The Passion Play is a dramatic presentation depicting the Passion of Jesus Christ: his trial, suffering and death. It is a traditional part of Lent in several Christian denominations, particularly in Catholic tradition.
- 1 Origin and history of the Passion Play
- 2 The Tyrolese Passion Play
- 3 Rediscovery of the Passion Play
- 4 Modern performances of the Passion Play
- 5 Thailand
- 6 United Kingdom
- 7 United States
- 8 Antisemitism in Passion plays
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Origin and history of the Passion Play
The Easter play precedent
The development of the Passion Play was about the same as that of the Easter Play. It originated in the ritual of the Church, which prescribes, among other things, that the Gospel on Good Friday should be sung in parts divided among various persons. Later on, the Passion Play made its appearance, first in Latin, then in vernacular languages; contents and forms were adapted more and more to audience expectations, until, in the fifteenth century, the popular religious plays had developed. Thus, the Benedictbeurn Passion Play (thirteenth century) is still largely composed of Latin ritual sentences in prose and of church hymns, and, being designed to be sung, resembles an oratorio.
The addition of more music and more characters
Yet even this oldest of the Passion Plays already shows a tendency to break away from the ritual and to adopt a more dramatic form. This evolution is shown by the interpolation of free translations of church hymns and of German verses not pertaining to such hymns, as well as by the appearance of Mary (the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus) and Mary Magdalene in the action. From these humble beginnings the Passion Play developed very rapidly, since in the fourteenth century it was at a stage of development which could not have been reached except by repeated practice. From this second period we have the Vienna Passion, the St. Gall Passion, the oldest Frankfort Passion, and the Maestricht Passion. All four Plays, as they are commonly called, are written in rhyme, principally in German.
The Passion Play continues to expand
The Vienna Passion embraces the entire history of the Redemption, and begins with the revolt and fall of Lucifer; the play, as transmitted to us, ends with Jesus and his Twelve Apostles sitting at the Last Supper.
The oldest Frankfort Passion play, that of Canon Baldemar von Peterwell (1350–1381), the production of which required two days, was more profusely elaborated than the other Passion Plays of this period. Of this play only the Ordo sive Registrum has come down to us, a long roll of parchment for the use of the director, containing stage directions and the first words of the dialogues. The plays based on this list of directions lead us to the period in which the Passion Play reached its highest development (1400–1515). During this period the later Frankfort Passion Play (1467), the Alsfelder, and the Friedberger (1514) originated. Connected with this group are the Eger, the Donaueschingen, Augsburg, Freising and Lucerne Passion Plays, in which the whole world drama, beginning with the creation of man and brought down to the coming of the Holy Ghost, is exhibited, and which was produced with great splendour as late as 1583.
The Tyrolese Passion Play
Expansion and consolidation of previous plays
Nearly all these Passion Plays have some relation to those coming from the Tyrol, some contributing to, others taking from, that source. These, again, are founded upon the Tyrolese Passion play which originated during the transition period of the fourteenth to the fifteenth century. Historian J. E. Wackernell, with the aid of the plays that have reached us, has reconstructed this period. In Tyrol the Passion Plays received elaborate cultivation; at Bolzano they were presented with great splendour and lasted seven days. Here, too, the innovation of placing the female roles in the hands of women was introduced, which innovation did not become general until during the seventeenth century.
Elaborate, public productions
The magnificent productions of the Passion Plays during the fifteenth century are closely connected with the growth and increasing self-confidence of the cities, which found its expression in noble buildings, ecclesiastical and municipal, and in gorgeous public festivals. The artistic sense and the love of art of the citizens had, in co-operation with the clergy, called these plays into being, and the wealth of the citizens provided for magnificent productions of them on the public squares, whither they migrated after expulsion from the churches. The citizens and civil authorities considered it a point of honour to render the production as rich and diversified as possible. Ordinarily the preparations for the play were in the hands of a spiritual brotherhood, the play itself being considered a form of worship. People of the most varied classes took part in the production, and frequently the number of actors was as high as two hundred and even greater. If was undoubtedly no small task to drill the performers, particularly since the stage arrangements were still very primitive.
Staging and set design
The stage was a wooden structure, almost as broad as it was long, elevated but slightly above the ground and open on all sides. A house formed the background; a balcony attached to the house represented Heaven. Under the balcony three crosses were erected. Sometimes the stage was divided into three sections by doors. Along the sides of the stage, taken lengthwise, stood the houses required for the production; they were indicated by fenced-in spaces, or by four posts upon which a roof rested. The entrance into Hell was pictured by the mouth of a monster, through which the Devil and the souls captured or released during the plays passed back and forth. The actors entered in solemn procession, led by musicians or by a præcursor (herald), and took their stand at the places appointed them. They remained on the stage all through the performance; they sat on the barriers of their respective divisions, and were permitted to leave their places only to recite their lines. As each actor finished speaking, he returned to his place. The audience stood around the stage or looked on from the windows of neighbouring houses. Occasionally platforms, called "bridges", were erected around the stage in the form of an amphitheatre.
Simplicity of scenery, dialog, action, and costumes
The scenery was the background of old time middle east. There were no side scenes, and consequently no stage perspective. Since an illusion of reality could not be had, indications were made to suffice. Thus a cask standing on end represents the mountain on which Christ is tempted by the Devil; thunder is imitated by the report of a gun; in order to signify that the Devil had entered into him, Judas holds a bird of black plumage before his mouth and makes it flutter. The suicide of Judas is an execution, in which Beelzebub performs the hangman's duty. He precedes the culprit up the ladder and draws Judas after him by a rope. Judas has a black bird and the intestines of an animal concealed in the front of his clothing, and when Satan tears open the garment the bird flies away, and the intestines fall out, whereupon Judas and his executioner slide down into Hell on a rope. A painted picture representing the soul, is hung from the mouth of each of the two thieves on the cross; an angel takes the soul of the penitent, the devil that of the impenitent thief. Everything is presented in the concrete, just as the imagination of the audience pictures it, and the scenic conditions, resembling those of the antique theatre demand. All costume, however, is contemporary, historical accuracy being ignored.
Secularization of the Passion Play
The Passion Plays of the 15th century, with their peculiar blending of religious, artistic, and increasingly secular elements, gave a true picture of German city life of those times. Serious thought and lively humour were highly developed in these plays. When, however, the patricians, in the sixteenth century, withdrew more and more from the plays, the plays, left to the lower classes, began to lose their serious and (in spite of the comic traits) dignified character. The influence of the Carnival plays (Fastnachtspiele) was felt more and more. Master Grobianus with his coarse and obscene jests was even introduced into some of the Passion Plays. In time the ecclesiastical authorities forbade the production of these "secularized" plays. Thus, the Bishop of Havelberg commanded his clergy, in 1471, to suppress the Passion Plays and legend plays in their parish districts because of the disgraceful and irrelevant farces interspersed through the productions.
Secularized Passion Plays banned
With the advent of the 16th-century European religious conflict the uneasiness with liturgical drama in general increased. The Synod of Strasburg of 1549 opposed the religious plays, and the year previous, in 1548, the Parliament of Paris forbade the production of The Mysteries of the Passion of our Redeemer and other Spiritual Mysteries. One consequence was that the secularized plays were separated from the religious, and, as Carnival plays, held the public favour. The Passion Plays came to be presented more rarely, particularly as the Reformation was inimical to them.
Rediscovery of the Passion Play
The Passion Play almost disappears
School dramas now came into vogue in Catholic and Protestant schools, and frequently enough became the battle-ground of religious controversies. When, in the 17th century, the splendidly equipped Jesuit drama arose, the Passion Plays (still largely secularized) were relegated to out-of-the-way villages and to the monasteries, particularly in Bavaria and Austria. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, during the Age of Enlightenment, efforts were made in Catholic Germany, particularly in Bavaria and the Tyrol, to destroy even the remnants of the tradition of medieval plays.
A resurgence of public interest
The text of the play of Vorderthiersee (Gespiel in der Vorderen Thiersee) dates from the second half of the seventeenth century, is entirely in verse, and comprises in five acts the events recorded in the Gospel, from the Last Supper to the Entombment. A prelude (Vorgespiel), on the Good Shepherd, precedes the play. After being repeatedly remodelled, the text received its present classical form from the Austrian Benedictine, P. Weissenhofer. Productions of the play, which came from Bavaria to the Tyrol in the second half of the eighteenth century, were arranged at irregular intervals during the first half of the nineteenth century; since 1855 they have taken place at regular intervals, at Brixlegg every ten years. The Höritz Passion Play, the present text of which is from the pen of Provost Landsteiner, has been produced every five years, since 1893.
Modern performances of the Passion Play
The Oberammergau Passion Play
Oberammergau Passion Play 2010
About half the inhabitants of Oberammergau take part in the once-a-decade Passion Play in the year 2010.
This means that over 2,000 villagers will bring the story of Jesus of Nazareth to life for the audiences that flock in from around the world. The play starts with Jesus entering Jerusalem, continues with his death on the cross and finishes with the resurrection. As ever, this is an extraordinary community enterprise.
2010 sees a new production directed by Christian Stückl, director at Munich's noted Volkstheater. He is supported by the artistic team that along with him staged the 2000 Passion Play: deputy director and dramatic adviser Otto Huber, set and costume designer Stefan Hageneier and music director Marxus Zwink and conductor Michael Bocklet - all from Oberammergau. The play starts at 14.30 and including a three-hour interval ends at 22.30, performances take place between mid-May and early October 2010.
- In Australia, there are several major productions of The Passion staged annually in the lead up to Easter.
- The Iona Passion Play was founded in 1958 in Queensland and tours cities and towns around Australia. In each location the touring cast invites community members to join the production.
- A New group of enthusiastic people staged a version of the Passion Play with music and script written by Roy Pires in a completely original score. It was staged for the first time in 2007 at Riverstage in the City botanical gardens in Brisbane, Queensland and was very successful, touching the lives of many people."
- In New South Wales, at Turramurra, The Turramurra Passion is a contemporary, character-driven interpretation, using multimedia elements and an original score
- The Moogerah Passion Play is produced in Queensland, and is staged "realistically" on a large outdoor stage beside a lake.
The Passion of the Christ is performed every year during Easter in a purpose-built 100,000-square-metre (1,100,000 sq ft) theatre-city in the arid backlands of Pernambuco, in northeastern Brazil. It is considered to be the largest open-air theatre in the world. Thousands of visitors arrive every year to watch the performance; over 500 actors appear on the nine separate stages within the stone walls of the New Jerusalem city-theatre.
- The Canadian Badlands Passion Play is performed annually in Drumheller, Alberta. It is staged outdoors in a naturally occurring amphitheatre in the hills of the Drumheller valley. Performers are a mix of professionals and volunteers from across Alberta and Canada, with nearly 300 actors and musicians annually.
- In Queensway Cathedral (Toronto, Ontario) a Passion Play takes place during the Easter Season. For more than 20 years the Church on the Queensway (formally Queensway Cathedral) has presented different versions of the Passion Play in their 3200 seat venue using hundreds of volunteers, live animals, singers and dancers. The play has become a favorite and most shows experience capacity crowds. This presentation is known for its powerful portrayal of the life of Christ, dramatic resurrection, and ascension scenes. There is also a well-known Passion Play in Vaughan, Ontario organized by St. Peters Parish and performed at Holy Cross Catholic Academy.
- In Manitoba, located in the La Riviere Valley at Oak Valley's Outdoor theatre, located on the edge of the valley among the natural beauty of the Pembina Valley. The cast and crew are all volunteers from all over southern Manitoba. Rehearsals usually start in April or early May and are ready for mid-July performances.
- In Kingston, Ontario, a full-scale Passion Play production has been traditionally performed for decades at the Kingston Gospel Temple, a Pentecostal worship center. The production features local amateur and professional talent.
- In Hamilton, Ontario, Cardinal Newman Catholic Secondary School puts on a Passion Play annually for all the students who attend it.
The island nation of Malta features many Passion Plays, put on by provincial theatres, clubs and societies in various localities. Each village and town often hosts several plays and there is some competition between the troupes to put on the most moving, or beautiful display. These are often combined with processions and wirjiet ("exhibitions") that feature models and renditions of the Passion. Since 2007, a Passion Play entitled "Il-Mixja" featuring some of the most highly acclaimed actors in Malta has become one of the highlights of the genre on the island with the audience experiencing the passion of Jesus Christ as if they were present on the streets of Jeruslaem during those historical two days. The play is held outdoors and has so far been held 4 times in the streets of Rabat, once at Ħaġar Qim temples and the most recent in 2013 for charity on the grounds surrounding Mount Carmel Hospital.
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Alan Fenech as Jesus Christ (photo by Ronald Camilleri)
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Michelle Zerafa as Mary Magdalene and Moira Muscat as Mary Mother of Jesus (photo by Ronald Camilleri)
De Passiespelen is a re-enactment of the Passion of the Christ taking place every year that is divisible by 5, e.g. 2005 and 2010. It is performed in the open air in Openluchttheater De Doolhof in Tegelen. Originating in 1931 it has become an internationally acclaimed event drawing visitors from all over the world.
The Passion, is a huge event, performed since 2011 during the evening of Maundy Thursday. The open air event is performed each year at another place, in 2013 in The Hague in the close proximity of the Dutch parliament buildings. The event, being the Dutch adaptation of the Manchester Passion, is live broadcast by the Dutch television channel Nederland 3.
The predominantly Catholic Philippines has Passion Plays called Senákulo, named after the Upper room. Companies and community groups perform their various versions of the Senákulo during Semana Santa (Holy Week), using decades or even centuries-old scripts derived from the Bible and folk tradition that were later set down in poetic or prosaic form.
Many use costumes and scenery that follow traditional Hispanic iconography instead of actual historical realism, although there are more recent productions that prefer the latter style. Some towns use ropes to hold actors on crosses while other towns use actual nails. One of the more popular Passion Plays is Ang Pagtaltal sa Balaan Bukid in Jordan, Guimaras, which began in 1975 and draws some 150,000 visitors a year Some people perform crucifixions outside of Passion Plays to fulfill a panatà (vow for a request or prayer granted), such as the famous penitents in Barangay San Pedro Cutud, San Fernando, Pampanga.
Tradition of Passion Plays in Poland has become popular again in the early 20th century. Today the best known plays take place in Kałków, Kalwaria Pacławska, the Pallotines' Seminary in Ołtarzew, and the most prominent in Sanctuary of Kalwaria Zebrzydowska. This Passion Play is one of the oldest. Since 1998 there has been a yearly Passion Play in Poznan, performed on Palm Sunday in open air of Cytadela City Park. Now it is the biggest performance of this kind in Europe. In 2009 one hundred thousand pilgrims are expected to come.
In the 17th and 18th century, Passion Plays were also organised in the towns of the Slovene Lands, like Kranj, Ljubljana, and Novo Mesto. Their language was German, Slovene, or both. They were all based on the tradition of the Ljubljana Passion Play, which was organised by Capuchins and first performed from ca. 1608 until ca. 1613. The most distinguished of them has been the Škofja Loka Passion Play. It was written by Father Romuald in 1715, with modifications until 1727, on the basis of an older tradition. It is the oldest preserved play in Slovene as well as the oldest preserved director's book in Europe and the only one extant from the Baroque period. The Škofja Loka Passion Play was performed each year until 1767. The procession was revived in 1999, and reprised in 2000 and 2009, with further reprisals planned for 2015 and 2021. The play's reprisals are the largest open-air theatre production in Slovenia.
In Catalonia, it is common for villages to present different Passion Plays every Easter, like the ones in Esparreguera, Olesa de Montserrat or Cervera, first documented in 1538. Olesa's 1996 production surpassed the world record for the most people acting on stage at the same time, with 726 persons. Balmaseda, in the Spanish Basque Country, holds the leading Passion Play in the region.
The earliest Passion Plays in Sri Lanka, at Pesalai in Mannar and at Duwa and PitiPana in Negombo, used life-size statues instead of living actors. Influenced by the Oberammergau Passion Play, K. Lawrence Perera, began the practice of using living actors in the Borelassa Passion Play. Women later began to take part in the play. However, for a period of time after 1939, the Archbishop of Colombo banned performances because of his disapproval of the women's participation. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, there are many Passion Play enactments in Sri Lanka:
- Duwa Passion Play, near Negombo (1988)
- The Yagaya Passion Play at Kandawala, Katana ( 1990/92)
- Aho mage Senageni and 'Aho mage senageni at Halpe, Katana (1990s)
- Kurusiya Matha Miyadunemi, a modern Passion Play enacted in the villages of Katuwapitiya and Bolawalana in Negombo (1999, 2000, 2001)
- Thambakande Paskuwa at St. Bruno's Church in Negombo with a large number of celebrities as actors (2012)
- Tharakayano, the first ballet style Passion Play, enacted in Negombo (2012)
- The town of Leominster in Herefordshire holds a Passion Play on Good Friday every four years, performed by volunteers from churches of all denominations in the town. The play is performed outdoors, with each scene located in a different position in the streets and squares of the town centre. The 2008 performance included original music written by local composer Liam Dunachie.
- The town of Port Talbot *Passion in Port Talbot/clips at BBC Wales hosted a Passion Play directed by Michael Sheen (an actor known for roles in The Queen (film) and Frost/Nixon (film) among others) on April 22–24, 2011.
- the town of Cowbridge in the Vale of Glamorgan will present a Passion Play on Good Friday 22 April 2011. Two performances will be held at 11am and 2.30pm at Holy Cross Church. With the cast being drawn from all the local Churches in Cowbridge.
- The city of Southampton hosted a modern musical version called The Southampton Passion on Good Friday, April 22, 2011.
- The town of Poole staged The Passion Play, "Through the Eyes of a Child" (written by Sharon Muiruri), in 2009 and 2010. A third production is being performed on the 28–31 March 2012, see website for details.
- The town of Newark-Upon-Trent performed its first Passion Play on Maundy Thursday 14 April 2011 and Good Friday 15 April 2011.
- The town of South Woodham Ferrers performed its first Passion Play 2009, ref.[www.facebook.com/onelifeonepassion.co.uk]One Life One Passion is a Passion Play with a more modern feel with the characters wearing contemporary clothes as well as traditional costumes with Jesus arriving on his Harley www.facebook.com/onelifeonepassion.co.uk for details
- The city of Brighton held free open-air Passion Plays on its beach at Easter in 2011 and 2012. The 2013 Passion Play will be held in the grounds of St Peters Church, York Place, Brighton BN1 4GU on the 29–31 March 
- The Aberdeen Passion will be staged in the City of Aberdeen over the Easter weekend, 2012 in the Aberdeen Exhibition and Conference Centre. The production involves almost 100 on stage performers between the actors, band and choir.
- 'The Newark Passion' written by James Pacey was performed in Southwell Minster on March 1 and 2 2012.
Originally staged in Newark's St. Mary Magdalene Church in April '11, 'The Newark Passion' played two sell-out performances, garnering widespread public acclaim and raising over £2,500 for local charities. It was such a success that it was followed by 'The Newark Nativity.' Performed by local actors and set to a deeply affecting soundtrack, 'The Newark Passion' makes a triumphant return, set in the wonderful architecture of Nottinghamshire's cathedral church of Southwell Minster. Appealing to those with faith and those without and raising funds for charity, 'The Newark Passion' is the perfect way to mark the start of Lent.
- The Passion Trust is a charity that has been set up to resource passion/mystery/nativity plays in the UK. Please visit the website passion-plays.org for a list of productions across the country.
- In Eureka Springs, Arkansas, The Great Passion Play is regularly performed from May through October. Since its first performance in 1968, The Great Passion Play in Eureka Springs has been seen by over 7.6 million people, which makes it the largest-attended outdoor drama in America. Also on the grounds of The Great Passion Play was the Christ of the Ozarks statue (the largest Christ statue in the North America), the New Holy Land Tour, a full-scale re-creation of the Tabernacle in the Wilderness, a section of the Berlin Wall,and a Bible Museum with over 6,000 Bibles (including an original 1611 King James Bible, a leaf from the Gutenberg Bible, and the only Bible signed by all of the original founders of the Gideons. . From time to time popular artists visitThe Great Passion Play to perform in the 4,000-seat amphitheater where the play is performed.
- The Mesa Arizona Easter Pageant Jesus the Christ began in 1928 as a small sunrise Easter presentation. The pageant is now the "largest annual outdoor Easter pageant in the world." With a 450-member cast, the 65-minute pageant depicts the birth, life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ using song and dance.
- The Glory Of Easter at the Crystal Cathedral in Garden Grove, California is an extremely popular Passion Play and family tradition to Southern Californians. It boasts a cast of hundreds, live animals, and flying angels, among other unique aspects.
- Since 1998, The Thorn has been performing during the Easter season in Colorado Springs. Often described as The Passion of the Christ meets Cirque du Soleil, this epic portrayal of Jesus' life and death features indoor pyrotechnics, acrobats, aerialists, and a cast and crew of nearly 1000 people. Beginning in 2011, The Thorn started holding an annual national tour and has performed for tens of thousands people in cities that include Charleston, Austin, Denver, Nashville and Seattle.
- For 32 years and counting, The St. Thomas Church of Southington, Connecticut has performed a Passion Play.
- Florida's Passion Play is held annually in Wauchula at the Cattleman's Arena, beginning Good Friday and for the next several following weekends. It has a cast of over 200 people and 150 animals.
- Atlanta's Passion Play has been produced by the First Baptist Church of Atlanta since 1977.
- In Bloomington, Illinois, The American Passion Play has been portrayed annually since 1924 at the Bloomington Center for the Performing Arts, and is one of the oldest continuously running passion Plays in North America. This play is unique in that it dramatizes Jesus' entire ministry, rather than only the events from Passion Week onward.
- In Zion, Illinois, the Zion Passion Play has been performed at Christ Community Church since 1935.
- Central Christian Church in Mount Vernon, Illinois portrayed "The Gospel of Christ" in an Easter Drama, using members of the church and church staff, choir, and children's groups. It was directed by drummer and church member Jimmy Bass. Although the play was a huge success, it has not been restaged, and is instead copied onto DVDs available at the church.
- Inverness, Illinois - Holy Family Parish teens put on a performance on Good Friday every year.
- Andrews University in Berrien Springs, Michigan has been performing an annual indoor and outdoor walk-through Passion Play since 2003. The play's outdoor scenes include a marketplace, and a Roman encampment.
- The North Heights Passion Play was a popular indoor musical stage production sponsored by North Heights Lutheran Church of Arden Hills, Minnesota, a suburb of the Twin Cities. The Minneapolis Star-Tribune says, "With 700 participants, dozens of live animals, flames, rain and 'lightning', North Heights Lutheran Church's annual Passion Play is spectacular." More than 400,000 attended the performances over 19 years before the production was discontinued. Over 20,000 attended the final season, including more than 150 tour buses and groups. Performances began April 1989 and ended April 22, 2007.
- The New Melle Community Passion Play is presented by an all volunteer ecumenical group in a "theater in the round" indoor setting. The story of the last days in the life of Christ is told using a script and music, based loosely on the cantata "Then Came Sunday", by Rodger Strader. It has grown in size and popularity over the past 32 years.
- The First United Methodist Church in Kosciusko, Mississippi has been performing their Passion Play for approximately 25 years. It has been a mainstay in the community as well as the state. Members of the Church and community come together to share in fellowship and learn about the last days of Jesus Christ. This is an original script of the Passion, written by a former minister of the church.
- New Jersey
- The longest running Passion Play in the United States has been performed in North Hudson, New Jersey since 1915, and at the Park Performing Arts Center since 1931. In 1997, there was a minor controversy when an African-American actor was cast as Jesus.
- The Jesus Story, presented by Bible Baptist Church in Hasbrouck Heights, New Jersey, has been running for 20 years. First starting out as a small representation of the passion of Jesus, this production has developed into a full-time musical performance. Over the years, the play's format has changed focusing on the point of view of several different people including Mary the mother of Jesus, the Roman Soldiers, the Thieves on the Cross, and many others. The show is performed at Felician College in Lodi, New Jersey, and runs for approximately 7 shows per year. Every year it is general admission and there is no cost to view the play.
- In Duncan Falls, Ohio, Cornerstone Full Gospel Church has put on the drama "Worthy Is The Lamb" for over 15 years. The drama features a cast of over 150+, is free to the public, and is presented on Good Friday and Easter Sunday of each year.
- The Living Word Outdoor Drama in Cambridge, Ohio has been offered every summer since 1975.
- One of the U.S.'s longest running Passion Plays is held at the Holy City of the Wichitas located within the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge in Oklahoma. The Holy City started as an Easter Passion Play in the Wichita Mountains in 1926. The impetus behind both the pageant and city was the Reverend Anthony Mark Wallock. He was born in 1890 in Austria. In 1926, he took his Sunday school class up a mountain where a tableau of the Resurrection was presented. The popularity of this service led it to become an annual event. In 1927, the service became nonsectarian, and was referred to by the Lawton Constitution as Oklahoma's Oberammergau.
- In Downingtown, Pennsylvania, the Hopewell United Methodist Church has performed a version of the play in a 1,000 seat outdoor amphitheater each year since 1963. The original version of The Passion Play, initiated in 1963, is based in the King James Version of the Bible, but a newer version, entitled The Power and The Glory was launched in 2005, based in several modern-language translations of the Bible. The church offers both versions on successive weekends in June each year as a free offering to their audience.
- In Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Harrisburg Christian Performing Arts Center performs annual Passion Plays during the two weekends before Easter. They have been doing this since 1973, with 2013 marking their 40th annual Passion Play. The Passion Plays produced here are written by staff members, and music under public domain is added to give it a musical aspect. A new play is produced every year, apart from the 40th Passion Play The Keys, which was previously produced in the early 90's.
- South Dakota
- The Black Hills Passion Play was performed every summer for almost seventy years in Spearfish, South Dakota; this production was an American version of the Lünen Passion Play that was brought over in 1932 by immigrants who claimed that it had been produced since 1242. The production was Americanized by seventh-generation Passion Player Josef Meier, who toured it around the country before bringing it to Spearfish in the 1930s; until its last performance on August 31, 2008, the show was produced under the auspices of Meier's daughter Johanna, a world-famous opera singer who had her debut in the play at the age of five weeks. During the winter months from 1953 through 1998, the same cast also performed the play in Lake Wales, Florida.
- East Tennessee has hosted many Passion Plays among them now in production is The Passion Play in Townsend, Tennessee. Past productions include The Smokey Mountain Passion Play in Townsend, Tennessee from 1974 to 1992, The Great Passion Play at Pigeon Forge, Tennessee in 1988, and The Gatlinburg, Tennessee Musical Passion Play which closed in 1996.
- The Passion is performed annually in downtown San Antonio, Texas, with a procession leading from Milam Park to San Fernando Cathedral.
- One of the most widely viewed Passion Plays in the United States is The Promise, performed near Glen Rose, Texas. Between Glen Rose, and its sister production in Branson, Missouri, over one million people have seen The Promise.
- The Play has also been performed in Hughes Springs, Texas as The Passion Play.
- The Mormon Miracle Pageant is performed every summer in Manti, Utah by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and includes a visitation by Jesus Christ, shortly after His resurrection, to inhabitants of ancient America, as recorded in The Book of Mormon.
- The American version of the Oberammergau Passion Play was performed in Strasburg, Virginia, each summer from 1973 to 1986. This version was originally written by Val Balfour. Locals volunteered as extras, and church groups came from all over Virginia, Maryland, etc. to see the play. The same play toured all over the country in the fall and winter months.
- The Loudoun Passion Play is an outdoor re-enactment of the Easter story that has the audience walk between scenes to follow the story. It has been performed every year since 1986 on Palm Sunday weekend in parks and other outdoor locations in and around Purcellville, Virginia.
- The Passion Play is also played at St. Joseph's School in Seattle, Washington. A large group of 8th Graders perform on Palm Sunday and Good Friday. Their piece involves several songs from "Jesus Christ Superstar" including "Heaven on their minds" and "Trials and Tribulations". This story also involves some minor parts including the Women with Perfume, Mary Mother of Jesus, Peter denying knowing Jesus and The Prayer in Gethsemane. This has been tradition at St. Joseph's for over 30 years.
The Passion Play in motion pictures
- 2004's The Passion of the Christ (produced and directed by Mel Gibson) had a plot similar to that of Passion plays.
- 1989's Jésus de Montréal (directed by Denys Arcand) presented the staging of a very unorthodox Passion Play while the players' own lives mirrored the Passion.
Antisemitism in Passion plays
Many Passion Plays historically blamed the Jews for the death of Jesus in a polemical fashion, depicting a crowd of Jewish people condemning Jesus to crucifixion and a Jewish leader assuming eternal collective guilt for the crowd for the murder of Jesus, which, The Boston Globe explains, "for centuries prompted vicious attacks — or pogroms — on Europe's Jewish communities". Time magazine in its article, The Problem With Passion, explains that "such passages (are) highly subject to interpretation".
Although modern scholars interpret the "blood on our children" (Matthew 27:25) as "a specific group's oath of responsibility" some audiences have historically interpreted it as "an assumption of eternal, racial guilt". This last interpretation has often incited violence against Jews; according to the Anti-Defamation League, "Passion plays historically unleashed the torrents of hatred aimed at the Jews, who always were depicted as being in partnership with the devil and the reason for Jesus' death". The Christian Science Monitor, in its article, Capturing the Passion, explains that "historically, productions have reflected negative images of Jews and the long-time church teaching that the Jewish people were collectively responsible for Jesus' death. Violence against Jews as 'Christ-killers' often flared in their wake." Christianity Today in Why some Jews fear The Passion (of the Christ) observed that "Outbreaks of Christian antisemitism related to the Passion narrative have been...numerous and destructive."
The Religion Newswriters Association observed that
"in Easter 2001, three incidents made national headlines and renewed their fears. One was a column by Paul Weyrich, a conservative Christian leader and head of the Free Congress Foundation, who argued that "Christ was crucified by the Jews." Another was sparked by comments from the NBA point guard and born-again Christian Charlie Ward, who said in an interview that Jews were persecuting Christians and that Jews "had his [Jesus'] blood on their hands." Finally, the evangelical Christian comic strip artist Johnny Hart published a B.C. strip that showed a menorah disintegrating until it became a cross, with each panel featuring the last words of Jesus, including "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do".
On November 16, 1998, Church Council of Evangelical Lutheran Church in America similarly adopted a resolution prepared by its Consultative Panel on Lutheran-Jewish Relations urging any Lutheran church presenting a Passion Play to adhere to their Guidelines for Lutheran-Jewish Relations, stating that "the New Testament . . . must not be used as justification for hostility towards present-day Jews," and that "blame for the death of Jesus should not be attributed to Judaism or the Jewish people."
In 2003 and 2004 some people compared Mel Gibson's recent film The Passion of the Christ to these kinds of Passion Plays, but this characterization is hotly disputed; an analysis of that topic is in the article on The Passion of the Christ. Despite such fears, there have been no publicized antisemitic incidents directly attributable to the movie's influence.
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