List of last surviving veterans of military insurgencies and wars

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This a chronological list of the last surviving veterans of military insurgencies, conflicts, and wars around the world. The listed wars span from the 13th century BC to the beginning of World War II. Most last survivors of particular campaigns or wars were junior officers or soldiers/naval ratings of non-commissioned rank in the early years of their service careers at the time.

Contents

Classical and Biblical eras[edit]

Middle Ages[edit]

  • Don Mancio Sierra de Leguízamo (1512-1589) - Last Spanish Conquistador.[5]

Early modern period[edit]

These cases, particularly with respect to the ages claimed by the veterans, cannot be verified as it was common in pre-industrialised societies for elders to exaggerate their age.

  • Andreas Nielsen (1660–1782) — Norwegian soldier. Claimed to be the last Scanian War veteran, to have had a long military career and seen many battles.[6][8]

English Civil War[edit]

First Anglo-Dutch War[edit]

Great Northern War[edit]

War of the Polish Succession, War of the Austrian Succession[edit]

Russo-Turkish War[edit]

Jacobite rising[edit]

Seven Years' War[edit]

French and Indian War[edit]

Gaspée Affair[edit]

  • Ephrim Bowen (1753-1841) - Colonial American pirate[26]

American Revolutionary War[edit]

  • Daniel Bakeman (1759–1869) — Alleged veteran. Awarded pension via Congress, though no support of service has been located.[27]
  • John Gray (1764–1868) — Last verifiable veteran although period of service was too short for him for pension qualification.[28]
  • Samuel Downing (1764–1867)[29]
  • Lemuel Cook (1759–1866) — Last official veteran; honorable discharge signed by George Washington.[30]

French Revolution[edit]

  • Nicolas Savin (1768–1894) — Enlisted in 2nd Regiment of Hussars in 1798. 1768 figure proclaims he was approximately 126 at time of death. Later served under Napoleon and was awarded the Legion d'Honneur.[31]
  • Giovanni Battista Campanella (1776–1884) — France. Served in the Italian campaign of the French Revolutionary Wars and later in the 1812 Russian campaign.[32]

Napoleonic Wars[edit]

  • Vincent Markiewicz (1795–1903) –- Last Polish veteran. Fought for Napoleon[36][37]
  • Jean Adrin (1797–1902) — Last French veteran.[38] In 1912 there were three Polish men who claimed to have fought at Borodino, but it is unlikely they were real veterans due to lack of documentation and age ranges relatively high from 120 to 133.
  • Geert Adriaans Boomgaard (1788–1899) — Last Dutch veteran and Europe's oldest man at the time of his death. He fought for France in the 33ème Régiment Léger.[31]
  • Louis Victor Baillot (1793–1898) — French veteran. Last Battle of Waterloo veteran. Saw action at siege of Hamburg.[39]
  • Pedro Martinez (1789–1898) — Last Battle of Trafalgar veteran. Served in Spanish navy on San Juan Nepomuceno.[31]
  • Leonard Meesters (1796–1896) — Last Belgian veteran. Fought for Napoleon.[31]
  • Josephine Mazurkewicz (1794–1896) — Last female veteran. Assistant surgeon in Napoleon's army. Later partook in Crimean War.[31]
  • Sir Provo Wallis (1791–1892) — Canada.[40]
  • Morris Shea (1795–1892) — 73rd Foot — Last Scottish veteran.[41]
  • Vasilij Nikolaevich Kochetkov (1785-1892) Russian Imperial Army. Enlisted 7 March 1811. Served in Grenadier Lifeguard Regiment at Borodino. Served 66 1/2 years until 12 October 1877 when wounded out of service in the Russian-Ottoman War.[42][43][44]
  • Joseph Sutherland (1789–1890) — Last English veteran. Royal Navy. Last British survivor of Trafalgar.[45]

War of 1812[edit]

Finnish War[edit]

  • Carl Gustav Polviander (1784-1876) - Finland[48]

Greek War of Independence[edit]

July Revolution (1830)[edit]

  • Auguste Lebailly (1815 - 1911)[49][50]

Belgian Revolution (1830-1831)[edit]

  • Philippe Demoulin (1809–1912) — Belgium[51]

Texas War of Independence[edit]

Black Hawk War[edit]

  • Henry L. Riggs (1812–1911)[54]

Rebellions of 1837[edit]

Mexican-American War[edit]

Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848–1849)[edit]

First Schleswig War (1848–1851)[edit]

  • Jørgen Jørgensen Birkholm (1829–1931) –- Last Danish veteran[59]

Crimean War[edit]

  • Rookes Evelyn Bell Crompton (1845–1940). Claimed to have been a naval cadet on HMS Dragon during the siege of Sevastopol, earning two campaign medals before his twelfth birthday. There is no record of his having enrolled in the Royal Navy and at time of his visits to the Crimea (mid-May to mid-July 1856), nobody was entitled to the award of the British Crimea Medal.[65] Later Colonel in British Army in Second Boer War.

Indian Mutiny (1857-1859)[edit]

  • Robert Collinson d'Esterre Spottiswoode (1841–1936) –- Last British Army veteran.[67][68]

Italian Unification[edit]

  • Francois Ribet (1835–1936) — Died in France.[31]

Expedition of the Thousand[edit]

Third Italian War of Independence[edit]

New Zealand Wars[edit]

  • Edwin Bezar (1838–1936), last British soldier. Settled in New Zealand.

American Civil War[edit]

Union[edit]

Confederate[edit]

Name Claimed birth date Believed birth date Death date Status
Pleasant Crump 23 December 1847 31 December 1951 Verified
Felix M. Witkoski 5 January 1850 October 1854 3 February 1952 Dubious
Thomas Edwin Ross 19 July 1850 27 March 1952 Possible
Richard William Cumpston 23 May 1841 5 September 1952 Unknown
William Loudermilk[72] 23 October 1847[73] April 1851[74] 18 September 1952 Possible
William Jordan Bush[75] 10 July 1845 July 1846 11 November 1952 Verified[76]
Arnold Murray[77] 10 June 1846 1842/1855[78] 26 November 1952 Possible[79]
William Townsend[75][80] 12 April 1846 22 February 1953 Verified[81]
William Albert Kinney 10 February 1843[82] 10 February 1861[83] 23 June 1953 Probable[84]
Thomas Riddle 16 April 1846[85] 1862[86] 2 April 1954 Possible[87]
William Lundy 18 January 1848 May 1860 1 September 1957 Debunked
John B. Salling[88] 15 May 1846 15 May 1856 16 March 1959 Debunked
Walter Williams 14 November 1842 14 November 1854 19 December 1959 Debunked

Most cases are questionable, though it should be remembered that many Confederate records were destroyed or lost to history. Unlike the U.S. military archives, the Confederate records had no official archive system after the war. However, for most of the cases investigated, the ages of the claimants alone were enough to prove their claim was false. Williams was generally acknowledged as the "last Confederate veteran" in 1950s newspapers. However, in September 1959 an exposé by The New York Times revealed that he was in fact born in 1854 in Itawamba County, Mississippi, and not 1842 as claimed. Still, since Salling and all the other claimants were dead, Williams was celebrated as the last Confederate veteran after his death on 20 December 1959.[89]

Salling's own status is disputed. In 1991, William Marvel examined the claims of Salling and several other "last Civil War veterans" for a piece in the Civil War history magazine Blue & Gray. Marvel found census data that indicated Salling was born in 1858, not 1846. Although in 1900 Salling supplied a birthdate of March 1858, he appears to have been born around 1856, still too late to have served in the Confederate Army. The 1860 census lists him as 4 years old, and the 1870 census as 14.[88] William Lundy is listed as 1 year old on the 1860 census, and from 1870 until 1930 he gave census marshals ages that reflected birthdates as early as 1853 and as late as 1860. He did not push his birthdate back to the 1840s until he applied for a Confederate pension from the state of Florida. In the same piece, Marvel confirmed Woolson's claim to be the last surviving Union veteran and asserted that Woolson was the last genuine Civil War veteran on either side. However, Marvel did not present research establishing who, among the several other Confederate claims from the 1950s, some of which appear to be genuine, was the real last Confederate veteran.

French invasion of Mexico[edit]

  • Jules Pujos (1846–1942) — France.[31]
  • Francisco Arellano Zenteno (1842–1935) — Mexico. Fought at the battles of Puebla, La Carbonera and Tuxtepec. Had previously servied in the Reform War.[90]

January Uprising[edit]

  • Feliks Bartczuk (1846–1946) — Last veteran.[91]

Second Schleswig War[edit]

  • Ove Henning Jacobsen (1841–1941) — Last Danish veteran.[92]

Fenian Raids[edit]

Expedition to Abyssinia (1867-68)[edit]

Indian Wars[edit]

Franco-Prussian War[edit]

  • Seraphin Pruvost (1849–1955) — Last French veteran.[31]
  • Karl Glöckner (1845–1953) — Last German veteran.[31]

Paris Commune[edit]

  • Adrien Lejeune (1847–1942) — Last Communard.[31][105]
  • Emile Chausse (1850–1941) — Left army and joined the communards in 1870.[31]
  • Antonin Desfarges (1851–1941) — Last Communard député.[31]

Third Anglo-Ashanti War (1873-1874)[edit]

Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)[edit]

  • Konstantin Vikent'evich Hrutskij (1855-1967) — Preobrazhenskij Lifeguard Regiment [106]

Second Anglo-Afghan War[edit]

  • Alfred Hawker (1858-1962) - last British Army survivor[107]

Zulu War[edit]

War of the Pacific (1879-1884)[edit]

  • Ricardo Orellana Olate (1860 - 1967) - Chilean Army[110][111]

First Boer War (1880-81)[edit]

  • Harry Figg (1855-1953) - possibly last British Army survivor of this war, fought at Majuba Hill and Laing's Nek. (Previously served 1873 Anglo-Ashanti War.)

Anglo-Egyptian War (1882)[edit]

Nile Expedition (1884-85)[edit]

Northwest Rebellion[edit]

Cuban War of Independence (1895-1898)[edit]

  • Juan Fajardo Vega (1881–1990) - Cuban Liberation Army. Later served in the 1912 Negro Rebellion and the Cuban Revolution.[114][115]

Spanish-American War[edit]

Second Boer War (1899-1902)[edit]

Potemkin Mutiny[edit]

Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)[edit]

  • Mamoru Eto (1883–1992) –- Japanese Army[122]
  • Alex Gory (1881 - 1989) –- Russian Army[123]

Mexican Revolution[edit]

Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912)[edit]

  • Nunzio Luigi Ciannilli (1889–1992) –- Italian Colonial Forces. Also served in World War I [131]

Balkan Wars (1912–1913)[edit]

  • Hüseyin Kaçmaz (1884–1994) –- Ottoman Army. Also served in WWI.[132]
  • Danilo Dajković (1895–1993) –- Montenegrin Army. Also served in WWI.[133]

World War I[edit]

October Revolution[edit]

Finnish Civil War[edit]

Russian Civil War[edit]

Russian participants:

Veterans of Allied military intervention forces:

Greater Poland Uprising (1918–1919)[edit]

  • Jan Rzepa (1899–2005) — Last Polish fighter.[140]

German Revolution of 1918–19[edit]

Polish-Ukrainian War[edit]

Estonian War of Independence[edit]

  • Ants Ilus (1901–2006) — Died in Estonia.[146]
  • Karl Jaanus (1899–2000) — Last surviving Cross of Liberty recipient awarded during war.[147]

Latvian War of Independence[edit]

Irish War of Independence[edit]

Polish–Soviet War[edit]

Silesian Uprisings[edit]

  • Wilhelm Meisel (1904–2009) — Last survivor.[153][154]

Lithuanian Wars of Independence[edit]

  • Česlovas Januškevičius (1900–2001) — Lithuanian Volunteers. Fought the Polish in 1920[155]

Turkish War of Independence[edit]

Greco-Turkish War[edit]

March on Rome[edit]

  • Vasco Bruttomesso (1903–2009)[157]

Northern Expedition[edit]

Nanchang Uprising[edit]

Chittagong armoury raid[edit]

Brazilian Revolution of 1930[edit]

Xi'an Incident[edit]

Battle of Lake Khasan[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  3. ^ Livingston, Michael (2011). The Battle of Brunanburh: A Casebook. Exeter: University of Exeter Press. ISBN 978-0-85989-863-8.
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  5. ^ The confession
  6. ^ a b Jeune, Bernard; and Vaupel, James W. (1999). "Validation of exceptional longevity". Odense: University Press of Southern Denmark. ISBN 978-87-7838-466-9. 
  7. ^ Jeune and Vaupel, p.45.
  8. ^ Jeune and Vaupel, p.61.
  9. ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 8; Volume 20. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1998. p. 428. ISBN 978-0-85229-633-2. 
  10. ^ White, William (1906). Notes and queries, Volume 114. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 82. 
  11. ^ Winder, Robert (9 May 1999). "It's a grand life for Chelsea's men in scarlet". The Independent. Retrieved 25 January 2009. 
  12. ^ "A SOLDIER OF GREAT AGE.". The New York Times. 10 February 1886. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  13. ^ Dunkin, A. J. (1855). "The Haddocks of Wrotham". The Archaeological mine, antiquarian nuggets relating to Kent. London: John Russell Smith. pp. 43–8.
  14. ^ Brown, Charles Brockden; Walsh, Robert (1808). The American register, or general repository of history, politics and science, Volume 2. Philadelphia: C & A. Conrad and Company. p. 408. 
  15. ^ Диланян, Анатолий (14 November 2003). "ПОСЛЕДНИЙ ИЗ КОШЕВЫХ К 200-ЛЕТИЮ СО ДНЯ СМЕРТИ ПЕТРА КАЛНЫШЕВСКОГО" (in Russian). Zerkalo Nedeli. Retrieved 18 October 2010. 
  16. ^ Love, Dana (2013). Jacobite Stories. Neil Wilson Publishing. 
  17. ^ Histoire de la vie du Comte George de Browne, Comté du Saint-Empire, Gouverneur-Général de Livonie et d'Esthonie, général en chef des armées de Sa Majesté l'impératrice de toutes les Russies (in French). I.F. Hartknoch. 1794. 
  18. ^ Behrens, Johann H. (1840). Lebensgeschichte des 105-jährigen in Wolfenbüttel lebenden Invaliden-Unterofficiers Joh. Heinr. Behrens eines Zeitgenossen und Kriegers Friedrich's des Großen (in German). Wolfenbüttel: Holle. pp. 944–950. 
  19. ^ Nouvelle biographie générale depuis les temps les plus reculés jusqu'à nos jours avec les renseignements bibliographiques et l'indication des sources à consulter (in French). Paris: Paris, Firmin Didot frères, fils et cie. 1857. 
  20. ^ Blackstock, A.F. (2004). Luttrell, Henry Lawes, second earl of Carhampton (1737-1821). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
  21. ^ Niles' national register, Volume 61. Cambridge: Harvard University. 1841. p. 192. 
  22. ^  "Abercromby, Robert (1740-1827)volume=1". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 
  23. ^ Hamelin, Marcel. "CHARTIER DE LOTBINIÈRE, MICHEL-EUSTACHE-GASPARD-ALAIN". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Retrieved 18 October 2010. 
  24. ^ publisher=Dictionary of Canadian Biography
  25. ^ Legion Magazine September 30, 2009
  26. ^ Ephraim Bowen
  27. ^ Zuerlein, Roger. "?". FortuneCity. Retrieved 12 November 2010. 
  28. ^ Dalzell, James McCormick; Gray, John (1868). Private Dalzell, his autobiography, poems, and comic war papers, sketch of John Gray, Washington's last soldier, etc. R. Clarke. p. 189. 
  29. ^ Taylor, Maureen (2003). "The Last Men of the Revolution". American Spirit. pp. 30–31. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  30. ^ Cook, Burr. "Lemuel Cook". The Burr. Retrieved 18 October 2010. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Mathieu, Frédéric (2008). Napoléon, les derniers témoins (in French). Éditions Sébirot. ISBN 978-2-9532726-0-4. 
  32. ^ "CAMPANELLA Giovanni Battista". Les derniers soldats de l'Empire (in French). Retrieved 2014-09-12. 
  33. ^ "COUDEIC Yves". Les derniers soldats de l'Empire (in French). Retrieved 2014-09-12. 
  34. ^ "PETIT Pierre". Les derniers soldats de l'Empire (in French). Retrieved 2014-09-12. 
  35. ^ Necrological Table. The British Almanac. 1873. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  36. ^ Lambruso, Albert (March 1902). Revue Napoléonienne (in French). pp. 189 to 193. 
  37. ^ Albert Lambruso. Revue Napoléonienne. Retrieved 2012-01-06. 
  38. ^ [1][unreliable source?]
  39. ^ Bibet/Librairie des deux empires, Jean-Pierre (1998). "Louis-Victor Baillot, le dernier survivant de Waterloo." (in French). Histoire du Consulat et du Premier Empire. Retrieved 19 October 2010. 
  40. ^ Christie, Carl. "WALLIS, Sir PROVO WILLIAM PARRY". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Retrieved 19 October 2010. 
  41. ^ Ray, Jarred; Ray, Ron (2009). "Some History Relevant to the 73rd Regiment of Foot". The Garrison Gazette. Retrieved 19 October 2010. 
  42. ^ http://soviet-awards.com/forum/soviet-bloc-awards/imperial-russian-sphere-resulting-nations/russian-empire/95660-vasilij-nikolaevich-kochetkov.html#post225591
  43. ^ Vasili Kochetkov
  44. ^ A very Russian Crimea
  45. ^ "THE BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR.". Ancestry.com. 13 April 1889. Retrieved 19 October 2010. 
  46. ^ Henley, Benjamin James (1911). The art of longevity ... Syracause: New Warner Co. pp. 205–208. 
  47. ^ Christie, Carl. "WALLIS, Sir PROVO WILLIAM PARRY". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Retrieved 19 October 2010. 
  48. ^ Carl Polviander
  49. ^ "LAST SURVIVOR OF JULY REVOLUTION IS DEAD". The San Francisco Call. 3 December 1911. Retrieved 24 August 2014. 
  50. ^ Je sais tout (in French). 1905. p. 470. Retrieved 24 August 2014. 
  51. ^ "Le dernier combattant de 1830" (in French). Retrieved 2012-08-12. 
  52. ^ Steele, Alfonso; Houston, Sam (1836). Biography of Private Alfonso Steele: deceased, last survivor of the Battle of San Jacinto, together with Mr. Steele's account of the campaign and fight, and the official report of General Sam Houston, with complete roster of the commands composing the little army. s.n. 
  53. ^ Groneman, Bill (1990). Alamo defenders: a genealogy, the people and their words. New York: Eakins Press. p. 1. 
  54. ^ "DEATH OF THE LAST SURVIVOR OF THE BLACK HAWK WAR." 14. Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. 1922. 
  55. ^ Lyman, H.S. (1900). Reminiscences of FX Matthieu 1. Portland: Oregon Historical Society. 
  56. ^ Fido, Martin; Skinner, Keith (1999). The Official Encyclopedia of Scotland Yard. London: Virgin Books. 
  57. ^ Associated Press (September 1929). "Mexican War's Last Survivor, 98, is Dead". The Dallas Morning News.
  58. ^ "Wolverhampton says goodbye to a century-old soldier". Black Country Bugle. 24 November 2005. Retrieved 24 August 2014. 
  59. ^ "En Veteran Fra 48, der fylder 100 Ar" (in Danish). MyHeritage. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  60. ^ "Crimean veteran passes". Trove Digitized Newspapers. 20 December 1938. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  61. ^ "Last Post Sounds For Crimean Veteran". Trove Digitized Newspapers. 18 December 1938. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  62. ^ "Hall of Fame: Balaclava Ned". BBC News. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2010. 
  63. ^ "Sir Fitzroy Maclean". 23 November 1936. Retrieved 2009-03-06. "Sir Fitzroy Donald Maclean, Bt., who died yesterday at Duart Castle, Isle of Mull, at the age of 101, Chief of his Clan and a Crimean veteran, was one of the best known of the "grand old men" of Scotland. When a boy in his early teens he was taken by his father to see the ruins of Duart Castle, burnt to the ground two centuries before, and then made a vow to restore it to its former glory. The vow was redeemed in 1912, when the yellow banner of the Chief of the Clan once more floated over the castle walls amid the rejoicings of the chieftains and clansmen from all parts of the world. ..." 
  64. ^ MacLean, John Patterson (1889). A History of the Clan MacLean from Its First Settlement at Duard Castle, in the Isle of Mull, to the Present Period: Including a Genealogical Account of Some of the Principal Families Together with Their Heraldry, Legends, Superstitions, etc.. R. Clarke & Company. "Sir Fitzroy Donald MacLean, Bart., Twenty-sixth Chief of MacLean and tenth Baronet of Morvern, was born May 18, 1835. On May 18, 1855 he received the Crimean medal for his gallant conduct in the Crimea. He also received two clasps and the Turkish war medal." 
  65. ^ "IET Archives, history, biographies, online exhibitions and research guides". The IET. Retrieved 29 November 2011. 
  66. ^ 'Timmy the tortoise dies aged 160' BBC News 7 April 2004
  67. ^ "Officers at the Cavalry Depôt in Canterbury–1878". Hussar Photos. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  68. ^ "Col. Spottiswoode Dies". The Montreal Gazette. 1936. Retrieved 2011-12-12. 
  69. ^ a b 1886-1986, Il Secolo XIX, Genova, 1986 pag. 302
  70. ^ a b I Garibaldini liguri sul sito del Museo del Risorgimento di Genova
  71. ^ The Banner (1956). "Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War: Albert Woolson". Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War. Retrieved 20 October 2010. 
  72. ^ Polston, Mike. "WILLIAM LOUDERMILK, THE LAST CONFEDERATE". Couch Genealogy. Retrieved 2010-11-07. 
  73. ^ 'George Washington Loudermilk's Ancestors." Aline Loudermilk Jones compiled this massive genealogy 2007. It is online. The 1930 census also gives him a birth date consistent with late 1847. Between 1949 and his death in 1952 three Arkansas newspapers and four nation wide papers and magazines gave his age as being consistent with a birth date of late 1847 and 'The New York Times' was specific. The stories were not syndicated.
  74. ^ 1900 US Census gives age as 49. The censuses give Loudermilk a wide range of ages, some make him younger than a decade before, other age him nineteen years in ten
  75. ^ a b "Last Surviving Confederate Veterans". Genealogy Trails. Retrieved 2010-11-07. 
  76. ^ William Joshua Bush shows up as enlisted in Company B Ramah Guards, 14th Georgia Infantry where he served form July 1861 to his discharge that October. His service with the Georgia State Militia from October 1864 to their surrender in late April 1865 was also verified by the Georgia State Pensions in 1936 (see http://cdm.sos. state ga.us 2011/cdm/compoundobject collection/Testapps/id/149449/rec/1)apart from the muster rolls the adjutant-general verified his other documents. These include his soldier's card, a pay slip and his 1861 discharge. Between them these documents bear five different signatures. Bush may have also served in the 66th Georgia between August 1863 and October 1864.
  77. ^ "ARNOLD MURRAY Confederate Veteran living in 1950". Sons of Confederate Veterans. 2005-08-05. Retrieved 2010-11-07. 
  78. ^ "ARNOLD MURRAY Confederate Veteran living in 1950." Posted J. Block August 5th 2005. This article mentions the stated 1854/1855 census birthdate - and also the 1920 census birthdate for 1847-1848. The censuses of 1910 1930 and 1940 also give 1840s birthdates. Life magazine in the May 30th issue on page 9 gives his age as 101. In The South's Last Boys in Gray Professor J S. Hoar lists twenty-two known enlisted Confederates under eleven. See pp1733-1734.
  79. ^ Find a Grave "Arnold Murray 1846-1952" has a civil War era photo of Arnold Murray as a young soldier. TennRebGirl.com 3/4/14 has him in a group photo at a 1913 Confederate reunion. In the 1930 census he affirmed both Civil War service and a birthdate in the later 1840s.
  80. ^ Find A grave
  81. ^ Townsend's 1861 enlistment in Company B. 27th Louisiana Infantry is recorded on their muster roll in Andrew B. Booth's Military Records of Louisiana Confederate Soldiers and Louisiana Confederate Commands. and also in the LouisianaInfantryDataBase. ancestry.com has six primary source documents in his name; an 1862 sickness furlough, a clothing allocation, a Vicksburg prisoner of war roll where he is listed and his signed parole.
  82. ^ In Professor Jay S. Hoar's The South's Last Boy's in Gray(page 1700) he states that Kiney lied about his age by three years so as to be old enough to enlist. The 1850 census gives his age as four and his birthplace as Bracken County Kentucky. The first names of his parents in that document match those in a 1991 letter to Professor Hoar written by Kiney's granddaughter.
  83. ^ This birthdate comes from the February 1991 article "The Great Imposters" by William Marvel and is also in the 1900 and 1920 censuses for a man who spells his name Kinney. This birthdate also appears in a March 1920 marriage record for William A. Kiney of Indianapolis. Kiney lived in this city. These documents are discussed in the entry "William A. Kiney" in Find A Grave Forum.
  84. ^ Kiney has three primary source records of his enlistments apart from records kept by his family. In Official Records it states that he was in 5th Regiment Kentucky Mounted Infantry. This enlistment is also mentioned in Kentucky Adjutant General's Report - Confederate Volunteers 1861-1865, Vol.1 page 254 entry 80, where Kiney's enlistment is dated on November 1st 1861. Wikipedia's entry on this unit states that they were disbanded in October 1862 and the troops were given a three way choice, discharge, reenlistment or joining the Kentucky Cavalry. Kiney went with the last option as he enlisted in Company l of Diamond's 10th Kentucky Cavalry on 18th November 1863. (This extract is from the book The 10th Kentucky Cavalry CSA by John B. Wells & Jim Pritchard. See Roster of Diamond's 10th Kentucky Cavalry CSA www.potterflats.com10thKyhtml) Professor Hoare's segment on Kiney in The South's Last Boys in Gray reproduces an excerpt of Lloyd B. Walton's article "He's a Man Even at 109" from The Indianapolis Times September 14th 1952. Here Kiney speaks of his Civil War experience, recalling that he was in most of the war and that Shiloh was his toughest fight. Find a Graveshows his tombstone with the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry inscribed as his unit. They are not known to have had a muster roll.
  85. ^ This information comes from the 1850 census. Later censuses give a wide range of dates.
  86. ^ 1910 Census gives age as 48
  87. ^ Thomas Evans Riddle is enlisted under his full name in the reproduced muster roll in Terry D. Lowry's History of the 22nd Virginia Infantry. He is also listed as just Thomas Riddle and in the same company in John C. Wayland's Muster Roll of Confederate Soldiers. He apparently transferred regiments for in Official Recordshe appears on the muster roll of Company I 33rd Virginia Infantry. John B. Sheets of that same company kept a diary where Thomas Riddle is mentioned on February 26th 1863. Against this evidence is the fact that Lowry cautions against believing Riddle and that some of Riddle's descendants warn that due to census information, he could not have served in the Civil War. See their website "Our Family" by David Autry.
  88. ^ a b Marvel, William (1991). The great imposters VIII (3). Columbus: Blue and Gray. pp. 32–33. 
  89. ^ Associated Press (20 December 1959). "Reputed Last Civil War Veteran Dies in Texas After Long Illness: Walter Williams Put His Age at 117 – Tributes Note the End of an Era". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  90. ^ "Murio Ayer el Ultimo Veterano del 5 de Mayo" (PDF) (in Spanish). Gobierno Municipal de Puebla. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  91. ^ Jakubik, Marian; Kołodziejczyk, Arkadiusz (2002). Żołnierska danina życia od 1657 roku (in Polish). IHAP. p. 158. ISBN 978-83-87088-59-0. 
  92. ^ http://hammerum-herred.dk/readarticle.php?article_id=18
  93. ^ Hamilton, Bill (27 November 2002). "What’s Behind The Hammond Gate?". Bill Hamilton’s Tantramar Flashback. Retrieved 20 October 2010. 
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