strategy and recruiting
In March 2012, it was reported that Boko Harām had taken a strategy to simulate convoys of high-profile Nigerians to access target buildings that are secured with fortifications. Boko Harām has also reportedly attacked Christian worship centers to "trigger reprisal in all parts of the country", distracting authorities so they can unleash attacks elsewhere.
It was gathered that the group uses the Internet to propagate its activities and enhance its radicalisation and circulation of extremist ideologies. Boko Harām is reportedly planning to greatly increase its following in many states. Talk of Naija reported that Boko Harām has been involved in a recruitment drive, and they are allegedly targeting Muslims between ages of 17 and 30, and have also been recruiting freed prisoners through prison breaks. The group is also known to assign non-Kanuris on suicide missions.
Funding sources for Boko Harām are not certain, but is believed to be partially funded by bank robberies and by other Islamist groups. In February 2012, recently arrested officials revealed that "while the organization initially relied on donations from members, its links with Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, AQIM, opened it up to more funding from groups in Saudi Arabia and the UK". They went on to say that other sources of funding included the Al Muntada Trust Fund and the Islamic World Society.
In the past, Nigerian officials have been criticized for being unable to trace much of the funding that Boko Harām has received.
The group also extorts local governments for so-called "protection money". A spokesman of Boko Harām claimed that Kano state governor Ibrahim Shekarau and Bauchi state governor Isa Yuguda had paid them monthly.
Notable people that have access to the sect
- Conflict in the Niger Delta
- Islam in Nigeria
- Hate crime
- Nigerian Sharia conflict
- Sharia in Nigeria
- Chibok schoolgirl kidnapping
- "Profile of Nigeria's Boko Haram leader Abubakar Shekau". BBC News. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- Cook, David (26 September 2011). "The Rise of Boko Haram in Nigeria". Combating Terrorism Centre. Retrieved 2012-01-12.
- "Boko Haram: Rocking the Nigerian boat". France24. 27 December 2011.
- Walker, Andrew (June 2012). "What is Boko Haram?" (PDF). US Institute of Peace. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- "Dozens killed in Nigeria clashes". Al Jazeera. 24 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-24.
- Office of the Spokesperson (13 November 2013). "Terrorist Designations of Boko Haram and Ansaru". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- 19 July 2014 (2014-07-19). "Boko Haram insurgents kill 100 people as they take control of Nigerian town". Guardian. Retrieved 2014-07-20.
- Africa Program at the Council on Foreign Relations (2014). "Nigeria Security Tracker". www.cfr.org. Council of Foreign Relations. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
- May 17, 2014 (2014-05-17). "Boko Haram has killed over 12,000 Nigerians, plans to take over country, Jonathan says - Premium Times Nigeria". Premiumtimesng.com. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- Doug Bandow (12 May 2014). "Who Can Save “Our Girls” and Nigeria? Only the Nigerian People, Not Washington". Cato Institute. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- "Terrorism in Nigeria: A dangerous new level". The Economist. 3 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-07.
- Campbell, John (1 October 2013). "Should US fear Boko Haram?". October 1, 2013 (CNN). Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- "Leadership Analysis of Boko Haram and Ansaru in Nigeria". Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "The List established and maintained by the Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee with respect to individuals, groups, undertakings and other entities associated with Al-Qaida". 22 May 2014. United Nations Security Council (UNSC). Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- "UN committee imposes sanctions on Nigeria's Boko Haram". BBC News Africa. 22 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Adebayo, Akanmu G (2012), Managing Conflicts in Africa's Democratic Transitions, p. 176
- West African Studies Conflict over Resources and Terrorism, OECD, 2013
- "Nigeria: Deaths of hundreds of Boko Haram suspects in custody requires investigation". Amnesty International. Oct 15, 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-05.
- "Nigeria Boko Haram clashes: 'Thousands flee Damaturu'". BBC News. 28 December 2011.
- "Nigeria's Boko Haram 'uses child soldiers' – Africa". English. Al Jazeera. Nov 29, 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-05.
- Farouk Chothia (20 May 2014). "Who are Nigeria's Boko Haram Islamists?". BBC Africa. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- George Percy Bargery (1934). "Hausa-English dictionary". Lexilogos. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- Dr. Aliyu U. Tilde. "An inhouse survey into the cultural origins of boko haram movement in Nigeria". Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- Onuoha, Freedom (2014). "Boko Haram and the evolving Salafi Jihadist threat in Nigeria" (PDF). In de Montclos, Pérouse. Boko Haram: Islamism, politics, security and the state in Nigeria. Leiden: African Studies Centre. p. 158. ISBN 978-90-5448-135-5. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- Bartolotta, Christopher (23 September 2011). "Terrorism in Nigeria: the Rise of Boko Haram". The Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations. Retrieved 2012-01-12.
- Dozens killed in Nigeria clashes. London: BBC. 26 July 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- Chothia, Farouk (11 January 2012). "Who are Nigeria's Boko Haram Islamists?". BBC News. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Muslim sect kills prominent cleric in Nigeria’s restless northeast as violence continues". Washington Post. Aug 13, 2011.
- Njadvara Musa , Jon Gambrell (13 March 2011). "Nonviolent Muslim cleric killed in Nigeria". Associated Press. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
- "Nigeria's 'Taliban' enigma". BBC News. July 31, 2009.
- "Nigeria's 'Taliban' enigma". BBC News. 28 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
- "Deadly Nigeria clashes spread". Al Jazeera. 2009-07-27. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
- Murtada, Dr Ahmad. "Boko Haram: Its Beginnings, Principles and Activities in Nigeria". April 2012 (al-Qira'at Journal [for African and Islamic Studies], no.12, pp.12-25, trans. SalafiManhaj.com 2013). Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- Spencer, Robert (May 6, 2014). "US Muslim prof says Boko Haram violates Qur’an — but omits sex-slavery verses".
- Tafsir Anwarul Bayan, ed. (2005). Illuminating Discourses On The Noble Qur'an 1. Darul Ishatt. pp. 500–1.
- Jimmoh, Abbas (13 June 2011). "Boko Haram not representing Islam –Gov Aliyu". Sunday Trust. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
- Oladeji, Bayo and Agba, George (30 December 2011). "Smoke Out Boko Haram Sponsors, Jonathan Orders Security Chiefs". All Africa. Retrieved 2012-01-05.
- IslamToday / Agencies (20 February 2012). "Gallup Poll: Nigerian Muslims Overwhelmingly Oppose Boko Haram". en.islamtoday.net.
- "condemns attacks on Nigerian church-goers". ICNA (Islamic Circle of North America). Dec 27, 2011.
- "World Muslims Condemn Nigeria Attacks". OnIslam.net.
- "World Muslims Condemn Nigeria Attacks". Times of Ummah. 26 December 2011.
- "OIC condemns latest violence in Nigeria". Emirates News Agency. Dec 26, 2011.
- "CAIR Condemns Attacks on Nigerian Churches". The Africa Report.com.
- "Saudi Arabia's top cleric says Nigeria's Boko Haram smears Islam". Reuters. 10 May 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- "Grand "Boko Haram has no relations with Islam."". ABNA. 22 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "Iran offers to join search for Nigerian girls abducted by Boko Haram". Teheran Times. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "Boko Haram has nothing to do with Islam: Iran cleric". PressTV. 18 May 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- "Indonesian Islamic groups condemn Boko Haram". The Jakarta Post. May 13, 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
- "Muslim leaders criticize Boko Haram abduction of Nigerian school girls". Washington Examiner. May 7, 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
- Ijeaku, N.J.O. (2009). The Igbo and Their Niger Delta Neighbors: We Are No Second Fools. Xlibris Corporation. pp. 82–83. ISBN 9781462808618.
- Martin Meredith (2011). "5. Winds of Change". The State of Africa: A History of the Continent Since Independence (illustrated ed.). Simon and Schuster. p. 77. ISBN 9780857203892.
- Johnson, Toni (31 August 2011). "Backgrounder: Boko Haram". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
- "Genesis, Training And Changing Tactics Of Boko Haram Revealed". Talkofnaija.com. 29 January 1970.[dead link]
- Iwuchukwu, Marinus C. (Oct 3, 2013). Muslim-Christian Dialogue in Post-Colonial Northern Nigeria: The Challenges of Inclusive Cultural and Religious Pluralism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 112.
- Captives freed in Nigerian city, BBC, 2009-07-29
- Tracking down Nigeria's 'Taleban' sect. Anna Borzello, Wednesday, 14 January 2004, 06:42 GMT; BBC Online.
- "Analysis: Understanding Nigeria's Boko Haram radicals". www.irinnews.org. IRIN. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "Whose faith, whose girls?". The Economist.
- Chris Kwaja (July 2011). "Nigeria’s Pernicious Drivers of Ethno-Religious Conflict". Africa Security Brief (Africa Center for Strategic Studies) (14). Archived from the original on 2013-03-03.
- "Boko Haram's Rise in Nigeria Sparks Civil War Fears". Voanews.com. 2012-01-21. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "Nigeria accused of ignoring sect warnings before wave of killings". The Guardian (London). 2 August 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
- Joe Bavier (15 January 2012). "Nigeria: Boko Haram 101". Pulitzercenter.org.
- "Nigeria – reports of forced conversion and marriage of Christians by Boko Haram | Africa - News and Analysis". Africajournalismtheworld.com. 2013-11-17. Retrieved 2014-05-05.
- Nossiter, Adam (27 July 2009). "Scores Die as Fighters Battle Nigerian Police". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
- "Nigerian Islamist attacks spread". BBC. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
- "Over 100 dead in Nigerian clashes". RTÉ. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
- "Nigeria killings caught on video – Africa". Al Jazeera English.
- Bartolotta, Christopher (19 September 2011). "Terrorism in Nigeria: the Rise of Boko Haram". The World Policy Institute. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
- "Boko Haram strikes again in Borno, kills 4". Tribune.com.ng. 20 January 2011.
- Brock, Joe (12 January 2012). "Nigeria sect leader defends killings in video". Reuters Africa. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- Terrence McCoy (May 6, 2014). "The man behind the Nigerian girls’ kidnappings and his death-defying mystique". Washington Post.
- Jacinto, Leela (13 January 2012). "The Boko Haram terror chief who came back from the dead". France 24. Retrieved 2012-01-24.
- Nossiter, Adam (25 February 2012). "In Nigeria, a Deadly Group’s Rage Has Local Roots". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-02-27.
- "'Massive' troop deployment in Nigeria – Africa". English. Al Jazeera. 2013-05-15. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "Nigerian forces 'shell fighter camps' – Africa". English. Al Jazeera. 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "Nigeria sets curfew in Boko Haram stronghold – Africa". English (Al Jazeera). 2013-05-18. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "Nigerian army blockades Boko Haram base". English (Al Jazeera). May 19, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "Nigeria eases curfew in northeast". English (Al Jazeera). May 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- Ross, Will (2013-05-20). "Nigeria: Boko Haram in disarray, says army". BBC News (BBC). Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- Abrak, Isaac (29 May 2013). "Boko Haram rebels say Nigerian military offensive is failing". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "Boko Haram leader Shekau's associate found dead, says Defence Hqtrs". The Nation. 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "What is Boko Haram?". The Economist. May 1, 2013.
- "Nigeria: Massive Destruction, Deaths From Military Raid". Human Rights Watch. May 1, 2013.
- Parker, Gillian (2013-05-28). "In Boko Haram country, Nigeria's new crackdown brings mixed feelings". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "Abubakar Shekau of Nigeria's Boko Haram may be dead". News Africa (BBC). 19 August 2013.
- "Nigeria claims Boko Haram chief may be dead". Al Jazeera. 20 Aug 2013. "Army claims the ‘most dreaded and wanted’ leader may have died after being shot in a battle in the last few weeks."
- "Police: Suspected Boko Haram Gunmen Kidnap 8 More Girls In Northeast Nigeria". The Huffington Post (Reuters). 6 May 2014.
- Tharoor, Ishaan (5 May 2014). "8 questions you want answered about Nigeria's missing schoolgirls". The Washington Post.
- "Nigeria group threatens to sell kidnapped girls". The Washington Post. AP. 5 May 2015.
- Lanre Ola (May 12, 2014). "Boko Haram offers to swap kidnapped Nigerian girls for prisoners". Reuters.
- "Boko Haram to be fought on all sides". Nigerian News.Net. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- Boko Haram and the Future of Nigeria, by Dr. Jacques Neriah Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs
- "UN blacklists Nigeria's Boko Haram". Aljazeera. 23 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "US Says UN Approves Sanctions on Boko Haram". English (ABC News). 22 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- Grill, Bartholomaus and Selander, Toby (30 May 2014) The Devil in Nigeria: Boko Haram's Reign of Terror Der Spiegel English edition, Retrieved 1 June 2014
- Sani Muh'd Sani (8 September 2010). "Attack On Bauchi Prison – Boko Haram Frees 721 Inmates". AllAfrica. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
- "Many dead in Nigeria market blast". Al Jazeera English. 2010-12-31.
- "Boko Haram and Nigeria’s Elections | Sahel Blog". Sahelblog.wordpress.com. 25 April 2011.
- "More bombs follow Nigeria inauguration". www.upi.com (UPI (United Press International, Inc.)). 30 May 2011.
- Brock, Joe (17 June 2011). "Nigerian Islamist sect claims bomb attack: paper". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-06-17.
- Mark, Monica (22 January 2012). "Scores dead in northern Nigeria as Islamist militants terrorise the country". The Observer (London). Retrieved 22 January 2012.
- Ibrahim Mshelizza (26 June 2011). "Bombs kill 25 at Nigerian drinking spot". www.reuters.com (Reuters).
- "Bombing of Nigerian Beer Garden Kills 25". Somali Press. 27 June 2011.
- Simon Imobo-Tswam, Abuja and Atabor Julius, Lokoja. "Borno Gov Escapes Death, Explosion Rocks Suleja". The Moment Newspaper. Archived from the original on 2012-03-12.
- "University Of Maiduguri Shut Down As Boko Haram-Linked Killings Increase". Sahara Reporters.
- "Abuja attack: Car bomb hits Nigeria UN building". BBC News (BBC). 26 August 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- "Nigeria Boko Haram attack 'kills 63' in Damaturu". BBC News. 5 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
- "Nigeria: Boko Haram Suicide Attack Killed Dozens". The Huffington Post. 5 November 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-25.
- "Nigeria churches hit by blasts during Christmas prayers". BBC News. 25 December 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- "Christians flee attacks in northeast Nigeria". Reuters. 7 January 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "BREAKING NEWS: Boko haram claims responsibility for Kano attacks". Daily Trust. 20 January 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- "Nigeria: Boko Haram Widens Terror Campaign". www.hrw.com (Human Rights Watch). January 24, 2012.
- Cocks, Tim (28 January 2012). "Nigeria army says kills 11 Boko Haram insurgents". Reuters. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
- "Nigeria: Boko Haram claims Kaduna army suicide attack". BBC News. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
- "Boko Haram fritog 119 fångar" [Boko Haram They helped 119 prisoners]. Aftonbladet (in Swedish). 2012-02-16. Archived from the original on Feb 18, 2012.
- "Topic Galleries". Orlando Sentinel.[dead link]
- "Nigeria: Kidnapped German, Six Gunmen Killed as JTF Invades Boko Haram's Den". AllAfrica.com. 1 June 2012.
- "Nigeria: Bauchi Church Bombings – Boko Haram Claims Responsibility". allAfrica.com. 5 June 2012.
- "Nigerias Boko Haram bombed Kaduna churches". BBC. 18 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-06.
- "Dozens killed in north Nigerian clashes over two days". The Guardian (London). 20 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-06.
- "Boko Haram Kills 130 Innocent Villagers In Plateau State". News2.onlinenigeria.com. 13 July 2012.
- "Army: Abu Qaqa, Boko Haram spokesman killed". Nigeria: PM News. 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-09-20. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "Boko Haram: Nigerian military 'kills top militant'". United Kingdom: BBC News. 17 September 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
- "Nigeria: Gunmen Kill 46 Students in Mubi", Allafrica.com, 2012, retrieved 4 October 2012
- "Dozens killed in Boko Haram raid in Nigeria". Al Jazeera. 8 May 2013.
- "Nigeria school attack claims 42 lives". The Australian. AFP. 6 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- "Nigeria College Attacked: At Least 40 Killed". Sky News. 29 Sep 2013.
- "Maiduguri Blast Update: 31 dead, 50 injured, as angry youth attack ex-governor’s property, supporters".
- "Nigeria's Boko Haram 'in village massacre'". BBC News. 16 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Nigeria school attack: Fury at military over Yobe deaths". BBC News. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- "Abuja blast: Car bomb attack rocks Nigerian capital". BBC. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- Bakr, Aminu Abu (15 May 2014). "Nigerian villagers fight off attacks by Boko Haram". CNN.
- McElroy, Damien (17 May 2014). "Nigeria schoolgirl crisis: Boko Haram faces 'total war'". Journalist (Telegraph Media Group Limited). Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- Michael Martinez, Pierre Meilhan and Faith Karimi (17 May 2014). "'War on Boko Haram': African, Western nations unify in hunt for Nigerian girls". Cable News Network (CNN). Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- Shuaibu, Ibrahim (18 May 2014). "Suicide car bomb kills five in bar district of north Nigeria's Kano". Reuters. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Grossman, Laura (30 May 2014). "Boko Haram kills local Muslim leader". Long War Journal. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- "Bombing at northeast Nigeria football match kills at least 40". times of India. AFP. 2 June 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Nigeria's Maiduguri bans motorbikes to stop Boko Haram". News (BBC). 8 July 2011.
- Nigeria's Troubled North: Interrogating the Drivers of Public Support for Boko Haram, Akinola Olojo, ICCT Research Paper, International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, The Hague, 2013-10.
- UN General Assembly Resolution 3034(XXVII), Measures to Prevent Terrorism, United Nations, 1972-12-18.
- "CIA Hosts General Azazi at Reagan Library Symposium", Atlantisphere (Netsol host), 10 November 2011
- "Statement of the Press Secretary on Nigeria", The press office, US: The White House, 25 December 2011
- Doyle, Mark (26 June 2012). "Africa's Islamist militants 'co-ordinate efforts'". BBC. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- Lasnier, Guy (January 20, 2012). "UCSC's Paul Lubeck provides analysis on insurgency in Nigeria's north". UCSC. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
- "Nigeria: Boko Haram's Funding Sources Uncovered". AllAfrica. 12 February 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- Adisa, Taiwo (13 February 2012). "Boko Haram’s funding traced to UK, S. Arabia". Nigerian Tribune. Archived from the original on 14 February 2012.
- "Boko haram funding: Nigeria may face international sanctions – Security beefed up in Benue as Boko Haram gives notice to strike". Nigerian Tribune. 21 May 2012.
- Ogundipe, Taiwo (29 January 2012). "Tracking the sect's cash flow". The Nation. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- "‘Why We Did Not Kill Obasanjo’ – Boko Haram Leader". 24/7 u reports. 23 January 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-04-17. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Aronson, Samuel (28 April 2014). "AQIM and Boko Haram Threats to Western Interests in the Africa’s Sahel". Combating Terrorism Center Sentinel (CTC), West Point.
- "Foreign Terrorist Organizations". US Department of State. November 14, 2013. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Taddonio, Kelly Ann (2013-11-15). "Designation of Foreign Terrorist Organizations: An Effective National Security Tool, or Symbolic Action?". Transparent Policy. Retrieved 2014-05-05.
- Isenyo, Godwin (12 June 2014). "I have access to boko haram,says Obasanjo". http://www.punchng.com.
- The Punch Nigeria, Fri Jun 13 2014; pgs. 2 & 9.Vol 38 No. 20, 683. ISSN 0331-2666.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Boko Haram.|
- Security Forces Abuses, Human Rights Watch.
- Murtada, Dr Ahmad, Boko Haram: Its Beginnings, Principles and Activities in Nigeria, PDF: Islamic Studies Department, University of Bayero.
- Boko Haram Special Report, United States Institute of Peace.
- Confronting the Terrorism of Boko Haram in Nigeria, JSOU
- More information on Boko Haram
- Who are Boko Haram? (CNN)
- Analysis of Boko Haram on IRIN News
- Timeline on IRIN News
- Former U.S. Ambassador to Nigeria arguing that Boko Haram is not a formal terrorist group
- Books versus bullets in north-east Nigeria RFI English
- Boko Haram's Evolving Threat, Africa Center for Strategic Studies
- Boko Haram Council on Foreign Relations
- Boko Haram: An Annotated Bibliography Stuart Elden
- Boko Haram. Islamism, politics, security and the State in Nigeria Ed. by Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos. Leiden, African Studies Centre, 2014. ISBN 9789054481355
- List of 180 names of the kidnapped girls in The Nation Online (3 May 2014)
-  English Language Website
- Boko Haram From The Beginning – Ahmad Salkida. My Pen and My Paper blog; May 27, 2014.