National Football League television blackout policies

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The National Football League television blackout policies are among the strictest television blackout policies among the four major professional sports league in North America. Since 1973, the NFL has maintained a blackout policy that states that a home game cannot be televised locally if it is not sold out 72 hours prior to its start time. This makes the NFL the only major professional sports league that requires teams to sell out in order to broadcast a game on television locally. Although nationally-televised games in the other leagues are often blacked out on the national networks they are airing on in their local markets, they can still be seen on their local regional sports network that normally has their local broadcasting rights.

Getting around restrictions[edit]

Prior to 1973, all games were blacked out in the home city of origin regardless of whether they were sold out. This policy, dating back to the NFL's emerging television years, resulted in home-city blackouts even during championship games. For instance, the 1958 "Greatest Game Ever Played" between the Baltimore Colts and New York Giants was unavailable to New York fans despite the sellout at Yankee Stadium. (Many fans rented hotel rooms in Connecticut or Pennsylvania to watch the game on TV, a practice that continued for Giants games through 1972.) Similarly, all Super Bowl games prior to Super Bowl VII in January 1973 were unavailable in the host city's market.

The policy was in effect when, in 1972, the Washington Redskins made the playoffs for only the second time in 27 seasons. Because all home games were blacked-out, politicians – including devout football fan President Richard Nixon — were not able to watch their home team win. NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle refused to lift the blackout, despite a plea from United States Attorney General Richard Kleindienst. Kleindienst went on to suggest that the United States Congress re-evaluate the NFL's antitrust exemption.

Rozelle agreed to lift the blackout for Super Bowl VII on an "experimental basis." Nonetheless, Congress intervened before the 1973 season anyway, passing Public Law 93-107, which eliminated the blackout of games in the home market so long as the game was sold out by 72 hours before game time.[1] The league will sometimes change this deadline to 48 hours if there are only a few thousand tickets left unsold; much more rarely, they will occasionally extend this to 24 hours in special cases.[2]

Tickets in premium club sections and luxury suites have been excluded from the blackout rule (indeed modern NFL stadiums have reduced general seating in favor of club seating and luxury suites, as this makes it easier to sell out the stadium and avoid blackouts, and this revenue does not have to be shared with other franchises), as have unused tickets allocated to the visiting team. Alternatively, some NFL teams have arrangements with local television stations or businesses to purchase unsold tickets. Teams themselves are allowed to purchase remaining non-premium tickets at 34 cents on the dollar (the portion subject to revenue sharing) to prevent a blackout.[3][4]

The NFL requires that closing off sections be done uniformly for every home game, including playoff games, in a given season. This prevents teams from trying to sell out the entire stadium only when they expect to be able to do so. For instance the Jacksonville Jaguars closed off a number of sections at their home EverBank Field to reduce the number of tickets they would need to sell. EverBank Field is one of the largest in the NFL, as it was built to also accommodate the annual Florida-Georgia game and Gator Bowl and was expanded for Super Bowl XXXIX even though it draws from one of the smallest markets in the league.

The NFL authorized a new rule loosening the league's blackout restrictions during the 2012 offseason. For the first time in NFL history, the new rule will no longer require a stadium to be sold out to televise a game; instead, teams will be allowed to set a benchmark anywhere from 85 to 100 percent of the stadium's non-premium seats. Any seats sold beyond that benchmark will be subject to heavier revenue sharing.[5] While most teams participate in the new blackout rules, four teams, the Buffalo Bills, the Cleveland Browns, the Indianapolis Colts, and the San Diego Chargers, retain the previous blackout rule, as the new rule would require the teams to pay a higher percentage of gate fees to the NFL's revenue fund.[6]

End of FCC enforcement[edit]

Until September 2014, the NFL blackout rules were sanctioned by the Federal Communications Commission, who enforced rules requiring cable and satellite providers to not distribute any sports telecast that had been blacked out by their market's broadcast television stations. On September 9, 2014, USA Today published an editorial from FCC chairman Tom Wheeler, who stated that "sports blackout rules are obsolete and have to go", and that he was submitting a proposal to "get rid of the FCC's blackout rules once and for all", to be voted on by the agency's members on September 30 of that year.[7] On September 30, 2014, the Commission voted unanimously to repeal the FCC's blackout rules. However, the removal of these rules are, to an extent, purely symbolic; the NFL can still enforce its blackout policies on a contractual basis with television networks, stations, and service providers—a process made feasible by the large amount of leverage the league places on its media partners.[8][9]

Blackout radius[edit]

The NFL defines a team's market area as "local" if it is within a 75-mile (121 km) radius of the team's home stadium. Therefore, a blackout affects any market where the terrestrial broadcast signal of an affiliate station, under normal conditions, penetrates into the 75-mile radius. These affiliates are determined before the season, and do not change as the season progresses. Some remote primary media markets, such as Denver and Phoenix, may cover that entire radius, so that the blackout would not affect any other affiliates. However, in some instances a very tiny portion of a distant city's market area can be within the 75-mile radius of a different city, thus leading to blackouts well beyond the targeted area. The most notable example is the Syracuse market's blackout of Buffalo Bills games because a small section of the town of Italy in Yates County containing a handful of people lies within the 75-mile radius of Ralph Wilson Stadium while the entirety of the remainder of the Syracuse market lies outside of it. Yates County was previously part of the Syracuse DMA, but it was later switched to the Rochester DMA because of exurb expansion with more and more immediate Rochester area employees living in Yates County and traveling to Rochester for events. Despite this, the league still enforces Bills blackouts for Syracuse.

The NFL does allow in some cases for secondary markets to go beyond the 75 mile radius in part to help draw fans to attend the game. Some of these exceptions are in Charlotte where many of its secondary markets lie outside the 75 mile radius (Raleigh). Others include San Diego, primarily due to Los Angeles (116 miles (187 km) from San Diego) not having an NFL team since 1994, as southern parts of the Los Angeles market are within San Diego's 75-mile radius.

An exception to the 75-mile rule is the Green Bay Packers' market area. It stretches out to both the Green Bay and Milwaukee television markets. (The team's radio flagship station is in Milwaukee and selected Packer home games were played in Milwaukee until 1994.) Unofficially, and to a smaller extent, it also reaches the EscanabaMarquette, Michigan market due to the presence of translator and satellite stations as well as extended cable coverage of Green Bay stations north into the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. However, blackouts at the Packers have never occurred; the Packers' home stadium, Lambeau Field, boasts a five-decade-long streak of sellouts. The Denver Broncos, Pittsburgh Steelers, and Washington Redskins also have sellout streaks that predate the current blackout rules, and so have not had any of their home games blacked out since 1972 (each of these teams also have long waiting lists for season tickets).

Similarly, no Super Bowl has ever been unavailable in the market of origin since the new blackout rules came into effect. Every Super Bowl except the first was a sellout, and, with the game's high-profile status, a television blackout is highly unlikely.

No opposing games[edit]

Another policy to encourage sellouts is that no other NFL game can air opposite the local club's broadcast on the primary market's affiliate due to NFL rules or due to a blackout.

  • If a local club's broadcast is at home in the early game of a doubleheader, the other network (which shows the single game) may only show a game during the late time slot
  • If a local club's broadcast is at home in the late game of a doubleheader, the other network (which shows the single game) may only show a game during the early time slot
  • If a local club is playing at home, and the broadcast is shown by the single game network, the other network (which shows the doubleheader) may only air one game in that market; either early or late (the slot which the local club is not playing)
  • If a local club is playing away, and the broadcast is shown by the single game network, the other network (which shows the doubleheader) may air both of their games
  • If a local club is playing on the road on the doubleheader network, the other network can air its single game in the same timeslot opposite the local club's game. However, affiliates in the local club's primary market almost always opt against it because such an action usually ensures low ratings. The "no opposing game" policy is a key reason why single game fixtures on the east coast are occasionally scheduled for the late time slot

Special exemptions are in effect when other events (US Open Tennis Championships Final or Major League Baseball playoffs) aired on one of the two Sunday networks, which typically was a 4:30 PM start time. The network airing the event is given the single game at 1:00 PM that week, and can broadcast games opposite the team that has a home game on their network at the same time during the affected weeks. This was most notably used by CBS for tennis and all three networks that have aired Sunday games have used the exemption for baseball.

Each TV market, including one hosting a game that is not sold out, is assured of at least one televised game in the early and late time slots, one game on each network, but no network doubleheader in the home market of a game that is not sold out.

  • If a blackout is in the early game of a doubleheader, the network may not air a game in the late game slot
  • If a blackout is in the late game of a doubleheader, the network may not air a game in the early game slot
  • If a blackout is in the early game slot and shown by the single game network, the network must show another game in the early or late game slot
  • If a blackout is in the late game slot, shown by the single game network and is the only game in the late game slot, the network must show a game during the early game slot

The New York and San Francisco Bay Area media markets typically get fewer doubleheaders than other markets as each has two teams, and one of them is at home virtually every week. The main exception is when one of the teams is idle, has its home game televised on the doubleheader network, or is chosen for a prime time game, as well as when the teams play each other on the doubleheader network. This policy affects only the club's primary market, not others with signals that penetrate inside the 75-mile radius. It also does not affect viewers of NFL Sunday Ticket in the primary market; all other games remain available.


On Week 17 in 2014, the NFL waived all local opposition blackouts giving all markets 4 afternoon games (2 on CBS, 2 on FOX).[10]

Blackout procedure[edit]

If a home game is unavailable locally because it is not sold out before the 72-hour deadline, one of the following things will happen:

  • If the blacked out home game is a nationally televised game on a broadcast network, such as NBC Sunday Night Football, where no other NFL games are played at the same time, all local stations inside the 75-mile radius must broadcast alternative programming (the stations have to program the time themselves, since other affiliates are showing the game). This scenario is unlikely to happen given, since the 2006 NFL rule changes regarding reassigning game start times for Sunday games, known as "flexible scheduling." As a result of the rule change, Sunday Night games are scheduled to have highly anticipated contests featuring teams in good form. Thus the chances of a home crowd not selling out during the first quarter of the season, when there is still hope for a team to rebound after a poor start, are remote, and the only possible situations where this is likely to happen are Thanksgiving or Christmas (all three networks' Thanksgiving Day games are assigned in advance, and in years when Christmas Eve is on a weekend (if on a Saturday, most NFL Sunday games, except the one Christmas Day game on Sunday night, are assigned to Saturday, and if on a Sunday, NBC's game is assigned to 5 PM ET on Christmas Day Monday, so that game is assigned in advance).

The 2006 NFL rule change allows NBC and the NFL to reassign game start times for Sunday games only, beginning in Week 11, although the NFL changed it to Week 5 in 2014 (with the rule that only two of the six possible Sunday Night games could have reassigned start times). Therefore, if a late season match features a game with no playoff implications (both teams eliminated, or a game with no seeding implications), often with the home team already eliminated, and thus would be unlikely to sell out, it will be moved to Sunday afternoon in favor of a better game (a prime example being in 2010 when the Chargers-Bengals game was moved to the afternoon in favor of the Vikings-Eagles game, which ended up being played on Tuesday due to severe weather in the Philadelphia area; the Bengals game ended up being blacked out, and thus WKRC-TV and two other nearby CBS affiliates could not carry the game).

  • If the blacked-out nationally televised game is on a cable television network such as ESPN or the NFL Network, all cable and satellite television providers in the affected markets, including the primary markets of both teams, must black out the cable network's signal to customers in affected markets during the game (this is a condition of the channels' agreements with both the league and the providers). In addition, the game is not simulcast on a local broadcast station in the blacked-out markets. Local stations would still be able to show highlights on their newscasts after the game has concluded. In areas where the game is blacked out, ESPN and the NFL Network would generally offer alternate programming (ESPN traditionally switches to a simulcast of ESPNews). As ESPN and NFL Network games featuring the local teams are syndicated in the local markets under the NFL's anti-siphoning policies, the station with the syndicated package but cannot show the games originally scheduled to carry the game would either show their own alternate programming or, if a network affiliate, show the normal network schedule for that night. During the pre-season, blacked out games can be aired in full, but only on tape delay (generally after late newscasts).
  • If the blacked-out home game is played on a Sunday afternoon, all local stations inside the 75-mile radius must show a different NFL game during that time slot—the network typically chooses the game (typically a No. 1 game for that slot). Also, NFL Sunday Ticket cannot telecast the game into that area. As stated earlier, the doubleheader network can broadcast only one game into that team's primary market (usually the No. 1 game), which is designed to prevent people from opting to watch the other televised NFL games instead of attending their local team's game. Again, the secondary markets would still carry a doubleheader. Sometimes, the network affiliates will switch time slots so that the doubleheader network can still show its featured 4:25 p.m. game.
  • The NFL Mobile app for mobile devices periodically checks the user's location in order to enforce blackouts, and will not show a blacked-out game if the device is being used in the game's home market. Transmissions are also blacked out if the mobile device is currently within or near the home stadium.

Critics claim that these blackout policies are largely ineffective in creating sold out, filled stadiums. They contend that there are other factors that prevent sellouts, such as high ticket prices and low enthusiasm for a losing team. Furthermore, blackouts hurt the league; without the television exposure, it becomes more difficult for those teams with low attendance and few sellouts to increase their popularity and following as the exposure decreases.[11]

Conversely, the NFL has sold out well over 90 percent of games in recent seasons. Additionally, many teams sell out their entire regular season schedule before it begins (usually through season-ticket sales), and so there is no threat of a blackout in those markets.

In 2005, for the first time in its history, the NFL lifted the blackout policies for a team: the New Orleans Saints. Due to damage by Hurricane Katrina, the Saints split their home games between Giants Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, Tiger Stadium at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, and the Alamodome in San Antonio. Baton Rouge is a secondary Saints market and is subject to blackouts when games at the Superdome carried by over-the-air networks do not sell out, since CBS affiliate WAFB and Fox affiliate WGMB penetrate within 75 miles of the Superdome, even though the city limits of Baton Rouge are more than 75 miles from the Superdome (the Baton Rouge DMA is not blacked out when Saints games televised by ESPN or the NFL Network do not sell out).

San Antonio is an unofficial secondary market for the Dallas Cowboys (in that the Cowboys games are routinely televised in that area, but the area is not within the 75 mile blackout radius), and two of three 2005 Saints games played at the Alamodome were not broadcast anywhere in Texas, as the start times for the Cowboys and Saints games conflicted on those dates. The only game of the San Antonio dates not to sell out, in week 4 against Buffalo, was televised locally by CBS (on KENS-TV) as the Cowboys had a late game that day at Oakland. (San Antonio Fox affiliate KABB, therefore, never broadcast a Saints home game in San Antonio, as the Cowboys and Saints are in the NFC, and the Cowboys have a larger following in Texas.)[12]

The blackout policies extend even to the Pro Bowl; if that game is not sold out, it is unavailable in the home media market. From 1980 through 2009, and also from 2011 to 2014, the game was played in Halawa, making the applicable market the entire state of Hawaii.[2] The 2010 game was played in the Miami area.

Due to decreasing ticket sales, the league significantly softened its blackout policy in 2009. Though the traditional rules still apply, the league is using some of its new media features to provide access to untelecasted games. For instance, the league will not subject its "RedZone" channel to any blackouts. In addition, complete live games will be made available for free online on the Monday (except Monday Night Football), Tuesday, and Wednesday following the game if the game is blacked out, using the league's Game Rewind package.[13]

Teams and year of last blackout/non-sell out[edit]

  • Giants (1975)
  • Jets (1977)
  • 49ers (1981)
  • Packers (1983)
  • Bears (1984)
  • Cowboys (1990)
  • Patriots (1993)
  • Browns (1995)
  • Ravens (1997)[14]
  • Titans (1997)
  • Vikings (1997)
  • Dolphins (1998)
  • Eagles (1999)
  • Colts (2002)
  • Panthers (2002)
  • Seahawks (2002)
  • Saints (2004)
  • Cardinals (2005)
  • Falcons (2007)
  • Chiefs (2009)
  • Jaguars (2009)
  • Rams (2009)
  • Lions (2010)
  • Bengals (2012)
  • Buccaneers (2012)
  • Raiders (2012)
  • Chargers (2013)
  • Bills (2013)

As of the 2013 season, the Washington Redskins (last game not sold out was in 1965), Denver Broncos (joined the NFL in 1970 per AFL-NFL merger agreement; last game not sold out was in 1969), Pittsburgh Steelers (last game not sold out was in 1972), and Houston Texans (founded in 2002) have never had a blacked out game under the post-1973 rules. However, there have been blackouts in the post-1973 era in the Houston market (1995) and Baltimore market with previous franchises.

Secondary markets[edit]

The league also designates "secondary markets," usually adjoining primary markets (generally areas within 75 miles of a stadium but not having their own team) that are also required to show the local team. Generally, these secondary markets must show the away games but are not obligated to telecast the designated team's sold out home games.

Their decision on whether to show home games typically depends on whether the NFL-designated local team is perceived to be the most popular in the market. For example, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania is a secondary market to the Baltimore Ravens. Therefore the CBS station in Harrisburg, WHP-TV, must show all Ravens away games.

However, since there are many Pittsburgh Steelers fans in the region, when the Ravens are home at the same time the Steelers are playing, that station shows the latter. Harrisburg is thus considered a battleground territory for the Steelers–Ravens rivalry.

The same applies for the Orlando, Florida metropolitan area, as its local CBS affiliate WKMG broadcasts both Miami Dolphins and Jacksonville Jaguars games. In some cases, the NFL has the two teams play at different times to accommodate the entire state of Florida (but only when CBS has the doubleheader, or if one of the teams is on Fox). WKMG lobbied to carry a Dolphins game against the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in 2005, but the NFL refused – as Orlando is officially a Jaguars secondary market, the station had to carry the Jaguars game at Pittsburgh. This issue again came up in 2013, in Week 2 when the late game CBS window featured two games: Broncos at Giants (which was a much-hyped matchup between brothers Peyton and Eli Manning) and Jaguars at Raiders (a matchup of two teams that weren't expected to contend for the playoffs); again, since Orlando is a secondary market of the Jaguars, WKMG was required to carry the latter game; the station notoriously apologized for having to show the Jaguars game.

Two-team secondary markets[edit]

There are rare instances where a market will have two teams claiming their territory.

For instance, Youngstown, Ohio lies roughly halfway between Cleveland and Pittsburgh, is within the 75-mile radius for both cities and is considered a battleground territory in the Browns–Steelers rivalry. Therefore, local CBS affiliate WKBN-TV must show whichever team is playing an away game. If one game is on CBS while the other is on Fox, both games will air. (WKBN also owns low-powered Fox affiliate WYFX-LD and simulcasts WYFX on its second digital subchannel in HDTV along with the main WKBN channel.)

If both the Cleveland Browns and the Pittsburgh Steelers are scheduled to play at the same time on CBS or Fox and the location of the game does not matter, WKBN/WYFX will usually air the Browns game. However, on December 2, 2012, when the Browns played at the Raiders and the Steelers played at the Ravens in the late window of a CBS doubleheader, WKBN aired the Steelers game as the former was between two teams that were out of playoff contention, while the latter was between two teams that were in playoff contention (as well as the AFC North title), and was also the main game of the late CBS window. The fan base is evenly split between those two teams, with the San Francisco 49ers also having a small following due to team owners John and Denise DeBartolo York being based out of the Youngstown suburb of Canfield, Ohio.

Similar issues concerning the same market teams happens on the Wheeling, West Virginia CBS affiliate WTRF, who runs CBS on its main subchannel, with a Fox affiliate on its first subchannel (Fox Ohio Valley). At times, WTRF will run a Fox broadcast game on the subchannel opposite a Browns or Steelers home game that aired on the CBS channel regardless, and vice versa.

"Unofficial" and "temporary" secondary markets[edit]

Many markets serve as "unofficial" secondary markets for the league's various teams due to rooting interest in those markets. As they are not designated by the NFL as official secondary markets, they technically are not required to air any games, but will do so to please the fanbases. For example, in Texas, virtually all CBS and Fox stations carry the Houston Texans and Dallas Cowboys, respectively when those teams are on different networks. However until 2010, KTVT in Dallas rarely aired Texans games unless it had no other option. But for the 2011 season, it carried most Texans games, except for a handful of conflicts. KRIV in Houston always airs Cowboys games if it is not prohibited from doing so by NFL rules.

As another example, Seattle Seahawks games are usually aired across the entire Pacific Northwest as they are the only team in the area.

The New England Patriots, especially since Tom Brady became quarterback, also have almost all of New England as unofficial secondary markets (Providence is an official secondary market). Not only do all or almost all CBS or Fox (depending on the game carrier) affiliate in New England carry Patriots games, but also their preseason network covers the entire region. Hartford is close to New York, and sometimes has aired a New York Jets game instead. However, this rarely occurs.

The New York Giants have most of the markets in upstate New York (with the exception of Western New York, which belongs to the Buffalo Bills) as unofficial secondary markets. Albany is considered an official secondary market of the Giants. Also, the Burlington, Vermont Fox affiliate WFFF-TV (whose coverage area includes Plattsburgh in the eastern corner of New York) has become an unofficial market for the Giants, preventing the Patriots from having full control over all New England markets (the Patriots, as an AFC team, still get copious coverage on the local CBS affiliate, WCAX-TV). An example of this occurred on September 27, 2009, when the Giants hosted the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and the Patriots hosted the Atlanta Falcons, both at 1:00 ET. WFFF-TV, which covers most of the state of Vermont and also extreme northern New York, broadcast the Giants game, as it is used to airing the team's games as a Fox affiliate. More recently, however, WFFF-TV has aired Patriots games over the Giants games when the former is featured on the network. Boston's WFXT generally (but not always) carries Fox's New York Giants Sunday-afternoon games other than those that cannot be carried on the station because the New England Patriots are playing a home game at the same time. Providence's WNAC carries Fox's Giants' games unless Fox is broadcasting a Patriots' home game at the same time the Giants are playing.

Since 1995, the San Francisco 49ers have had most of California from the Oregon-California border south to Los Angeles as an unofficial secondary market, although the Los Angeles area is a secondary market for the San Diego Chargers. (Sacramento is an official secondary market to both the 49ers and the Raiders.)

An oddity of "temporary" secondary markets has occurred in Wisconsin due to a rooting interest in one particular player. After the 2007 season, quarterback Brett Favre departed the Green Bay Packers for the New York Jets. Thus, CBS affiliates WFRV in Green Bay (a former CBS O&O) and WDJT-TV in Milwaukee were able to ask for as many Jets games as CBS and the NFL could offer to their viewers.[15] In 2009, when Favre moved to an NFC North division rival, the Minnesota Vikings, Fox affiliates WLUK-TV Green Bay and WITI Milwaukee requested as many Vikings games on their stations as possible. This also occurred in 2011 in Seattle where the market was able to broadcast Tennessee Titans games because former Seahawks QB Matt Hasselbeck started for the Titans and locally born and raised and former University of Washington QB Jake Locker was drafted in the first round of the 2011 NFL draft by the Titans. Given these two fan favorites the local CBS affiliate (KIRO-TV) requested to air as many of these games as possible.[16]

Other information[edit]

In all other markets, the networks are the sole arbiters of the telecast matches. However, they usually make their decisions after consulting with all of their local affiliates. On rarer occasions, some affiliates are offered a choice of a few games for a given time-slot, if there is no game that stands out as appropriate. In those cases, some stations have allowed the viewers to vote online for their preferred game.

For example, during Week 3 of the 2010 season, viewers of Fox affiliate KMSS in Shreveport, Louisiana took part in an online vote where fans could choose between the Dallas Cowboys-Houston Texans game and the Atlanta Falcons-New Orleans Saints game. The station is situated in the Ark-La-Tex region, where both the Saints and Cowboys have significant fan bases, due to the Shreveport market being situated on the northern border between Louisiana and Texas, including Texarkana, and the southwest corner of Arkansas. The poll concluded with viewers choosing the Falcons v. Saints game, even though Shreveport is closer to Dallas than New Orleans.[17]

Networks, however, have the ability to override a station's request; WIVB-TV, for instance, requested a New England Patriots-Denver Broncos game in December 2011, due to the fact that the hometown Buffalo Bills faced both teams in the upcoming weeks and because of the high-profile showdown between Tim Tebow and Tom Brady; they instead received a New York Jets-Philadelphia Eagles game.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Justin Kubatko / Original design by Justin Kubatko - http://www.basketball-reference.com. "blog: Rubin, Rozelle, the Redskins, and Super Bowl Blackouts". Pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved April 18, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Local TV blackout still possible for Pro Bowl. NFL.com. February 6, 2009.
  3. ^ "Blackout lifted for Broncos-Chargers | ProFootballTalk". NBC Sports. Retrieved April 18, 2012. 
  4. ^ By Gene Warner. "If game faces TV blackout, Bills won't bail it out – News". The Buffalo News. Retrieved April 18, 2012. 
  5. ^ Report: NFL team owners get more flexibility on blackouts. The Buffalo News. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  6. ^ The Buffalo News: "Bills aren't alone on blackout policy", August 14, 2012.
  7. ^ Wheeler, Tom (September 9, 2014). "FCC chairman: Sack the NFL's blackout rule". USA Today. 
  8. ^ "The FCC's Elimination Of The Sports Blackout Rule Is Not A Touchdown For NFL Fans". Forbes. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  9. ^ "FCC Votes Unanimously to Scrap Sports Blackout Rule". Wall Street Journal. 30 September 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 
  10. ^ NFL Communications: WEEK 17 FLEX SCHEDULING. NFL.com December 23, 2014.
  11. ^ Nader, Ralph (August 17, 1998). "Ralph Nader's op-ed opposing the NFL's blackout rule". LeagueOfFans.org (republished) (Democrat and Chronicle). pp. 5A. Retrieved July 11, 2007. 
  12. ^ "No blackout for Saints games in Baton Rouge" (Press release). NFL. October 26, 2005. Retrieved July 11, 2007. 
  13. ^ NFL.com to show blacked-out games free in local markets on delayed basis. NFL.com press release.
  14. ^ http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1997-09-08/sports/1997251111_1_ravens-baltimore-fans-bengals
  15. ^ JS Online: Favre lands Jets on CBS[dead link]
  16. ^ [1][dead link]
  17. ^ http://www.kmsstv.com/saints-cowboys-poll
  18. ^ Pergament, Alan (December 19, 2011). NBC game show is a dumb campy joke. Retrieved December 21, 2011.