Peerage of Ireland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Irish nobility.

The Peerage of Ireland consists of those titles of nobility created by the English monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.[1] The creation of such titles came to an end in the 19th century. The ranks of the Irish peerage are Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount and Baron. The Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland continues to exercise jurisdiction over the Peerage of Ireland, including those peers whose titles derive from places located in what is now the Republic of Ireland.[2] However Article 40.2 of the Irish Constitution forbids the state conferring titles of nobility and a citizen may not accept titles of nobility or honour except with the prior approval of the Government, titles of peerage are thus regarded in the Republic of Ireland as simply courtesy titles.[3]

History[edit]

William FitzGerald, 2nd Duke of Leinster.

A handful of titles in the peerage of Ireland date from the Middle Ages. Before 1801, Irish peers were those who had the right to sit in the Irish House of Lords, but after the Union in 1801, they elected just twenty-eight representative peers to the House of Lords at Westminster.

Both before and after the Union, Irish peerages were often used as a way of creating peerages which did not grant a seat in the English House of Lords and so allowed the grantee (such as Clive of India) to sit in the House of Commons in London. As a consequence, many Irish peers had little or no connection to Ireland, and indeed the names of some Irish peerages refer to places in Great Britain (for example, the Earldom of Mexborough refers to a place in England and the Ranfurly refers to a village in Scotland). Irish peerages continued to be created for almost a century after the Union, although the treaty of Union placed restrictions on their numbers: three needed to become extinct before a new peerage could be granted, until there were only 100 Irish peers – a condition still not achieved. There was a spate of creations of Irish peerages from 1797 onwards, mostly peerages of higher ranks for existing Irish peers, as part of the negotiation of the Act of Union; this ended in the first week of January 1801, but the restrictions of the Act were not applied to the last few peers. Irish peerages were created in the early nineteenth century at least as often as the Act permitted, but the pace then slowed. The last two to be granted were the promotion of the Marquess of Abercorn, a Scottish peerage, to be Duke of Abercorn in the Irish Peerage when he became Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland in 1868, and the granting of Barony of Curzon of Kedleston to George Curzon when he became Viceroy of India in 1898.

Peers of Ireland have precedence below peers of England, Scotland, and Great Britain of the same rank, and above peers of the United Kingdom of the same rank; but Irish peers created after 1801 yield to United Kingdom peers of earlier creation. Accordingly, the Duke of Abercorn (the junior Duke in the Peerage of Ireland) ranks between the Duke of Sutherland and the Duke of Westminster (both dukes in the Peerage of the United Kingdom).

When one of the Irish representative peers died, the Irish Peerage met to elect his replacement; but the officers required to arrange this were abolished as part of the settlement of the Irish War of Independence. The existing representative peers kept their seats in the House of Lords, but they have not been replaced. Since the death of Francis Needham, 4th Earl of Kilmorey in 1961, none remains. The right of the Irish Peerage to elect Representatives was abolished by statute in 1971.

In the following table of the Peerage of Ireland as it currently stands,[4] each peer's highest titles in each of the other Peerages (if any) are also listed. Irish peers possessed of titles in any of the other Peerages (except Scotland, which only got the right to an automatic seat in 1963, with the Peerage Act 1963) had automatic seats in the House of Lords until 1999.

Dukes[edit]

Title Creation Other titles
The Duke of Leinster 1766 Viscount Leinster in the Peerage of Great Britain
Lord Kildare in the Peerage of the United Kingdom
The Duke of Abercorn 1868 Earl of Abercorn in the Peerage of Scotland
Marquess of Abercorn in the Peerage of Great Britain

Marquesses[edit]

Title Creation Other titles
The Marquess of Waterford 1789 Lord Tyrone in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Marquess of Downshire 1789 Earl of Hillsborough in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Marquess of Donegall 1791 Lord Fisherwick in the Peerage of Great Britain
Lord Templemore in the Peerage of the UK
The Marquess of Headfort 1800 Lord Kenlis in the Peerage of the UK
The Marquess of Sligo 1800 Lord Monteagle in the Peerage of the UK
The Marquess of Ely 1801 Lord Loftus in the Peerage of the UK
The Marquess Conyngham 1816 Lord Minster in the Peerage of the UK
The Marquess of Londonderry 1816 Earl Vane in the Peerage of the UK

Earls[edit]

Title Creation Other titles; Notes
The Earl of Cork and Orrery 1620; 1660 Lord Boyle of Marston in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Earl of Westmeath 1621  
The Earl of Desmond 1628 Earl of Denbigh in the Peerage of England
The Earl of Meath 1627 Lord Chaworth in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Cavan 1647  
The Earl of Drogheda 1661 Lord Moore in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Granard 1684 Lord Granard in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Kerry and Shelburne 1722; 1753 Marquess of Lansdowne in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Earl of Darnley 1725 Lord Clifton in the Peerage of England
The Earl of Bessborough 1739 Lord Ponsonby in the Peerage of Great Britain
Lord Duncannon in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Carrick 1748 Lord Butler in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Shannon 1756 Lord Carleton in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Earl of Mornington 1760 Duke of Wellington in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Arran 1762 Lord Sudley in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Courtown 1762 Lord Saltersford in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Earl of Mexborough 1766  
The Earl Winterton 1766  
The Earl of Kingston 1768  
The Earl of Roden 1771  
The Earl of Lisburne 1776  
The Earl of Clanwilliam 1776 Lord Clanwilliam in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Antrim 1785  
The Earl of Longford 1785 Lord Silchester and Pakenham in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Portarlington 1785  
The Earl of Mayo 1785  
The Earl Annesley 1789  
The Earl of Enniskillen 1789 Lord Grinstead in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl Erne 1789 Lord Fermanagh in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Lucan 1795 Lord Bingham in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl Belmore 1797  
The Earl Castle Stewart 1800  
The Earl of Donoughmore 1800 Viscount Hutchinson in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Caledon 1800  
The Earl of Limerick 1803 Lord Foxford in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Clancarty 1803 Viscount Clancarty in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Gosford 1806 Lord Worlingham and Acheson in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Rosse 1806  
The Earl of Normanton 1806 Lord Mendip in the Peerage of Great Britain
Lord Somerton in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Kilmorey 1822  
The Earl of Listowel 1822 Lord Hare in the Peerage of the UK
The Earl of Norbury 1827  
The Earl of Ranfurly 1831 Lord Ranfurly in the Peerage of the UK

Viscounts[edit]

Title Creation Other titles
The Viscount Gormanston 1478 Lord Gormanston in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Mountgarret 1550 Lord Mountgarret in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Valentia 1622  
The Viscount Dillon 1622  
The Viscount Lumley 1628 Earl of Scarbrough in the Peerage of England
The Viscount Massereene and Ferrard 1660; 1797 Lord Oriel in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Cholmondeley 1661 Earl of Cholmondeley in the Peerage of England
Lord Newburgh in the Peerage of Great Britain
Marquess of Cholmondeley in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Charlemont 1665  
The Viscount Downe 1681 Lord Dawnay in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Molesworth 1716  
The Viscount Chetwynd 1717  
The Viscount Midleton 1717 Lord Brodrick in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Viscount Boyne 1717 Lord Brancepeth in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Grimston 1719 Lord Forrester in the Peerage of Scotland
Lord Verulam in the Peerage of Great Britain
Earl of Verulam in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Gage 1720 Lord Gage in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Viscount Galway 1727  
The Viscount Powerscourt 1743 Lord Powerscourt in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Ashbrook 1751  
The Viscount Southwell 1776  
The Viscount de Vesci 1776  
The Viscount Lifford 1781  
The Viscount Bangor 1781  
The Viscount Doneraile 1785  
The Viscount Harberton 1791  
The Viscount Thurles 1791  
The Viscount Hawarden 1793  
The Viscount Monck 1801 Lord Monck in the Peerage of the UK
The Viscount Gort 1816  

Barons[edit]

In Ireland, barony may also refer to an obsolete political subdivision of a county. There is no connection between such a barony and the noble title of baron.

Title Creation Other titles
The Lord Kingsale 1397  
The Lord Dunsany 1439  
The Lord Trimlestown 1461  
The Lord Dunboyne 1541  
The Lord Louth 1541  
The Lord Inchiquin 1543  
The Lord Digby 1620 Lord Digby in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Lord Conway and Killultagh 1712 Lord Conway in the Peerage of England
Marquess of Hertford in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Lord Carbery 1715  
The Lord Aylmer 1718  
The Lord Farnham 1756  
The Lord Lisle 1758  
The Lord Clive 1762 Lord Clive in the Peerage of Great Britain
Earl of Powis in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Westcote 1776 Viscount Cobham in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Lord Macdonald 1776  
The Lord Kensington 1776 Lord Kensington in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Newborough 1776  
The Lord Massy 1776  
The Lord Muskerry 1781  
The Lord Hood 1782 Viscount Hood in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Lord Sheffield 1783 Lord Stanley of Alderley and Eddisbury in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Kilmaine 1789  
The Lord Auckland 1789 Lord Auckland in the Peerage of Great Britain
The Lord Waterpark 1792  
The Lord Bridport 1794 Viscount Bridport in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Graves 1794  
The Lord Huntingfield 1796  
The Lord Carrington 1796 Lord Carrington in the Peerage of Great Britain
Lord Carington of Upton in the Peerage of the UK for life
The Lord Rossmore 1796 Lord Rossmore in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Hotham 1797  
The Lord Crofton 1797  
The Lord ffrench 1798  
The Lord Henley 1799 Lord Northington in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Langford 1800  
The Lord Henniker 1800 Lord Hartismere in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Dufferin and Claneboye 1800  
The Lord Ventry 1800  
The Lord Dunalley 1800  
The Lord Clanmorris 1800  
The Lord Ashtown 1800  
The Lord Rendlesham 1806  
The Lord Castlemaine 1812  
The Lord Decies 1812  
The Lord Garvagh 1818  
The Lord Talbot of Malahide 1831  
The Lord Carew 1834 Lord Carew in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Oranmore and Browne 1836 Lord Mereworth in the Peerage of the UK
The Lord Bellew 1848  
The Lord Fermoy 1865  
The Lord Rathdonnell 1868  

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ With the establishment of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the separate title "King of Ireland" ceased.
  2. ^ The College of Arms – The Roll of the Peerage
  3. ^ "40.2", Constitution of Ireland (Dublin: Stationery Office) 
  4. ^ Cracroft's Peerage – The Peerage of Ireland