|The Municipality of Campinas|
Images from top, left to right: Metropolitan Cathedral, an avenue in Campinas's downtown, an old railway station, Mogiana Palace, a monument to the heroes of Constitutionalist Revolution (in Saudade Cemetery), a bus terminus, Central area of Campinas as seen from Torre do Castelo, a belvedere.
|Nickname(s): Cidade das Andorinhas, Brazilian Silicon Valley, Princesa d'Oeste|
Location of Campinas
|Founded||July 14, 1774|
|• Mayor||Jonas Donizette (PSB)|
|• Municipality||795.667 km2 (307.209 sq mi)|
|• Metro||3,645 km2 (1,407 sq mi)|
|Elevation||555-780 m (1,821–2,559 ft)|
|• Municipality||1,098,630 (14th)|
|• Density||1,358.6/km2 (3,519/sq mi)|
|Time zone||Brasilia Official Time (UTC-3)|
|• Summer (DST)||Brazilian Daylight Saving Time (UTC-2)|
|Area code(s)||+55 19|
|Website||Campinas, São Paulo|
Campinas (Portuguese pronunciation: [kɐ̃ˈpinɐs], Plains or Meadows) is a Brazilian city of São Paulo State, in the country's Southeast Region. According to the 2010 Census, the city population is 1,080,999, making it the fourteenth most populous Brazilian city and the third in the São Paulo state. The city's metropolitan area, the Greater Campinas, as of 2013, contains nineteen cities, including Campinas, and has a total population of 2,232,297 people.
Campinas is one of the 10 cities that most create jobs in Brazil. According to a study by the Getúlio Vargas Foundation, a business school, excluding state capitals Campinas is the best place to work in Brazil. It is a technological center that the United Nations has described as the second most important in Southern Hemisphere, the first being São Paulo itself. 50 of the 500 largest companies in the world are present in the metropolitan area of the city.
It is situated close to both the financial hub of Brazil, the São Paulo state capital, 96 km away, and the Port of Santos (172 km), the largest in Latin America. Campinas is the core city of a metropolitan region comprising 19 municipalities and numbering more than 2.6 million inhabitants. And the Campinas Metropolitan Region (RMC) generates approximately 3% of Brazilian GDP in 2010. More than 30 million people, equivalent to the population of Canada or twice that of Chile, live within a 200 km radius.
According to the Simonsen consultancy and Exame business magazine, Campinas is ranked the fifth best city in Brazil, with the best urban infrastructure. Campinas has more than 360 surveillance cameras distributed throughout its main streets, avenues, squares, parks and bus and rail stations. All 39 public schools and most health facilities are also monitored 24 hours a day.
The city is home to the University of Campinas, one of the most prestigious in Latin America. Campinas is known as"Cidade das Andorinhas" (City of Swallows) because it was a favorite spot for those migratory birds, which flocked annually in enormous numbers to Downtown Campinas. An inhabitant of Campinas is called a "Campineiro."
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Culture
- 7 Tourism and recreation
- 8 Sports
- 9 Government
- 10 Infrastructure
- 11 Education
- 12 Media
- 13 Notable people
- 14 International relations
- 15 References
- 16 External links
Campinas means grass fields in Portuguese and refers to its characteristic landscape, which originally comprised large stretches of dense subtropical forests (mato grosso or thick woods in Portuguese), mainly along the many rivers, interspersed with gently rolling hills covered by low-lying vegetation.
Campinas' official crest and flag has a picture of the mythical bird, the phoenix, because it was practically reborn after a devastating epidemic of yellow fever in the 1800s, which killed more than 25% of the city's inhabitants.
The city was founded on July 14, 1774, by Barreto Leme. It was initially a simple outpost on the way to Minas Gerais and Goiás serving the "Bandeirantes" who were in search of precious minerals and Indian slaves. In the first half of the 19th century, Campinas became a growing population center, with many coffee, cotton and sugarcane farms.
The construction of a railway linking the city of São Paulo to Santos' seaport, in 1867, was very important for its growth. In the second half of the 19th century, with the abolition of slavery, farming and industrialization attracted many foreign immigrants to replace the lost manpower, mainly from Italy.
Coffee became an important export and the city became wealthy. In consequence, a large service sector was established to serve the growing population, and in the first decades of the 20th century, Campinas could already boast of an opera house, theaters, banks, movie theaters, radio stations, a philharmonic orchestra, two newspapers (Correio Popular and Diário do Povo), a good public education system (with the Escola Normal de Campinas and the Colégio Culto à Ciência), and hospitals, such as the Santa Casa de Misericórdia (a charity for poor people).
And the Casa de Saúde de Campinas (for the Italian community, formerly known as Circolo Italiani Uniti), and the most important Brazilian research center in agricultural sciences, the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, which was founded by Emperor Pedro II. Finally, the construction of the first Brazilian highway in 1938, between Campinas and São Paulo, the Anhanguera Highway, was a turning point in the integration of Campinas into the rest of the state.
Campinas was the birthplace of opera composer Carlos Gomes (1836 — 1896) and of the President of the Republic Campos Salles (1841 — 1913). It was home for 49 years to Hércules Florence, reputed as one of the early inventors of photography, photocopying and the mimeograph.
The area of the city, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, is 795.697 km2, and 238.3230 km2 of this is the urban area and 557.334 km2 remaining constitute constitute greater Campinas. It is located at 22°54′21″S, 47°03′39″W and is at a distance of 96 kilometers northwest of São Paulo. Its neighboring cities are Paulínia, Jaguariúna and Pedreira, north; Morungaba, Itatiba and Valinhos in the east; Itupeva, Indaiatuba and Monte Mor, south, and Hortolândia in the west.
Most of the original vegetation of the city was devastated. Like 13 other municipalities in the metropolitan region of Campinas, the city is subject to severe environmental stress, and Campinas is considered one of the areas liable to flooding and silting; it now has less than 5% of vegetation cover.
To try to reverse this situation, several projects have been and are being conducted and planned, such as building corridors, such as regulation of the Management Plan of Environmental Preservation Area (APA) in Campinas. There are also several environmental projects to combat the destruction of riparian forests located on the river london, which has a high level of pollution. Today, Campinas houses the Area of Relevant Ecological Interest (ARIE) Santa Geneva, 251 acres (1.02 km2), established in 1985 and regulated by the Brazilian Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA), the city of Campinas, Fundação José Pedro de Oliveira. This is the now second largest urban forest of Brazil, behind only the Tijuca Forest, in Rio de Janeiro.
The climate is tropical but mitigated by elevation (Köppen type Cwa), with lower rainfall in winter and an annual average temperature of 21.3 °C. Winters are generally dry and mild (rarely too cold), and summers rainy with warm to hot temperatures. The warmest month is February, with an average temperature of 24 °C, an average maximum of 29.1 °C and average minimum of 19.0 °C. The coldest month, July, sees respective temperatures of 17.8 °C, and 24.2 °C and 11.4 °C average maximum and minimum. Fall and spring are transitional seasons.
The average annual rainfall is 1424.5 mm and the driest month in August, when there is only 22.9 mm. In January, the rainiest month, the average is 280.3 mm. In recent years, however, the hot, dry days during the winter have been increasingly frequent, often surpassing 30 °C, especially between July and September. In August 2010, for example, the rainfall in Campinas was only 0 mm. During the dry season and long dry spells in the middle of the rainy season are also common records of fires in the hills and thickets, especially in rural areas of the city, which contributes to deforestation and the release of pollutants into the atmosphere, further worsening air quality. The lowest temperature recorded in the city was −1.5 °C on June 25, 1918. The highest temperature was 39.0 °C, observed on 17 November 1985. The highest cumulative rainfall recorded in 24 hours in the city between June 1988 and October 2008 was 143.4 mm in 25 days May 2005. Between 1890 and 2004 there were 41 occurrences of frost in Campinas. The most recent was on July 18, 2000, when the minimum temperature reached 2.2 °C. There are also occasional episodes of strong winds, with gusts exceeding 100 km / h, and training records were made in the city day May 4, 2001 and March 9, 2008.
The wet season is from mid-October to mid-April, with heavier rains particularly in December, January, February and early March, and the dry season is from mid-May to mid-September. Average rainfall is 24.3 mm in August and 267.8 mm in January. Average humidity ranges from 37% (August) to 56% (January).
In the region around Campinas near the state of Minas Gerais there are a number of cities which enjoy an even milder mountain climate, such as Serra Negra, Socorro, Lindóia and Águas de Lindóia, where several water spas are located.
|Climate data for Campinas, Brazil (1890–2012)|
|Record high °C (°F)||36.1
|Average high °C (°F)||28.9
|Average low °C (°F)||18.6
|Record low °C (°F)||10.1
|Precipitation mm (inches)||280.3
|Source: IAC - Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (Temperaturas) / CEPAGRI-UNICAMP (Outros dados)|
According to the 2010 IBGE Census, and as November 2010, Campinas had a population of 1,080,999 and a population density of 1358.6 (inhabitants / km ²). Infant mortality levels were at up to 1 year (per thousand): 14.05 and life expectation in the city was 72.22 years. The fertility rate was at 1.78 children per woman. 96.01 of the populace could read.
- Human Development Index (HDI-M): 0.852 (high)
- HDI-M Income: 0.845 (high)
- HDI-M Longevity: 0.787
- HDI-M Education: 0.925 (very high)
Source: 2000 census:
|Color / Race||%|
Source: 2010 Census Population (IBGE): 1,080,999
|Population||% / inhabitants|
|Urban area||98,28% / 1,062,453|
|Rural area||1,72% / 18,546|
|Sex||% / inhabitants|
|Male||48,22% / 521,209|
|Female||51,78% / 559,790|
As of 2010, Campinas became an official metropolitan region (RMC — Região Metropolitana de Campinas), with 19 municipalities, with a total of 2.8 million inhabitants and a total land area of 3,348 km² (data of 2010), adjacent to the São Paulo metropolitan region (RMSP). The Campinas Metropolitan area also comprehends a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of R$70.7 billion (around U$42 billion).
- Artur Nogueira
- Engenheiro Coelho
- Monte Mor
- Nova Odessa
- Santa Bárbara d'Oeste
- Santo Antônio de Posse
The Campinas municipality is also the administrative center of the micro- and meso-regions of the same name. The micro-region includes the RMC (Metropolitan Region of Campinas) and the municipality of Elias Fausto; the meso-region also includes the following municipalities: Aguaí, Amparo, Águas da Prata, Águas de Lindóia, Caconde, Casa Branca, Divinolândia, Espírito Santo do Pinhal, Estiva Gerbi, Itapira, Itobi, Lindóia, Mococa, Mogi Guaçu, Moji-Mirim, Monte Alegre do Sul, Pedra Bela, Pinhalzinho, Pirassununga, Porto Ferreira, Santa Cruz das Palmeiras, Santo Antônio do Jardim, São João da Boa Vista, São José do Rio Pardo, São Sebastião da Grama, Serra Negra, Socorro, Tambaú, Tapiratiba, Vargem Grande do Sul and Vinhedo.
Other cities which are geographically, historically or economically tied to the meso-region of Campinas could be mentioned: Araras, Atibaia, Bragança Paulista, Capivari, Conchal, Iracemápolis, Itu, Itupeva, Jarinu, Jundiai, Limeira, Louveira, Mombuca, Morungaba, Piracicaba, Rafard, Rio das Pedras, Salto and Tuiuti.
Campinas is the richest city in the metropolitan region of Campinas and the 10th richest city in Brazil, showing a gross domestic product (GDP) of 36.68 billion reais (2010), which represents almost 1% (0.998%) of all Brazilian GDP. Currently, the city concentrates 10% of industrial production of Brazil. The paper highlights the high-tech industries and metallurgical park, considered the capital of Silicon Valley Sterling.
The petrochemical complex is centered in the Southeastern section, a few miles from Campinas, near the refinery of Petrobras Planalto Paulista (Replan), the largest in Brazil one of the largest in Latin America, and has companies like Dupont, Chevron, Shell, Exxon, Group Ipiranga, Eucatex, Rhodia, and others. It is the hub of companies and Blue Trip. The largest companies have a global turnover of more than $80 billion, larger than many Latin American countries.
The city has several shopping malls, two of the largest being Iguatemi Campinas and Shopping Parque Dom Pedro. Campinas has, within its metropolitan area, the largest cargo airport for import/export, Viracopos International Airport, a significant entity in the international transport of cargo.
Campinas' main economic activities are agriculture (mainly coffee, sugarcane, and cotton), industry (textiles, motorcycles, cars, machinery, agricultural equipment, food and beverages, chemical and petrochemical, pharmaceuticals, paper and cellulose, telecommunications, computers and electronics, etc.), commerce and services.
The Campinas Metropolitan Region is home to many national and international high-tech industries and IT companies, including IBM, Dell, Motorola, Freescale, Lucent, Nortel, Compaq, Celestica, Samsung, Alcatel, Bosch, 3M, Texas Instruments and CI&T.
The automotive industry is also heavily represented: General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, Honda, Magneti Marelli, Eaton Corporation, Tenneco, Toyota and many others are present. It also has a sizable pharmaceutical industry sector, with companies like Medley Farma, EMS Farma, Altana, Merck Sharp and Dohme, Cristália, Valeo, etc.
In addition the region is home to many research centers and universities, such as LNLS, Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Telecomunicações (CPqD), CenPRA, Embrapa, Unicamp, Facamp and Puccamp. According to the Times Higher Education 2007 World University Rankings, the University of Campinas (Unicamp) is the 177th best university in the world, and the 2nd best in Latin America (after the University of São Paulo in 176th place).
Campinas also boasts the largest number of high-tech business incubators and industrial parks (a total of eight), such as the CIATEC I and II, Softex, TechnoPark, InCamp, Polis, TechTown, Industrial Park of Campinas and others.
The presence of one of the largest oil refineries in Latin America (350,824 barrels (55,776.6 m3) of crude per day), operated by Petrobras in the neighboring county of Paulínia, has attracted many petrochemical companies to the Campinas area, including DuPont, Rhone-Poulenc, and Royal Dutch Shell.
The Brazilian Pró-Álcool Program was developed in Campinas: a whole industry based on the use of ethanol as a combustible for motor vehicles, going from a new sucrose-rich sugarcane, to alcohol refineries, a huge distribution system, and, most recently, an internal combustion engine capable of using either gasoline or ethanol.
Other examples of Campinas-bred technologies are fiber optics, lasers for telecommunications and medical applications, integrated circuits design and fabrication, satellite environmental monitoring of natural resources, software for agriculture, digital telephone switches, deep-water oil exploration platforms and technologies, biomedical equipment, medical software, genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technologies for food production and pharmaceutics, and food engineering. Because of this, Campinas has been called the Brazilian Silicon Valley.
Despite Campinas' position of wealth and social and economic opportunity vis-a-vis the rest of the country, the average per capita income of little more than US$17,700 per year clearly indicates that there are problems. If re-evaluated in terms of PPP (Purchasing Power Parity), Campinas' average income looks better (roughly 12,300 USD per year).
The city has always been a cultural center in the State of São Paulo. This has increased greatly with the proliferation of universities. Campinas has three theater houses, a symphony orchestra, (considered one of the three best of the country), now under Principal Conductor Parcival Módolo and Karl Martin, classical music ensembles, choral groups, 43 movie screens and over a dozen cinemas, dozens of libraries (including a municipal library), art galleries, museums, etc.
Tourism and recreation
Tourist attractions include:
- the Bosque dos Jequitibás, an urban preserved wooded area reminiscent of the original rain forest that covered the region in the past: it has a small zoo with local fauna and a natural history museum
- the Cathedral, which was built in the 19th century; its interior is entirely made of jacaranda wood sculptures and works. It was made using a technique called "taipa de pilão" using clay and rocks – it is one of the largest buildings in the world using this construction technique;
- the Central Market, with typical stall stands full of fresh product of the region
- the old Central Railway Station, now converted to a cultural center;
- Centro de Convivência, a cultural complex of theater, an open arena for concerts and spectacles, and a plaza where Campinas Symphony Orchestra often plays to the public;
- the Castelo (Castle) Water Tower, which provides a beautiful view over the downtown;
- the Historical Railway Society of Campinas, which maintains the Anhumas station, a set of steam locomotives and full carriages and which promotes regular trips along a picturesque region dotted with old coffee farms;
- the Lagoa do Taquaral Park, a much-beloved urban lagoon and adjacent wooded park, includes: a planetarium, a science museum, an indoor sports stadium and swimming pool, kart racing (now deactivated) and model airplane areas, an open concert auditorium, a floating caravel replica, an electric tramway (streetcar line), pedal boats, plus facilities for several types of sports, including a long track for running and walking;
The mountain region around Campinas has better travel and stay opportunities, such as in the spa cities of Serra Negra and Águas de Lindóia; and in Holambra, a rural region which was populated by immigrants from the Netherlands, with an annual flower festival and typical buildings and restaurants.
Campinas is home to two football clubs nationally recognized: Associação Atlética Ponte Preta and Guarani Futebol Clube, who perform "Campineiro derby" match that is considered one of the most traditional of the state occurring since 1912. There is also Red Bull Brasil, which was created in November 2007 and lately has gained significant prominence. Women's football also has been outstanding, albeit amateur. In the story also revealed other clubs, such as Mogiana Sports Club, which was created in June 7, 1933 and came into bankruptcy in the 60s.
The city also has three major venues: Estádio Brinco de Ouro da Princesa, owned by the Guarani, which opened in 1953 and today has a capacity of around 32,341 people, Sport and Recreation Centre in Campinas Dr. Horacio Antonio da Costa (Cerecamp Stadium or Mogiana Stadium), which belongs to the state of São Paulo and was opened in 1940, besides the Estádio Moisés Lucarelli, owned by Ponte Preta, which was built by its own supporters, and founded in 1948 and has the capacity to 19,722 visitors. It is popular known as "Majestoso" (The Majestic One), for being the third largest stadium in Brazil as the year of its foundation, smaller only than Pacaembu, in São Paulo and São Januário, in Rio de Janeiro.
The city is still home to several sporting events in other modalities, such as Corrida Integração (Integration Race), which is held since 1983 by Pioneer Broadcasters Television (EPTV), being divided into two modes (a 5 km-dedicated to the disabled and wheelchair users, and another 10 km, the normal).
Campinas also has tradition in the Open Games of the Interior, created in 1936 and competition involving various sports. Four times, hosted the competition (1939, 1945, 1960 and 1994), and ten times the city came out as the winner of the competition (1939, 1955, 1956, 1958, 1960, 1971, 1974, 1975, 1978, 1979), being the third city which has won the most competition.
In tennis there is the Tennis Club of Campinas (CBT), which was created in 1913, offering, in addition to the blocks of the sport, swimming pools, courts for basketball and soccer, as well as rooms suitable for the practice of judo, gymnastics and dance. Club de Regatas Campineiro and Swim (CCRN) also provides space for the practice of various types of Olympic sports.
The Secretariat of International Cooperation (SMCI) was created on April 28, 1994. It is one of the 18 Secretariats of the City Hall of Campinas and it is currently located in that building.
Its mains goals are:
- the attraction and facilititaion for the arrival of new investments to the city;
- the expansion of the companies activities that are already established in the city;
- the perpetuation of the relations between the city, its international community and partners, such as the Sister-Cities.
The Secretariat also acts as supporter to other secretariats in the City Hall, often through: the identification of national and foreign potentials investors; keeping systematic contacts with executives in Brazil and abroad, Embassies, Chambers of Commerces and relevant International Organizations; presenting Campinas to the cities and interested investors.
- Orozimbo Maia – 1904, 1908–1910, 1926–1930
- Ruy Hellmeister Novais – 1956–1959, 1964–1969
- Orestes Quércia – 1969–1972
- Lauro Péricles Gonçalves; 1973–1976
- Francisco Amaral; 1977–1982
- José Roberto Magalhães Teixeira – 1983–1988, 1993–1996 (died of cancer while in office)
- Francisco Amaral – 1977–1982, 1997–2001
- Jacó Bittar – 1989-1992
- Antonio da Costa Santos (Toninho) – 2001 (murdered while in office)
- Izalene Tiene – 2001–2005
- Hélio de Oliveira Santos (Dr. Hélio) – 2005–2011 (deposed)
- Demétrio Vilagra – 2011(removed)
- Pedro Serafim Júnior – 2011
- Demétrio Vilagra – 2011 (deposed)
- Pedro Serafim Júnior – 2011–2012 (interim)
- Jonas Donizete – 2013–present
Campinas is a major transportation and telecommunications hub for the State of São Paulo, as it is located on the major motorways that connect the capital to the Northwest and Northern parts of the State. The city is served by the a Campinas Beltway (Anel Viário) and the following main motorways:
- Rodovia Anhangüera
- Rodovia dos Bandeirantes
- Rodovia Santos Dumont
- Rodovia Dom Pedro I
- Rodovia Adhemar de Barros
- Rodovia Professor Zeferino Vaz
- Rodovia Jornalista Francisco Aguirre Proença
All these motorways are built according to the highest international standards (see highway system of São Paulo). The Anel Viário José Magalhães Teixeira (SP-038) around the city currently interconnects the Anhangüera and Dom Pedro I motorways.
The main airport of the city is Viracopos International Airport, located 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) from Downtown Campinas and 99 kilometres (62 mi) from the city of São Paulo. The airport is the second largest cargo terminal in Brazil. It is one of the fastest growing airports in the country, and since it was turned over to the private sector in 2012, a number of improvements and innovations have been implemented through the Viracopos Brazil Airports concession.
Universities and colleges
- Unicamp (Universidade Estadual de Campinas);
- INPG Business School (Instituto Nacional de Pós-Graduação) - INPG campus in Campinas; Nationally ranked MBA School by Magazine Você S/A, Edition Nov/2010.
- PUC-Campinas (Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas);
- UNIP (Universidade Paulista);
- FACAMP (Faculdades de Campinas);
- METROCAMP (Faculdade Integrada Metropolitana de Campinas);
- IPEP (Faculdades Integradas IPEP);
- UNISAL (Centro Universitário Salesiano de São Paulo);
- USF (Universidade São Francisco);
- ESAMC (Escola Superior de Administração, Marketing e Comunicação);
- Universidade Mackenzie;
- FAC (Faculdades Comunitárias de Campinas);
- Faculdades Fleming;
- Faculdade de Odontologia São Leopoldo Mandic.
- ETE Bento Quirino (Escola Técnica Estadual Bento Quirino)
- ETEC (Escola Técnica de Campinas)
- ETECAP (Escola Técnica Estadual Conselheiro Antonio Prado)
- POLI Bentinho (Colégio Politécnico Bento Quirino)
- COTUCA (Colégio Técnico da Universidade de Campinas)
- SENAI (Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial)
Three daily newspapers are published in Campinas, all owned by media company Rede Anhangüera de Comunicação: Correio Popular, Diário do Povo and Notícia Já (a tabloid). Several other local newspapers with weekly or monthly circulation are also published. Several magazines are also published in Campinas, the largest one being Metrópole, which circulates on Sundays as a supplement to Correio Popular.
The city has also a large number of radio stations as well as several local TV stations, including TV Universidades and Fenix TV (both not-for-profit), distributed by Net Campinas, the local cable distributor.
Campinas was the first city in Brazil, outside the capitals of Brazilian states, which received the transmission in digital signal for TV, by EPTV, an affiliate of Rede Globo, on October 3, 2008. It currently has the second TV station that also broadcasts the signal by TVB, now an affiliate of Rede Record, since February 2011 (before SBT, when it began in May 8, 2010).
- Campos Sales (politician, fourth president of Brazil)
- Carlos Gomes (opera composer)
- Nelsinho Baptista (footballer)
- Olavo de Carvalho (philosopher and writer)
- Lovefoxxx (singer)
- Rubem Alves (philosopher and writer)
- Marcelo Damy (physicist)
- Gilberto de Nucci (physician and biomedical researcher)
- Renato M.E. Sabbatini (biomedical scientist and writer)
- Regina Duarte (actress)
- Hércules Florence (inventor)
- Luís Fabiano – (footballer)
- Carlos Roberto Martins (entrepreneur)
- Crodowaldo Pavan (biologist and scientist)
- José Aristodemo Pinotti (physician, former dean of UNICAMP)
- Zeferino Vaz (physician, former dean of UNICAMP)
- Hilda Hilst (writer)
- José Pancetti (painter)
- Sandy Leah (singer)
Twin towns – Sister cities
Campinas and the following cities have agreed upon sisterhood Protocol of Intentions:
||This article has an unclear citation style. (May 2011)|
- "Censo 2010: população do Brasil é de 190.732.694 pessoas". Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- IBGE :: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística
- Campinas Guide (English)
- Campinas Guide (English)
- Campinas Guide (English)
- Campinas facts (English)
- ibidem http://campinasss.blogspot.com.br/2013/07/etymology.html
- "Campinas faz 233 anos hoje" (in Portuguese). Correio Popular. 2007-07-14. Retrieved 2009-01-06.
- http://www.internations.org/campinas-expats/italians Italians in Campinas
- http://www.gounin.net/ACGUS/acgbious.htm Carlos Gomes Biography
- http://www.ayrtonmarcondes.com.br/blog/?page_id=307 Campos Salles
- http://latin.discovery.com/features/000914langsdorff/langsdorffhome.html Hercules Florence
- Vegetation - Campinas (English)
- Vegetation - Campinas (English)
- Vegetation - Campinas (English)
- Economy of Campinas (Portuguese)
- Campinas - Economy (Portuguese)
- About Campinas (English)
- Economy of Campinas (English)
- IT industries in Campinas
- "CONTRATO DE TRANSPORTE AÉREO DE PASSAGEIROS "TRIP"." TRIP Linhas Aéreas. Retrieved on July 5, 2010. "TRIP LINHAS AÉREAS, sociedade com sede na Av. Brasil, n.1394, Jardim Giuanabara, no Município de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo..."
- Automotive industry in Campinas
- Pharmaceutical industry sector in Campinas
- Business incubators and industrial parks in Campinas
- Petroleum in Campinas
- Ethanol in Campinas
- Biotechnology in Campinas
- Highways in Campinas
- Viracopos (English)
- Campinas is the first city with digital TV away from the capital (pt)
- Another Digital TV channel in Campinas (pt)
- "Malito torna-se cidade-irmã de Campinas". www.campinas.sp.gov.br.
- "Campinas assina acordo de cidade-irmã com Cascais em Portugal". Retrieved July 9, 2012.
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- Official home page (in Portuguese).