|Born||Ralph David Abernathy
March 11, 1926
Linden, Alabama, USA
|Died||April 17, 1990
Atlanta, Georgia, USA
|Spouse(s)||Juanidta Jones Abernathy|
|Children||Kwame Luthuli, Ralph David III, Donzaleigh, Juandalynn|
Ralph David Abernathy, Sr. (March 11, 1926 – April 17, 1990) was a leader of the American Civil Rights Movement, a minister, and a close associate of Martin Luther King, Jr. in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Following King's assassination, Dr. Abernathy took up the leadership of the SCLC Poor People's Campaign and led the March on Washington, D.C., that had been planned for May 1968.
Ralph Abernathy was born March 11, 1926, to W. L. Abernathy on the family 500-acre (200 ha) farm in Linden, Alabama. He attended Linden Academy, a Baptist school founded by the First Mt. Pleasant District Association. He was financially supported by his father, who often said: "the bottom rail will come to the top, one day and justice will not always be denied to the colored man." His father taught him, "If you see a good fight, get in it and fight to win it!" At Linden Academy, David led his first demonstration, to protest the inferior science lab; the school improved the science lab as a result of his persistent actions.
During World War II, he enlisted in the United States Army military as Ralph David, and rose to the rank of Platoon Sergeant before earning an honorable discharge as a result of his bout of rheumatic fever in Europe.
Afterwards, he enrolled at Alabama State University. He was ordained a Baptist minister in 1948, and in 1950 he received a Bachelor's Degree in Mathematics from Alabama State University. In 1951, he earned a Master of Science degree in sociology from Atlanta University. He became student body President and Class President. He graduated with High Honors. While still a college student, he announced his call to the ministry, which he had envisioned since he was a small boy growing up in a devout Baptist family. He preached his first sermon on Mother's Day, 1948, in honor of his recently deceased mother.
He married Juanita Odessa Jones of Uniontown, Alabama, on August 31, 1952, and their union produced five children: Ralph David Abernathy Jr. (August 16, 1953 – August 18, 1953), Juandalynn Ralpheda, Donzaleigh Avis, Ralph David III, and Kwame Luthuli Abernathy.
At the beginning of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s last speech, "I've Been to the Mountaintop", King said: "Ralph David Abernathy is the best friend that I have in the world." They first met in Atlanta, while still in school, and formed a lifelong friendship and partnership that only ended with King's death on April 4, 1968.
Abernathy began his professional career in 1950, when he was appointed Personnel Director at Alabama State University; he later assumed the position of Dean of Men and Professor of Social Studies and Mathematics. During this period, he hosted a radio show and became the first black man on radio in Montgomery. In 1951, he became the Senior Pastor of the First Baptist Church, the largest black church in Montgomery, Alabama, where he served for ten years.
As an officer of the Montgomery, Alabama NAACP, he organized the first mass meeting of the Montgomery Bus Boycott to protest Rosa Parks' arrest on December 1, 1955. Abernathy and his friend Martin Luther King, Jr. organized the boycott and gave momentum to the American Civil Rights Movement. Along with fellow English professor Jo Ann Robinson, they called for and distributed flyers asking the Negro citizens of Montgomery to stay off the buses. The Montgomery Improvement Association led the successful 381 days transit boycott challenging "Jim Crow" segregation laws, and ended Alabama's bus segregation. At the end of the boycott on January 10, 1957, Abernathy's church and his home (1327 South Hall Street) were bombed, though his family was unharmed. Mt. Olive Church, Bell Street Church, and the home of Reverend Robert Graetz were also bombed on that evening when King, Abernathy, and other ministers were planning to convene to create the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in Atlanta. King and Abernathy immediately returned to Montgomery, leaving Coretta Scott King to conduct the first meeting of SCLC. Abernathy served as SCLC's first Financial Secretary/Treasurer and Vice President At-Large during the years that Dr. King was its president, and assumed the presidency at Dr. King's request upon Dr. King's death.
Abernathy objected to Septima Poinsette Clark being on the executive board of SCLC because she was a woman, as Clark recalled, saying: "I can remember Reverend Abernathy asking many times, why was Septima Clark on the Executive Board of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference? And Dr. King would always say, 'She was the one who proposed this citizenship education which is bringing to us not only money but a lot of people who will register and vote.' And he asked that many times. It was hard for him to see a woman on that executive body."
While actively involved in the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement, Abernathy completed his Master's Degree in Sociology at Atlanta University. His master's thesis, "The Natural History of A Social Movement: The Montgomery Improvement Association", was published by Carlson Publishing in David Garrow's book The Walking City – The Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955-1956.
After the success of the Freedom Riders in Montgomery, Birmingham, and Huntsville in 1961, Dr. King insisted that Abernathy assume the Pastorate of the West Hunter Street Baptist Church in Atlanta, moving his family from Montgomery, Alabama, in 1962. He served as the Senior Pastor at that church until the time of his death.
Civil Rights Movement
||This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. (June 2014)|
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2014)|
The King/Abernathy partnership spearheaded successful nonviolent movements in Montgomery, Albany, Birmingham, Mississippi, Washington, Selma, St. Augustine, Chicago, and Memphis. Their work helped to secure the passage of the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964, the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the abolition of Jim Crow Segregation Laws in the southern United States.
From 1955 until Dr. King's death on April 4, 1968, Drs. King and Abernathy journeyed together, often sharing the same hotel rooms, jail cells, and leisure times with their wives, children, family, and friends. They fought against segregation and discrimination, helped to establish new legislation, and tried to instill a new sense of pride, dignity, and self-worth in African Americans.
Abernathy suffered bombings, beatings by southern policemen and State Troopers, 44 arrests, and daily death threats against his life and those of his wife and children. His family land and automobile were confiscated (his family had to re-purchase his automobile at public auction). Some of his colleagues and some volunteers in the civil rights movement who worked with him were murdered.
On April 4, 1968, Abernathy was with Martin Luther King in Memphis, Tennessee, when King was assassinated. They shared Room 306 at the Lorraine Motel. The night before at the Mason Temple, Abernathy introduced Dr. King before he made his last public address; King said at the beginning of his speech: "Ralph Abernathy is the best friend I have in the world." At 6:01 p.m. on Thursday, April 4, 1968, while he was standing on the motel's second floor balcony, King was shot. Abernathy accompanied King to St. Joseph's Hospital within fifteen minutes of the shooting. The doctors performed an emergency surgery, but he never regained consciousness. King was pronounced dead at 7:05 p.m. at age 39.
Assuming the mantle of the Civil Rights Movement and the Presidency of the SCLC, Abernathy led a march to support striking sanitation workers in Memphis, Tennessee. In May 1968, Abernathy led the Poor People's Campaign in Washington, D.C. The nation's poor Blacks, Latinos, Whites, and Native Americans came together from the Mississippi Delta, the Blue Ridge Mountains, the Indian Reservations of the Northwest, the farmlands of the Southwest, and the inner cities of the North under the leadership of Abernathy to reside on the Mall of the Washington Memorial in Resurrection City. Hoping to bring attention to the struggles of the nation's poor, they constructed huts in the nation's capital, precipitating a showdown with the police. On June 19, Ralph spoke at the Lincoln Memorial in front of tens of thousands of black and white citizens. The Poor People's Campaign reflected Abernathy's deep conviction that "the key to the salvation and redemption of this nation lay in its moral and humane response to the needs of its most oppressed and poverty-stricken citizens." His aim in the spring of 1968 was to raise the nation's consciousness on hunger and poverty, which he achieved. The Poor People's Campaign led to systematic changes in US Federal Policies and Legislation creating a national Food Stamp Program, a free meal program for low income children, assistance programs for the elderly, CEDAR and other work programs, day care and health care programs for low income people across America. June 24, 1968, the Washington, D.C., Police forced the poor to disband and demolished Resurrection City. Dr. Abernathy was jailed for nearly three weeks for refusing to comply with orders to evacuate.
On the eve of the Apollo 11 launch, July 15, 1969, Abernathy arrived at Cape Canaveral with several hundred members of the poor people to protest spending of government space exploration, while many Americans remained poor. He was met by Thomas O. Paine, the Administrator of NASA, whom he told that in the face of such suffering, space flight represented an inhuman priority and funds should be spent instead to "feed the hungry, clothe the naked, tend the sick, and house the homeless." Paine told Abernathy that the advances in space exploration were child's play compared to the tremendously difficult human problems of society, and told him that "if we could solve the problems of poverty by not pushing the button to launch men to the moon tomorrow, then we would not push that button." On the day of the launch, Abernathy led a small group of protesters to the restricted guest viewing area of the space center and chanted, "We are not astronauts, but we are people."
Abernathy took part in a labor struggle in Charleston, South Carolina, on behalf of the hospital workers of 1199B, which led to a living wage increase and improved working conditions for thousands of hospital workers.
Abernathy successfully negotiated a peace settlement at the Wounded Knee uprising between the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Leaders of the American Indian Movement, Russell Means and Dennis Banks.
Abernathy addressed the United Nations in 1971 on World Peace and served as the leader of many peace missions as the President of the World Peace Council headquartered in Helsinki, Finland. He was a member of the Board of Directors of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change. As President and Chairman of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Foundation, he remained president for nine years following Dr. King's death in 1968 until his resignation in 1977, when he became President Emeritus until his death in 1990.
In 1977, he ran unsuccessfully for Georgia's 5th Congressional District seat, losing to Congressman Wyche Fowler. He founded the nonprofit organization Foundation for Economic Enterprises Development (FEED), which offered managerial and technical training, creating jobs, income, business and trade opportunities for underemployed and unemployed workers of all races and ethnicities. Through a grant from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, he built the Ralph David Abernathy Towers, a high-rise housing complex for senior citizens and the handicapped.
In 1979, Abernathy traveled around the country supporting Senator Edward M. Kennedy's candidacy for the Presidency of the United States. However, he shocked critics a few weeks before the 1980 November election, when he endorsed the front-runner, Ronald Reagan, over the struggling presidential campaign of Jimmy Carter. With an inevitable Republican victory, Abernathy said that he felt that he had to endorse Reagan, so that African Americans might gain some respect in that political party. After the disappointing performance of the Reagan Administration on civil rights and other areas, Abernathy withdrew his endorsement of Reagan in 1984, remaining a Democrat until his death.
During his lifetime, Abernathy was honored with more than 300 awards and citations, including five honorary doctorate degrees. He received a Doctor of Divinity from Morehouse College, a Doctor of Divinity from Kalamazoo College in Michigan, a Doctor of Laws from Allen University of South Carolina, a Doctor of Laws from Long Island University in New York, and a Doctor of Laws at Alabama State University. He received the Peace Medallion of the German Democratic Republic from the German Democratic Republic. He was "Man of the Year" for the Atlanta Urban League, "Unheralded Hero of Human Rights" by the Young Men's Christian Association. He served as a representative on the National Council for the Aged, the World Commission on Hunger, a Life Member of the National NAACP, the Progressive National Baptist Convention, the American Sociological Society, Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, the Atlanta Baptist Ministers Union and on more than forty other organizations. An advocate of the Constitution's First Amendment for Religious Freedom, Abernathy served as Vice President along with Dr. Robert Grant and co-founded the American Freedom Coalition in 1980.
Abernathy testified—along with his executive associate, James Peterson of Berkeley, California—before the Congressional Hearings calling for the Extension of the Voting Rights Act, which has and continues to serve as the only legal method to ensure equal and fair voting practices in the Southern States, guaranteeing that everyone born in the United States of America is entitled to full citizenship and the right to vote, regardless of race.
In the 1990s, the Unification Church hired Dr. Abernathy as a spokesperson to protest the news media's use of the term "Moonies", which they compared with the word "nigger". Abernathy also served as vice president of the Unification Church-affiliated group American Freedom Coalition, and served on two Unification Church boards of directors.
In 1989, Harper Collins published Abernathy's autobiography, And The Walls Came Tumbling Down. It was his final accounting of his close friendship—indeed, partnership—with Martin Luther King, Jr. and their work in the Civil Rights Movement.
Legacy and honors
Abernathy received many awards, including honorary degrees from Long Island University in New York, Morehouse College in Atlanta, Kalamazoo College in Michigan, and his Alma Mater, Alabama State University in Montgomery.
Ralph D. Abernathy Hall at Alabama State Hall is dedicated to him, with a bust of his head in the foyer area.
Interstate 20 Ralph David Abernathy Freeway, Abernathy Road and Ralph David Abernathy Boulevard of Atlanta were named in his honor.
Marriage and family
Abernathy and his wife, Juanita Jones Abernathy, had five children. Ralph David Abernathy Jr. died in 1953. Juandalynn R. Abernathy is an opera singer living in Germany. Donzaleigh Abernathy is a noted actress, author and public speaker in Los Angeles. Attorney Kwame Luthuli Abernathy lives in Atlanta.
Rev. Ralph David Abernathy III is a social activist who heads a community foundation that funds education, health, and wellness programs in African-American communities. The foundation also leads prison reform efforts. A former Georgia State Senator and member of the State House of Representatives; he currently resides in Atlanta.
Abernathy is entombed in Lincoln Cemetery in Atlanta, Georgia.
In popular culture
- African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968)
- List of civil rights leaders
- Timeline of the American Civil Rights Movement
- Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abernathy, Ralph David". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- "Abernathy, Ralph David". Who Was Who in America, with World Notables, v. 10: 1989-1993. New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who. 1993. p. 1. ISBN 0837902207.
- Brock, Peter; Young, Nigel (1999). Pacifism in the Twentieth Century. New York: Syracuse University Press. p. 232. ISBN 0-8156-8125-9.
- Herzog, James P. (October 17, 1980). "Abernathy Tells Blacks: Reconsider Carter Vote". The Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
- Gorenfeld, John (2008). Bad Moon Rising. PoliPointPress. p. 96. ISBN 0-9794822-3-2.
- Leigh, Andrew (October 15, 1989). "Inside Moon's Washington - The private side of public relations improving the image, looking for clout". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). p. B1.
- Nix, Shann (August 10, 1989). "Church seeks new image". San Francisco Chronicle. p. B3.
- "Unification Church funnels millions to U.S. conservatives". The Dallas Morning News (The Dallas Morning News Company). December 20, 1987. p. 4A.
- "Ralph David Abernathy, Rights Pioneer, Is Dead at 64". New York Times. April 18, 1990. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
The Rev. Ralph David Abernathy, a pioneer leader in the civil rights struggle who was one of the most trusted confidants of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, died yesterday at the Crawford W. Long Hospital of Emory University in Atlanta. He was 64 years old.
- Ralph David Abernathy, III Foundation.
- Ralph David Abernathy IV, GoBearcats.com
- Kirkland, W. Michael (27 April 2004). "Ralph Abernathy (1926-1990)". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Athens, GA: Georgia Humanities Council. OCLC 54400935. Retrieved 2008-02-12.
- Abernathy, Ralph (1989). And the Walls Came Tumbling Down. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-016192-2.
- Garrow, David: The Walking city: the Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955-1956; Carlson; 1989; ISBN 0-926019-03-1
- "The Natural History of A Social Movement: The Montgomery Improvement Association" by Ralph D. Abernathy
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ralph Abernathy|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ralph David Abernathy.|
- Booknotes interview with Abernathy on And the Walls Came Tumbling Down, October 29, 1989.
- Ralph Abernathy article, Encyclopedia of Alabama
- Ralph Abernathy at Find a Grave
- Ralph Abernathy Biography, The Civil Rights Struggle, African American GIs, and Germany
- The Jack Rabin Collection on Alabama Civil Rights and Southern Activists includes video, pictures and materials of Dr. Abernathy during Selma to Montgomery March
- Ralph Abernathy on the WGBH series The Ten O'Clock News.